Browsing by Subject "PERMEABILITY"

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  • Ju, Meihua; Ioannidou, Sofia; Munro, Peter; Rämö, Olli; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Shima, David T. (2020)
    Fenestrae are transcellular plasma membrane pores that mediate blood-tissue exchange in specialised vascular endothelia. The composition and biogenesis of the fenestra remain enigmatic. We isolated and characterised the protein composition of large patches of fenestrated plasma membrane, termed sieve plates. Loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that two components of the sieve plate, moesin and annexin II, were positive and negative regulators of fenestra formation, respectively. Biochemical analyses showed that moesin is involved in the formation of an actin-fodrin submembrane cytoskeleton that was essential for fenestra formation. The link between the fodrin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane involved the fenestral pore protein PV-1 and Na,K-ATPase, which is a key regulator of signalling during fenestra formation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide a conceptual framework for fenestra biogenesis, linking the dynamic changes in plasma membrane remodelling to the formation of a submembrane cytoskeletal signalling complex.
  • Gousopoulos, Epameinondas; Proulx, Steven T.; Bachmann, Samia B.; Dieterich, Lothar C.; Scholl, Jeannette; Karaman, Sinem; Bianchi, Roberta; Detmar, Michael (2017)
    Secondary lymphedema is a common complication after cancer treatment, but the pathomechanisms underlying the disease remain unclear. Using a mouse tail lymphedema model, we found an increase in local and systemic levels of the lymphangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and identified CD68(+) macrophages as a cellular source. Surprisingly, overexpression of VEGF-C in a transgenic mouse model led to aggravation of lymphedema with increased immune cell infiltration and vascular leakage compared with wild-type littermates. Conversely, blockage of VEGF-C by overexpression of soluble VEGF receptor-3 reduced edema development, diminishing inflammation and blood vascular leakage. Similar findings were obtained in a hind limb lymph node excision lymphedema model. Flow cytometry analyses and immunofluorescence stainings in lymphedematic tissue showed that VEGF receptor-3 expression was restricted to lymphatic endothelial cells. Our data suggest that endogenous VEGF-C causes blood vascular leakage and fluid influx into the tissue, thus actively contributing to edema formation. These data may provide the basis for future clinical therapeutic approaches.
  • Jalanka, Jonna; Lam, Ching; Bennett, Andrew; Hartikainen, Anna; Crispie, Fiona; Finnegan, Laura A.; Cotter, Paul D.; Spiller, Robin (2021)
    Background/Aims Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) has been previously associated with evidence of immune activation and altered microbiota. Our aim is to assess the effect of the anti-inflammatory agent, mesalazine, on inflammatory gene expression and microbiota composition in IBS-D. Methods We studied a subset of patients (n = 43) from a previously published 12-week radomized placebo-controlled trial of mesalazine. Mucosal biopsies were assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for a range of markers of inflammation, altered permeability, and sensory receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) at randomization after treatment. All biopsy data were compared to 21 healthy controls. Patient's stool microbiota composition was analysed through 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Results We found no evidence of increased immune activation compared to healthy controls. However, we did find increased expression of receptors in both sensory pathways and innate immune response including TLR4. Higher TLR4 expression was associated with greater urgency. TLR4 expression correlated strongly with the expression of the receptors bradykinin receptor B2, chemerin chemokine-like receptor 1, and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 as well as TLR4's downstream adaptor myeloid differentiation factor 88. Mesalazine had minimal effect on either gene expression or microbiota composition. Conclusions Biopsies from a well-characterized IBS-D cohort showed no substantial inflammation. Mesalazine has little effect on gene expression and its previous reported effect on fecal microbiota associated with much greater inflammation found in inflammatory bowel diseases is likely secondary to reduced inflammation. Increased expression of TLR4 and correlated receptors in IBS may mediate a general increase in sensitivity to external stimuli, particularly those that signal via the TLR system.
