Browsing by Subject "PEROXY-RADICALS"

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  • Berndt, Torsten; Mender, Bernhard; Scholz, Wiebke; Fischer, Lukas; Herrmann, Hartmut; Kulmala, Markku; Hansel, Armin (2018)
    alpha-Pinene (C10H16) represents one of the most important biogenic emissions in the atmosphere. Its oxidation products can significantly contribute to the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Here, we report on the formation mechanism of C-19 and C-20 accretion products from alpha-pinene oxidation, which are believed to be efficient SOA precursors. Measurements have been performed in a free-jet flow system. Detection of RO2 radicals and accretion products was carried out by recent mass spectrometric techniques using different ionization schemes. Observed C-10-RO2 radicals from alpha-pinene ozonolysis were O,O-C10H15(O-2)(x)O-2 with x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and from the OH radical reaction HO-C10H16(O-2)(alpha)O-2 with alpha = 0, 1, 2. All detected C 20 accretion products can be explained via the accretion reaction RO2 + R'O-2 -> ROOR' + O-2 starting from the measured C-10-RO2 radicals. We speculate that C-19 accretion products are formed in an analogous way assuming CH2O elimination. Addition of isoprene (C5H8), producing C-5-RO2 radicals, leads to C-15 accretion products formed via cross-reactions with C-10-RO2 radicals. This process is competing with the formation of C-19/C-20 products from the pure alpha-pinene oxidation. A similar behavior has been observed for ethylene additives that form C-12 accretion products. In the atmosphere, a complex accretion product spectrum from self- and cross-reactions of available RO2 radicals can be expected. Modeling atmospheric conditions revealed that C-19/C-20 product formation is only reduced by a factor of 1.2 or 3.6 in isoprene-dominated environments assuming a 2- or 15-fold isoprene concentration over alpha-pinene, respectively, as present in different forested areas.
  • Berndt, Torsten; Scholz, Wiebke; Mentler, Bernhard; Fischer, Lukas; Herrmann, Hartmut; Kulmala, Markku; Hansel, Armin (2018)
    Hydrocarbons are emitted into the Earth's atmosphere in very large quantities by human and biogenic activities. Their atmospheric oxidation processes almost exclusively yield RO2 radicals as reactive intermediates whose atmospheric fate is not yet fully unraveled. Herein, we show that gas-phase reactions of two RO2 radicals produce accretion products composed of the carbon backbone of both reactants. The rates for accretion product formation are very high for RO2 radicals bearing functional groups, competing with those of the corresponding reactions with NO and HO2. This pathway, which has not yet been considered in the modelling of atmospheric processes, can be important, or even dominant, for the fate of RO2 radicals in all areas of the atmosphere. Moreover, the vapor pressure of the formed accretion products can be remarkably low, characterizing them as an effective source for the secondary organic aerosol.
  • Kurten, Theo; Tiusanen, Kirsi; Roldin, Pontus; Rissanen, Matti; Luy, Jan-Niclas; Boy, Michael; Ehn, Mikael; Donahue, Neil (2016)
    COSMO-RS (conductor-like screening model for real solvents) and three different group-contribution methods were used to compute saturation (subcooled) liquid vapor pressures for 16 possible products of ozone-initiated alpha-pinene autoxidation, with elemental compositions C10H16O4-10 and C20H30O10-12. The saturation vapor pressures predicted by the different methods varied widely. COSMO-RS predicted relatively high saturation vapor pressures values in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-10) bar for the C10H16O4-10 "monomers", and 10(-11) to 10(-16) bar for the C20H30O10-12 "dimers". The group-contribution methods predicted significantly (up to 8 order of magnitude) lower saturation vapor pressures for most of the more highly oxidized monomers. For the differs, the COSMO-RS predictions were within the (wide) range spanned by the three group-contribution methods. The main reason for the discrepancies between the methods is likely that the group-contribution methods do not contain the necessary parameters to accurately treat autoxidation products containing multiple hydroperoxide, peroxy acid or peroxide functional groups, which form intramolecular hydrogen bonds with each other. While the COSMO-RS saturation vapor pressures for these systems may be overestimated, the results strongly indicate that despite their high O:C ratios, the volatilities of the autoxidation products of alpha-pinene (and possibly other atmospherically relevant alkenes) are not necessarily extremely low. In other words, while autoxidation products are able to, adsorb onto aerosol particles, their evaporation back into the gas phase cannot be assumed to be negligible, especially from the smallest nanometer-scale particles. Their observed effective contribution to aerosol particle growth may therefore involve rapid heterogeneous reactions (reactive uptake) rather than effectively irreversible physical absorption.
