Browsing by Subject "PERMAFROST"

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  • Koster, Egle; Koster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Aaltonen, Heidi; Zhou, Xuan; Pumpanen, Jukka (2017)
    Forest fires are one of the most important natural disturbances in boreal forests, and their occurrence and severity are expected to increase as a result of climate warming. A combination of factors induced by fire leads to a thawing of the near-surface permafrost layer in subarctic boreal forest. Earlier studies reported that an increase in the active layer thickness results in higher carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. We studied changes in CO2, CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes in this study, and the significance of several environmental factors that influence the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at three forest sites that last had fires in 2012, 1990 and 1969, and we compared these to a control area that had no fire for at least 100 years. The soils in our study acted as sources of CO2 and N2O and sinks for CH4. The elapsed time since the last forest fire was the only factor that significantly influenced all studied GHG fluxes. Soil temperature affected the uptake of CH4, and the N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by nitrogen and carbon content of the soil, and by the active layer depth. Results of our study confirm that the impacts of a forest fire on GHGs last for a rather long period of time in boreal forests, and are influenced by the fire induced changes in the ecosystem. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Panov, Alexey; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kubler, Karl Robert; Korets, Mikhail; Urban, Anastasiya; Bondar, Mikhail; Heimann, Martin (2021)
    Atmospheric observations of sources and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the pan-Arctic domain are highly sporadic, limiting our understanding of carbon turnover in this climatically sensitive environment and the fate of enormous carbon reservoirs buried in permafrost. Particular gaps apply to the Arctic latitudes of Siberia, covered by the vast tundra ecosystems underlain by permafrost, where only few atmospheric sites are available. The paper presents the first results of continuous observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 dry mole fractions at a newly operated station "DIAMIS" (73.506828 degrees N, 80.519869 degrees E) deployed on the edge of the Dikson settlement on the western coast of the Taimyr Peninsula. Atmospheric mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and H2O are measured by a CRDS analyzer Picarro G2301-f, which is regularly calibrated against WMO-traceable gases. Meteorological records permit screening of trace gas series. Here, we give the scientific rationale of the site, describe the instrumental setup, analyze the local environments, examine the seasonal footprint, and show CO2 and CH4 fluctuations for the daytime mixed atmospheric layer that is representative over a vast Arctic domain (-500-1000 km), capturing both terrestrial and oceanic signals.
  • Aalto, Juha; Niittynen, Pekka; Riihimaki, Henri; Luoto, Miska (2021)
    Tundra ecosystems have experienced changes in vegetation composition, distribution, and productivity over the past century due to climate warming. However, the increase in above-ground biomass may be constrained by cryogenic land surface processes that cause topsoil disturbance and variable microsite conditions. These effects have remained unaccounted for in tundra biomass models, although they can impact multiple opposing feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere, ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. Here, by using field-quantified data from northern Europe, remote sensing, and machine learning, we show that cryogenic land surface processes substantially constrain above-ground biomass in tundra. The three surveyed processes (cryoturbation, solifluction, and nivation) collectively reduced biomass by an average of 123.0 g m(-2) (-30.0%). This effect was significant over landscape positions and was especially pronounced in snowbed environments, where the mean reduction in biomass was 57.3%. Our results imply that cryogenic land surface processes are pivotal in shaping future patterns of tundra biomass, as long as cryogenic ground activity is retained by climate warming. Vegetation in tundra ecosystems is constrained by cryogenic land surface processes, despite the fact that models of future biomass changes rarely take these into account, according to field and remote sensing data from northern Europe.