  • Hewetson, Michael; Sykes, Ben William; Hallowell, Gayle Davina; Tulamo, Riitta-Mari (2017)
    Background: Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common in adult horses, particularly those involved in performance disciplines. Currently, detection of EGUS by gastroscopy is the only reliable ante mortem method for definitive diagnosis; however it is unsuitable as a screening test because it is expensive, time consuming, and is not readily available to most veterinarians. Sucrose permeability testing represents a simple, economical alternative to gastroscopy for screening purposes, and the feasibility of this approach in the horse has been previously reported. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of blood sucrose as a screening test for EGUS in a large group of adult horses with and without naturally occurring gastric disease. Results: One hundred and one adult horses with or without naturally occurring gastric ulceration were studied. The diagnostic accuracy of blood sucrose for diagnosis of gastric lesions (GL), glandular lesions (GDL), squamous lesions (SQL), and clinically significant lesions (CSL) at 45 and 90 min after administration of 1 g/kg of sucrose via nasogastric intubation was assessed using receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves and calculating the area under the curve (AUC). For each lesion type, sucrose concentration in blood was compared to gastroscopy, as the gold standard, and sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were calculated across a range of sucrose concentrations. Ulcer grading was performed blindly by one observer; and the results were validated by comparing them with that of two other observers, and calculating the level of agreement. Cut-off values were selected manually to optimize Se. The prevalence of GL, GDL, SQL, and CSL was 83, 70, 53 and 58% respectively. At the selected cut-offs, Se ranged from 51 to 79% and Sp ranged from 43 to 72%, depending upon the lesion type and time of sampling. Conclusions: Blood sucrose is neither a sensitive or specific test for detecting EGUS in this population of adult horses with naturally occurring gastric ulceration. Further studies aimed at evaluating the performance characteristics of the test in different study populations are warranted. Given the limitations of endoscopy, due consideration should also be given to alternative methods for comparison of blood sucrose with a gold standard.
  • Heilkkinen, Emma M.; Auriola, Seppo; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Demarais, Nicholas J.; Grey, Angus C.; del Amo, Eva M.; Toropainen, Elisa; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Urtti, Arto; Ruponen, Marika (2019)
    Lens is the avascular tissue in the eye between the aqueous humor and vitreous. Drug binding to the lens might affect ocular pharmacokinetics, and the binding may also have a pharmacological role in drug-induced cataract and cataract treatment. Drug distribution in the lens has been studied in vitro with many compounds; however, the experimental methods vary, no detailed information on distribution between the lens sublayers exist, and the partition coefficients are reported rarely. Therefore, our objectives were to clarify drug localization in the lens layers and establish partition coefficients for a wide range of molecules. Furthermore, we aimed to illustrate the effect of lenticular drug binding on overall ocular drug pharmacokinetics. We studied the distribution of 16 drugs and three fluorescent dyes in whole porcine lenses in vitro with imaging mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy techniques. Furthermore, we determined lens/buffer partition coefficients with the same experimental setup for 28 drugs with mass spectrometry. Finally, the effect of lenticular binding of drugs on aqueous humor drug exposure was explored with pharmacokinetic simulations. After 4 h, the drugs and the dyes distributed only to the outermost lens layers (capsule and cortex). The lens/buffer partition coefficients for the drugs were low, ranging from 0.05 to 0.8. On the basis of the pharmacokinetic simulations, a high lens-aqueous humor partition coefficient increases drug exposure in the lens but does not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics in the aqueous humor. To conclude, the lens seems to act mainly as a physical barrier for drug distribution in the eye, and drug binding to the lens affects mainly the drug pharmacokinetics in the lens.
  • Hellinen, Laura; Hongisto, Heidi; Ramsay, Eva; Kaarniranta, Kai; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Skottman, Heli; Ruponen, Marika (2020)
    The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell monolayer forms the outer blood-retinal barrier and has a crucial role in ocular pharmacokinetics. Although several RPE cell models are available, there have been no systematic comparisons of their barrier properties with respect to drug permeability. We compared the barrier properties of several RPE secondary cell lines (ARPE19, ARPE19mel, and LEPI) and both primary (hfRPE) and stem-cell derived RPE (hESC-RPE) cells by investigating the permeability of nine drugs (aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, dexamethasone, fluconazole, ganciclovir, ketorolac, methotrexate, voriconazole, and quinidine) across cell monolayers. ARPE19, ARPE19mel, and hfRPE cells displayed a narrow P-app value range, with relatively high permeation rates (5.2-26 x 10(-6) cm/s. In contrast, hESC-RPE and LEPI cells efficiently restricted the drug flux, and displayed even lower P-app values than those reported for bovine RPE-choroid, with the range of 0.4-32 cm(-6)/s (hESC-RPE cells) and 0.4-29 x 10(-6) cm/s, (LEPI cells). Therefore, ARPE19, ARPE19mel, and hfRPE cells failed to form a tight barrier, whereas hESC-RPE and LEPI cells restricted the drug flux to a similar extent as bovine RPE-choroid. Therefore, LEPI and hESC-RPE cells are valuable tools in ocular drug discovery.
  • Lyra, Anna; Krogius-Kurikka, Lotta; Nikkila, Janne; Malinen, Erja; Kajander, Kajsa; Kurikka, Kyosti; Korpela, Riitta Anneli; Palva, Airi (2010)
  • Zhou, Guangyu; Hotta, Jaakko; Lehtinen, Maria K.; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta (2015)
    The choroid plexus, located in brain ventricles, has received surprisingly little attention in clinical neuroscience. In morphometric brain analysis, we serendipitously found a 21% increase in choroid plexus volume in 12 patients suffering from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. No enlargement was observed in a group of 8 patients suffering from chronic pain of other etiologies. Our findings suggest involvement of the choroid plexus in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Since the choroid plexus can mediate interaction between peripheral and brain inflammation, our findings pinpoint the choroid plexus as an important target for future research of central pain mechanisms.
  • Simre, Kart; Uibo, Oivi; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Kool, Pille; Hämäläinen, Anu-Maaria; Harkonen, Taina; Siljander, Heli; Virtanen, Suvi; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Uibo, Raivo; DIABIMMUNE Study Grp (2016)
    Background: During the last several decades the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) has increased worldwide. Aim: To compare the cumulative incidence of CD between Estonian and Finnish children and to identify the risk factors. Materials and methods: Children were recruited as part of the DIABIMMUNE Study. In the birth cohort (BC) 258 children from Estonia and 305 from Finland, and in the young children's cohort (YCC) 1363 and 1384 children were followed up, respectively. The diagnosis of CD was made in accordance with the ESPGHAN guidelines-the presence of IgA-tTG antibodies and small bowel villous atrophy. Results: During the study period 29 children developed CD. The cumulative incidence of CD was significantly higher in Finland (0.77% vs 0.27%; P = 0.01). No difference was seen between the children with CD and the controls in the duration of breastfeeding or the age at cereal introduction. The BC children with CD had had significantly more episodes of infections with fever by the age of 12 months compared to the controls (3.4 vs 1.4; P = 0.04). Conclusion: The 5-year cumulative incidence of childhood CD is significantly higher in Finland than in Estonia. Sequential infections early in life may increase the risk for developing CD. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l.
  • Honkanen, Jarno; Vuorela, Arja; Muthas, Daniel; Orivuori, Laura; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Tejesvi, Mysore Vishakante Gowda; Lavrinienko, Anton; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Fogarty, Christopher L.; Härkönen, Taina; Ilonen, Jorma; Ruohtula, Terhi; Knip, Mikael; Koskimäki, Janne J.; Vaarala, Outi (2020)
    Although gut bacterial dysbiosis is recognized as a regulator of beta-cell autoimmunity, no data is available on fungal dysbiosis in the children at the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We hypothesized that the co-occurrence of fungal and bacterial dysbiosis contributes to the intestinal inflammation and autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells in T1D. Fecal and blood samples were collected from 26 children tested positive for at least one diabetes-associated autoantibody (IAA, GADA, IA-2A or ICA) and matched autoantibody-negative children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to T1D (matched for HLA-DQB1 haplotype, age, gender and early childhood nutrition). Bacterial 16S and fungal ITS2 sequencing, and analyses of the markers of intestinal inflammation, namely fecal human beta-defensin-2 (HBD2), calprotectin and secretory total IgA, were performed. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and circulating cytokines, IFNG, IL-17 and IL-22, were studied. After these analyses, the children were followed for development of clinical T1D (median 8 years and 8 months). Nine autoantibody positive children were diagnosed with T1D, whereas none of the autoantibody negative children developed T1D during the follow-up. Fungal dysbiosis, characterized by high abundance of fecal Saccharomyces and Candida, was found in the progressors, i.e., children with beta-cell autoimmunity who during the follow-up progressed to clinical T1D. These children showed also bacterial dysbiosis, i.e., increased Bacteroidales and Clostridiales ratio, which was, however, found also in the non-progressors, and is thus a common nominator in the children with beta-cell autoimmunity. Furthermore, the progressors showed markers of intestinal inflammation detected as increased levels of fecal HBD2 and ASCA IgG to fungal antigens. We conclude that the fungal and bacterial dysbiosis, and intestinal inflammation are associated with the development of T1D in children with beta-cell autoimmunity.