  • Knox, Sara H.; Bansal, Sheel; McNicol, Gavin; Schafer, Karina; Sturtevant, Cove; Ueyama, Masahito; Valach, Alex C.; Baldocchi, Dennis; Delwiche, Kyle; Desai, Ankur R.; Euskirchen, Eugenie; Liu, Jinxun; Lohila, Annalea; Malhotra, Avni; Melling, Lulie; Riley, William; Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Turner, Jessica; Vargas, Rodrigo; Zhu, Qing; Aalto, Tuula; Fluet-Chouinard, Etienne; Goeckede, Mathias; Melton, Joe R.; Sonnentag, Oliver; Vesala, Timo; Ward, Eric; Zhang, Zhen; Feron, Sarah; Ouyang, Zutao; Alekseychik, Pavel; Aurela, Mika; Bohrer, Gil; Campbell, David I.; Chen, Jiquan; Chu, Housen; Dalmagro, Higo J.; Goodrich, Jordan P.; Gottschalk, Pia; Hirano, Takashi; Iwata, Hiroki; Jurasinski, Gerald; Kang, Minseok; Koebsch, Franziska; Mammarella, Ivan; Nilsson, Mats B.; Ono, Keisuke; Peichl, Matthias; Peltola, Olli; Ryu, Youngryel; Sachs, Torsten; Sakabe, Ayaka; Sparks, Jed P.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Vourlitis, George L.; Wong, Guan X.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Poulter, Benjamin; Jackson, Robert B. (2021)
    While wetlands are the largest natural source of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, they represent a large source of uncertainty in the global CH4 budget due to the complex biogeochemical controls on CH4 dynamics. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first multi-site synthesis of how predictors of CH4 fluxes (FCH4) in freshwater wetlands vary across wetland types at diel, multiday (synoptic), and seasonal time scales. We used several statistical approaches (correlation analysis, generalized additive modeling, mutual information, and random forests) in a wavelet-based multi-resolution framework to assess the importance of environmental predictors, nonlinearities and lags on FCH4 across 23 eddy covariance sites. Seasonally, soil and air temperature were dominant predictors of FCH4 at sites with smaller seasonal variation in water table depth (WTD). In contrast, WTD was the dominant predictor for wetlands with smaller variations in temperature (e.g., seasonal tropical/subtropical wetlands). Changes in seasonal FCH4 lagged fluctuations in WTD by similar to 17 +/- 11 days, and lagged air and soil temperature by median values of 8 +/- 16 and 5 +/- 15 days, respectively. Temperature and WTD were also dominant predictors at the multiday scale. Atmospheric pressure (PA) was another important multiday scale predictor for peat-dominated sites, with drops in PA coinciding with synchronous releases of CH4. At the diel scale, synchronous relationships with latent heat flux and vapor pressure deficit suggest that physical processes controlling evaporation and boundary layer mixing exert similar controls on CH4 volatilization, and suggest the influence of pressurized ventilation in aerenchymatous vegetation. In addition, 1- to 4-h lagged relationships with ecosystem photosynthesis indicate recent carbon substrates, such as root exudates, may also control FCH4. By addressing issues of scale, asynchrony, and nonlinearity, this work improves understanding of the predictors and timing of wetland FCH4 that can inform future studies and models, and help constrain wetland CH4 emissions.
  • Pessi, Igor S.; Viitamäki, Sirja; Virkkala, Anna-Maria; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Delmont, Tom O.; Marushchak, Maija E.; Luoto, Miska; Hultman, Jenni (2022)
    Background In contrast to earlier assumptions, there is now mounting evidence for the role of tundra soils as important sources of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). However, the microorganisms involved in the cycling of N2O in this system remain largely uncharacterized. Since tundra soils are variable sources and sinks of N2O, we aimed at investigating differences in community structure across different soil ecosystems in the tundra. Results We analysed 1.4 Tb of metagenomic data from soils in northern Finland covering a range of ecosystems from dry upland soils to water-logged fens and obtained 796 manually binned and curated metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). We then searched for MAGs harbouring genes involved in denitrification, an important process driving N2O emissions. Communities of potential denitrifiers were dominated by microorganisms with truncated denitrification pathways (i.e., lacking one or more denitrification genes) and differed across soil ecosystems. Upland soils showed a strong N2O sink potential and were dominated by members of the Alphaproteobacteria such as Bradyrhizobium and Reyranella. Fens, which had in general net-zero N2O fluxes, had a high abundance of poorly characterized taxa affiliated with the Chloroflexota lineage Ellin6529 and the Acidobacteriota subdivision Gp23. Conclusions By coupling an in-depth characterization of microbial communities with in situ measurements of N2O fluxes, our results suggest that the observed spatial patterns of N2O fluxes in the tundra are related to differences in the composition of denitrifier communities.
  • Shishido, Tania Keiko; Wahlsten, Matti; Laine, Pia; Rikkinen, Jouko; Lundell, Taina; Auvinen, Petri (2021)
    Lichens have been widely used in traditional medicine, especially by indigenous communities worldwide. However, their slow growth and difficulties in the isolation of lichen symbionts and associated microbes have hindered the pharmaceutical utilisation of lichen-produced compounds. Advances in high-throughput sequencing techniques now permit detailed investigations of the complex microbial communities formed by fungi, green algae, cyanobacteria, and other bacteria within the lichen thalli. Here, we used amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenomics, and in silico metabolomics together with compound extractions to study reindeer lichens collected from Southern Finland. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of Cladonia species as sources of novel natural products. We compared the predicted biosynthetic pathways of lichen compounds from isolated genome-sequenced lichen fungi and our environmental samples. Potential biosynthetic genes could then be further used to produce secondary metabolites in more tractable hosts. Furthermore, we detected multiple compounds by metabolite analyses, which revealed connections between the identified biosynthetic gene clusters and their products. Taken together, our results contribute to metagenomic data studies from complex lichen-symbiotic communities and provide valuable new information for use in further biochemical and pharmacological studies.
  • Kohout, Tomas; Bucko, Michal; Rasmus, Kai; Leppäranta, Matti; Matero, Ilkka (2014)
    Non-invasive geophysical prospecting and a thermodynamic model were used to examine the structure, depth and lateral extent of the frozen core of a palsa near Lake Peerajärvi, in northwest Finland. A simple thermodynamic model verified that the current climatic conditions in the study area allow sustainable palsa development. A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey of the palsa under both winter and summer conditions revealed its internal structure and the size of its frozen core. GPR imaging in summer detected the upper peat/core boundary, and imaging in winter detected a deep reflector that probably represents the lower core boundary. This indicates that only a combined summer and winter GPR survey completely reveals the lateral and vertical extent of the frozen core of the palsa. The core underlies the active layer at a depth of ~0.6 m and extends to about 4 m depth. Its lateral extent is ~15 m x ~30 m. The presence of the frozen core could also be traced as minima in surface temperature and ground conductivity measurements. These field methods and thermodynamic models can be utilized in studies of climate impact on Arctic wetlands.
  • Viitamaki, Sirja; Pessi, Igor S.; Virkkala, Anna-Maria; Niittynen, Pekka; Kemppinen, Julia; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Luoto, Miska; Hultman, Jenni (2022)
    Due to climate change, increased microbial activity in high-latitude soils may lead to higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, microbial GHG production and consumption mechanisms in tundra soils are not thoroughly understood. To investigate how the diversity and functional potential of bacterial and archaeal communities vary across vegetation types and soil layers, we analyzed 116 soil metatranscriptomes from 73 sites in the Finnish sub-Arctic. Meadow soils were characterized by higher pH and lower soil organic matter (SOM) and carbon/nitrogen ratio. By contrast, dwarf shrub-dominated ecosystems had higher SOM and lower pH. Although Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes were dominant in all communities, there were significant differences at the genus level between vegetation types; plant polymer-degrading groups were more active in shrub-dominated soils than in meadows. Given that climate-change scenarios predict the expansion of shrubs at high latitudes, our results indicate that tundra soil microbial communities harbor potential decomposers of increased plant litter, which may affect the rate of carbon turnover in tundra soils. Additionally, transcripts of methanotrophs were detected in the mineral layer of all soils, which may moderate methane fluxes. This study provides new insights into possible shifts in tundra microbial diversity and activity due to climate change. Active microbial communities were significantly different in the organic and mineral soil layers and the communities differed significantly between four different vegetation types both in the organic and mineral layers.
  • Juutinen, Sari; Aurela, Mika; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Ivakhov, Viktor; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Rasanen, Aleksi; Virtanen, Tarmo; Mikola, Juha; Nyman, Johanna; Vaha, Emmi; Loskutova, Marina; Makshtas, Alexander; Laurila, Tuomas (2022)
    Arctic tundra is facing unprecedented warming, resulting in shifts in the vegetation, thaw regimes, and potentially in the ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon (C). However, the estimates of regional carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) budgets are highly uncertain. We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes, vegetation composition and leaf area index (LAI), thaw depth, and soil wetness in Tiksi (71 degrees N, 128 degrees E), a heterogeneous site located within the prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra zone in northeastern Siberia. Using the closed chamber method, we determined the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2, ecosystem respiration in the dark (ER), ecosystem gross photosynthesis (Pg), and CH4 flux during the growing season. We applied a previously developed high-spatial-resolution land cover map over an area of 35.8 km(2) for spatial extrapolation. Among the land cover types varying from barren to dwarf-shrub tundra and tundra wetlands, the NEE and Pg at the photosynthetically active photon flux density of 800 mu mol m(-2) h(-1) (NEE800 and Pg(800)) were greatest in the graminoid-dominated habitats, i.e., streamside meadow and fens, with NEE800 and Pg(800) of up to -21 (uptake) and 28 mmol M-2 h(-1), respectively. Vascular LAI was a robust predictor of both NEE800 and Pg(800) and, on a landscape scale, the fens were disproportionately important for the summertime CO2 sequestration. Dry tun- dra, including the dwarf-shrub and lichen tundra, had smaller CO2 exchange rates. The fens were the largest source of CH4, while the dry mineral soil tundra consumed atmospheric CH4, which on a landscape scale amounted to -9 % of the total CH(4 )balance during the growing season. The largest seasonal mean CH4 consumption rate of 0.02 mmol m(-2) h(-1) occurred in sand- and stone-covered barren areas. The high consumption rate agrees with the estimate based on the eddy covariance measurements at the same site. We acknowledge the uncertainty involved in spatial extrapolations due to a small number of replicates per land cover type. This study highlights the need to distinguish different land cover types including the dry tundra habitats to account for their different CO2 and CH4 flux patterns, especially the consumption of atmospheric CH4, when estimating tundra C exchange on a larger spatial scale.