  • Jian, Ching; Luukkonen, Panu; Sädevirta, Sanja; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Salonen, Anne (2021)
    Backgrounds & aims: Intestinal microbiota may be causally involved in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to study the effect of short-term overfeeding on human gut microbiota in relation to baseline and overfeeding-induced liver steatosis. We also asked whether the baseline microbiota composition is associated to the overfeeding-induced increase in liver fat. Methods: In a randomized trial, 38 overweight and obese subjects were assigned to consume an excess of 1000 kcal/day of diets rich in either saturated fat, unsaturated fat, or simple sugars for 3 weeks. Fasting blood samples and H-1-MR spectroscopy were used for extensive clinical phenotyping as previously reported (PMID: 29844096). Fecal samples were collected for the analysis of the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, imputed metagenomics and qPCR. Microbiota results were correlated with dietary intakes and clinical measurements before and during overfeeding. Results: The overall community structure of the microbiota remained highly stable and personalized during overfeeding based on between-sample Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, but the relative abundances of individual taxa were altered in a diet-specific manner: overfeeding saturated fat increased Proteobacteria, while unsaturated fat increased butyrate producers. Sugar overfeeding increased Lactococcus and Escherichia coli. Imputed functions of the gut microbiota were not affected by overfeeding. Several taxa affected by overfeeding significantly correlated with the changes in host metabolic markers. The baseline levels of proteobacterial family Desulfovibrionaceae, and especially genus Bilophila, were significantly associated to overfeeding-induced liver fat increase independently of the diet arm. In general, limited overlap was observed between the overfeeding-induced microbiota changes and the liver fat-associated microbiota features at baseline. Conclusions: Our work indicates that the human gut microbiota is resilient to short-term overfeeding on community level, but specific taxa are altered on diet composition-dependent manner. Generalizable microbiota signatures directly associated with liver steatosis could not be identified. Instead, the carriage of Bilophila was identified as a potential novel risk factor for diet-induced liver steatosis in humans. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Cabrera, Luz E.; Schmotz, Constanze; Saleem, Moin A.; Lehtonen, Sanna; Vapalahti, Olli; Vaheri, Antti; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Strandin, Tomas (2022)
    Old-world orthohantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), characterized by acute kidney injury (AKI) with transient proteinuria. It seems plausible that proteinuria during acute HFRS is mediated by the disruption of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) due to vascular leakage, a hallmark of orthohantavirus-caused diseases. However, direct infection of endothelial cells by orthohantaviruses does not result in increased endothelial permeability, and alternative explanations for vascular leakage and diminished GFB function are necessary. Vascular integrity is partly dependent on an intact endothelial glycocalyx, which is susceptible to cleavage by heparanase (HPSE). To understand the role of glycocalyx degradation in HFRS-associated proteinuria, we investigated the levels of HPSE in urine and plasma during acute, convalescent and recovery stages of HFRS caused by Puumala orthohantavirus. HPSE levels in urine during acute HFRS were significantly increased and strongly associated with the severity of AKI and other markers of disease severity. Furthermore, increased expression of HPSE was detected in vitro in orthohantavirus-infected podocytes, which line the outer surfaces of glomerular capillaries. Taken together, these findings suggest the local activation of HPSE in the kidneys of orthohantavirus-infected patients with the potential to disrupt the endothelial glycocalyx, leading to increased protein leakage through the GFB, resulting in high amounts of proteinuria.
  • Watson, Victoria E.; Jacob, Megan E.; Bruno-Bárcena, José M.; Amirsultan, Sophia; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Píqueras, Victoria O.; Frias, Rafael; Gookin, Jody L. (2019)
    Typical enteropathogenic E. coli (tEPEC) carries the highest hazard of death in children with diarrhea and atypical EPEC (aEPEC) was recently identified as significantly associated with diarrheal mortality in kittens. In both children and kittens there is a significant association between aEPEC burden and diarrheal disease, however the infection can be found in individuals with and without diarrhea. It remains unclear to what extent, under what conditions, or by what mechanisms aEPEC serves as a primary pathogen in individuals with diarrhea. It seems likely that a combination of host and bacterial factors enable aEPEC to cause disease in some individuals and not in others. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of aEPEC on intestinal function and diarrhea in kittens following experimentally-induced carriage and the influence of a disrupted intestinal microbiota on disease susceptibility. Results of this study identify aEPEC as a potential pathogen in kittens. In the absence of disruption to the intestinal microbiota, kittens are resistant to clinical signs of aEPEC carriage but demonstrate significant occult changes in intestinal absorption and permeability. Antibiotic-induced disruption of the intestinal microbiota prior to infection increases subsequent intestinal water loss as determined by % fecal wet weight. Enrichment of the intestinal microbiota with a commensal member of the feline mucosa-associated microbiota, Enterococcus hirae, ameliorated the effects of aEPEC experimental infection on intestinal function and water loss. These observations begin to unravel the mechanisms by which aEPEC infection may be able to exploit susceptible hosts.
  • Bortel, Emely; Grover, Liam M.; Eisenstein, Neil; Seim, Christian; Suhonen, Heikki; Pacureanu, Alexandra; Westenberger, Peter; Raum, Kay; Langer, Max; Peyrin, Francoise; Addison, Owen; Hesse, Bernhard (2022)
    Osteocytes are the most frequent bone cells connected with each other through cell processes within tiny tubular-shaped canaliculi. The so-called osteocyte lacunar-canalicular network (LCN) plays a crucial role in bone remodeling and mineral homeostasis. Given the critical nature of these functions, it is herein hypothesized that the LCN must be structurally "overengineered" to provide network resilience. This hypothesis is tested by characterizing canalicular networks in human bone at the fundamental "building-block" level of LCN formed by two adjacent osteocytes. As the hierarchical micro- and macroscale structure of bone is influenced by anatomical location, subjected loads, and growth rate, three distinct tissue types are studied. These include femur, jaw, and heterotopic ossification (HO), a rapidly forming mineralized tissue found in soft tissue compartments following severe trauma. It is found that the LCNs at the fundamental level are composed of hundreds of canalicular segments but of only few separated groups of linked canaliculi (canalicular clusters), resulting in a strongly pronounced interconnectivity. Fluid permeability simulations on intact and artificially altered LCN suggest that the function of the LCN is not only to optimize rapid and efficient access to bone mineral, but also to maintain high permeability when inevitable local interruption of canaliculi occurs.
  • Bahrpeyma, Sina; Reinisalo, Mika; Hellinen, Laura; Auriola, Seppo; Amo, Eva M. del; Urtti, Arto (2022)
    Melanin binding of drugs is known to increase drug concentrations and retention in pigmented eye tissues. Even though the correlation between melanin binding in vitro and exposure to pigmented eye in vivo has been shown, there is a discrepancy between rapid drug release from melanin particles in vitro and the long in vivo retention in the pigmented tissues. We investigated mechanisms and kinetics of pigment-related drug retention experimentally using isolated melanin particles from porcine retinal pigment epithelium and choroid, isolated porcine eye melanosomes, and re-pigmented ARPE-19 cells in a dynamic flow system. The experimental studies were supplemented with kinetic simulations. Affinity and capacity of levofloxacin, terazosin, papaverine, and timolol binding to melanin revealed Kd values of asymptotic to 50-150 mu M and B-max asymptotic to 40-112 The drugs were released from melanin in < 1 h (timolol) or in 6-12 h (other drugs). The drugs were released slower from the melanosomes than from melanin; the experimental differences ranged from 1.2-fold (papaverine) to 7.4-fold (timolol). Kinetic simulations supported the role of the melanosomal membrane in slowing down the release of melanin binders. In release studies from the pigmented ARPE-19 cells, drugs were released from the cellular melanin to the extra -cellular space in asymptotic to 1 day (timolol) and asymptotic to 11 days (levofloxacin), i.e., much slower than the release from melanin or melanosomes. Simulations of drug release from pigmented cells in the flow system matched the experimental data and enabled further sensitivity analyses. The simulations demonstrated a significant prolongation of drug retention in the cells as a function of decreasing drug permeability in the melanosomal membranes and increasing melanin content in the cells. Overall, we report the impact of cellular factors in prolonging drug retention and release from melanin-containing cells. These data and simulations will facilitate the design of melanin binding drugs with prolonged ocular actions.
  • Kuva, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Mattila, K. (2019)
    The time domain-random walk method was developed further for simulating mass transfer in fracture flows together with matrix diffusion in surrounding porous media. Specifically, a time domain-random walk scheme was developed for numerically approximating solutions of the advection-diffusion equation when the diffusion coefficient exhibits significant spatial variation or even discontinuities. The proposed scheme relies on second-order accurate, central-difference approximations of the advective and diffusive fluxes. The scheme was verified by comparing simulated results against analytical solutions in flow configurations involving a rectangular channel connected on one side with a porous matrix. Simulations with several flow rates, diffusion coefficients, and matrix porosities indicate good agreement between the numerical approximations and analytical solutions.
  • Fayyaz, Anam; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Toropainen, Elisa; Reinisalo, Mika; Valtari, Annika; Puranen, Jooseppi; Ricci, Giuseppe D'Amico; Heikkinen, Emma M.; Gardner, Iain; Ruponen, Marika; Urtti, Arto; Jamei, Masoud; Amo, Eva M. del (2021)
    Quantitative understanding of pharmacokinetics of topically applied ocular drugs requires more research to further understanding and to eventually allow predictive in silico models to be developed. To this end, a topical cocktail of betaxolol, timolol and atenolol was instilled on albino rabbit eyes. Tear fluid, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma with endothelium, bulbar conjunctiva, anterior sclera, iris-ciliary body, lens and vitreous samples were collected and analysed using LC-MS/MS. Iris-ciliary body was also analysed after intracameral cocktail injection. Non-compartmental analysis was utilized to estimate the pharmacokinetics parameters. The most lipophilic drug, betaxolol, presented the highest exposure in all tissues except for tear fluid after topical administration, followed by timolol and atenolol. For all drugs, iris-ciliary body concentrations were higher than that of the aqueous humor. After topical instillation the most hydrophilic drug, atenolol, had 3.7 times higher AUCiris-ciliary body than AUCaqueous humor, whereas the difference was 1.4 and 1.6 times for timolol and betaxolol, respectively. This suggests that the non-corneal route (conjunctival-scleral) was dominating the absorption of atenolol, while the corneal route was more important for timolol and betaxolol. The presented data increase understanding of ocular pharmacokinetics of a cocktail of drugs and provide data that can be used for quantitative modeling and simulation.
  • Balla, Anusha; Auriola, Seppo; Grey, Angus C.; Demarais, Nicholas J.; Valtari, Annika; Heikkinen, Emma M.; Toropainen, Elisa; Urtti, Arto; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Ruponen, Marika (2021)
    Ocular drug absorption after eye drop instillation has been widely studied, but partitioning phenomena and spatial drug distribution are poorly understood. We investigated partitioning of seven beta-blocking drugs in corneal epithelium, corneal stroma, including endothelium and conjunctiva, using isolated porcine tissues and cultured human corneal epithelial cells. The chosen beta-blocking drugs had a wide range (-1.76-0.79) of n-octanol/buffer solution distribution coefficients at pH 7.4 (Log D-7.4). In addition, the ocular surface distribution of three beta-blocking drugs was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) after their simultaneous application in an eye drop to the rabbits in vivo. Studies with isolated porcine corneas revealed that the distribution coefficient (K-p) between the corneal epithelium and donor solution showed a positive relationship and good correlation with Log D-7.4 and about a 50-fold range of K-p values (0.1-5). On the contrary, K-p between corneal stroma and epithelium showed an inverse (negative) relationship and correlation with Log D-7.4 based on a seven-fold range of K-p values. In vitro corneal cell uptake showed a high correlation with the ex vivo corneal epithelium/donor K-p values. Partitioning of the drugs into the porcine conjunctiva also showed a positive relationship with lipophilicity, but the range of K-p values was less than with the corneal epithelium. MALDI-IMS allowed simultaneous detection of three compounds in the cornea, showed data in line with other experiments, and revealed uneven spatial drug distribution in the cornea. Our data indicate the importance of lipophilicity in defining the corneal pharmacokinetics and the K-p values are a useful building block in the kinetic simulation models for topical ocular drug administration.
  • Parkkila, Petteri; Viitala, Tapani (2020)
    We have utilized multiparametric surface plasmon resonance and impendance-based quartz crystal microbalance instruments to study the distribution coefficients of catechol derivatives in cell model membranes. Our findings verify that the octanol-water partitioning coefficient is a poor descriptor of the total lipid affinity for small molecules which show limited lipophilicity in the octanol-water system. Notably, 3-methoxytyramine, the methylated derivative of the neurotransmitter dopamine, showed substantial affinity to the lipids despite its nonlipophilic nature predicted by octanol-water partitioning. The average ratio of distribution coefficients between 3-methoxytyramine and dopamine was 8.0. We also found that the interactions between the catechols and the membranes modeling the cell membrane outer leaflet are very weak, suggesting a mechanism other than the membrane-mediated mechanism of action for the neurotransmitters at the postsynaptic site. The average distribution coefficient for these membranes was one-third of the average value for pure phosphatidylcholine membranes, calculated using all compounds. In the context of our previous work, we further theorize that membrane-bound enzymes can utilize membrane headgroup partitioning to find their substrates. This could explain the differences in enzyme affinity between soluble and membrane-bound isoforms of catechol-O-methyltransferase, an essential enzyme in catechol metabolism.
  • IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 Sci Party; Le Ber, E.; Loggia, D.; Denchik, N.; Lofi, J.; Kring, D. A.; Sardini, P.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Pezard, P.; Olivier, G. (2022)
    A new set of physical property measurements was undertaken on 29 peak-ring samples from the IODP-ICDP Expedition 364. Among the studied lithologies, the dominant one recovered in the peak ring consists of shocked granitoid rocks (19 samples). Porosity measurements with two independent methods (triple weight and C-14-PMMA porosity mapping) concur and bring new observations on the intensity and distribution of fracturing and porosity in these shocked target rocks. Characterization of the porous network is taken a step further with two other independent methods (electrical and permeability measurements). Electrical properties such as the cementation exponent (1.59 m < 1.87) and the formation factor (21 F < 103) do not compare with other granites from the published literature; they point at a type of porosity closer to clastic sedimentary rocks than to crystalline rocks. Permeabilities of the granitoid rocks range from 0.1 to 7.1 mD under an effective pressure of similar to 10 MPa. Unlike other fresh to deformed and altered granitoid rocks from the literature compared in this study, this permeability appears to be relatively insensitive to increasing stress (up to similar to 40 MPa), with implications for the nature of the porous network, again, behaving more like cemented clastic rocks than fractured crystalline rocks. Other analyzed lithologies include suevite and impact melt rocks. Relatively low permeability (10(-3) mD) measured in melt-rich facies suggest that, at the matrix scale, these lithologies cutting through more permeable peak-ring granitoid rocks may have been a barrier to fluid flow, with implications for hydrothermal systems.