  • Mohr, Claudia; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Heitto, Arto; Lutz, Anna; Hallquist, Mattias; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Hao, Liqing; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kulmala, Markku; Mauldin III, Roy L.; Makkonen, Ulla; Sipilä, Mikko; Petäjä, Tuukka; Thornton, Joel A. (2017)
    We present ambient observations of dimeric monoterpene oxidation products (C16-20HyO6-9) in gas and particle phases in the boreal forest in Finland in spring 2013 and 2014, detected with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols employing acetate and iodide as reagent ions. These are among the first online dual-phase observations of such dimers in the atmosphere. Estimated saturation concentrations of 10(-15) to 10(-6)mu gm(-3) (based on observed thermal desorptions and group-contribution methods) and measured gas-phase concentrations of 10(-3) to 10(-2)mu gm(-3) (similar to 10(6)-10(7)moleculescm(-3)) corroborate a gas-phase formation mechanism. Regular new particle formation (NPF) events allowed insights into the potential role dimers may play for atmospheric NPF and growth. The observationally constrained Model for Acid-Base chemistry in NAnoparticle Growth indicates a contribution of similar to 5% to early stage particle growth from the similar to 60 gaseous dimer compounds. Plain Language Summary Atmospheric aerosol particles influence climate and air quality. We present new insights into how emissions of volatile organic compounds from trees are transformed in the atmosphere to contribute to the formation and growth of aerosol particles. We detected for the first time over a forest, a group of organic molecules, known to grow particles, in the gas phase at levels far higher than expected. Previous measurements had only measured them in the particles. This finding provides guidance on how models of aerosol formation and growth should describe their appearance and fate in the atmosphere.
  • Iyer, Siddharth; He, Xucheng; Hyttinen, Noora; Kurten, Theo; Rissanen, Matti P. (2017)
    The HO2 radical is an important atmospheric molecule that can potentially influence the termination of autoxidation processes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that lead to the formation of highly oxygenated multifunctional compounds (HOMs). In this work, we demonstrate the direct detection of the HO2 radical using an iodide-based chemical ionization mass spectrometer (iodide-CIMS). Expanding on the previously established correlation between molecule-iodide binding enthalpy and iodide-CIMS instrument sensitivity, the experimental detection of the HO2 radical was preceded by the quantum chemical calculation of the HO2*I- cluster (PBE/aug-cc-pVTZ-PP level), which showed a reasonably strong binding enthalpy of 21.60 kcal/mol. Cyclohexene ozonolysis intermediates and closed-shell products were next detected by the iodide-CIMS. The ozone-initiated cyclohexene oxidation mechanism was perturbed by the introduction of the HO2 radical, leading to the formation of closed-shell hydroperoxides. The experimental investigation once again followed the initial computational molecule-iodide binding enthalpy calculations. The quantum chemical calculations were performed at the PBE/aug-cc-pVTZ-PP level for radicals and DLPNO-CCSD(T)/def2-QZVPP//PBE/aug-cc-pVTZ-PP level for the closed-shell products. A comparison between the iodide-CIMS and nitrate-CIMS spectra with identical measurement steps revealed that the iodide-CIMS was able to detect the low-oxidized (O/C ratio 0.5 and 0.66) cyclohexene ozonolysis monomer products more efficiently than nitrate-CIMS. Higher-oxidized monomers (O/C ratio 1 to 1.5) were detected equally well by both methods. An investigation of dimers showed that both iodide- and nitrate-CIMS were able to detect the dimer compositions possibly formed from reactions between the peroxy radical monomers considered in this study. Additionally, iodide-CIMS detected organic ions that were formed by a previously suggested mechanism of dehydroxylation of peroxy acids (and deoxygenation of acyl peroxy radicals) by H2O*I- clusters. These mechanisms were computationally verified.
  • Hyttinen, Noora; Rissanen, Matti P.; Kurten, Theo (2017)
    During the past few years nitrate chemical ionization has been used to detect highly oxidized products from OH-and O-3-initiated alkene autoxidation. These have been speculated to play a significant role in atmospheric aerosol formation. As less oxidized autoxidation products have not been detected using nitrate chemical ionization, and the absolute concentrations of the highly oxidized species are as yet unknown, other reagent ions, such as acetate, are needed both to verify the detection efficiency of nitrate chemical ionization and to measure the less oxidized compounds. Here we compare the formation free energies of the acetate and nitrate clusters of several atmospherically relevant RO2 intermediates and products derived from cyclohexene ozonolysis, calculated at the omega B97xD/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. We found that, for the molecules with one hydrogen bonding peroxy acid group, the binding with nitrate is on average 7.5 kcal/mol weaker than with acetate and the binding is on average 10.5 kcal/mol weaker for molecules with two hydrogen bonding peroxy acid groups. We also calculated the deprotonation energies of the RO2 intermediates and the closed-shell products and found that acetate is able to deprotonate almost all of these molecules, while deprotonation with nitrate is (as expected for the conjugate base of a strong acid) not favorable.
  • Iyer, Siddharth; Reiman, Heidi; Moller, Kristian H.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Kurten, Theo (2018)
    The oxidation of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOC) plays an important role in the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Peroxy radicals (RO2) are central intermediates in the BVOC oxidation process. Under clean (low-NOx) conditions, the main bimolecular sink reactions for RO2 are with the hydroperoxy radical (HO2) and with other RO2 radicals. Especially for small RO2, the RO2 + HO2 reaction mainly leads to closed-shell hydroperoxide products. However, there exist other known RO2 + HO2 and RO2 + RO2 reaction channels that can recycle radicals and oxidants in the atmosphere, potentially leading to lower-volatility products and enhancing SOA formation. In this work, we present a thermodynamic overview of two such reactions: (a) RO2 + HO2 -> RO + OH + O-2 and (b) R'O-2 + RO2 -> R'O + RO + O-2 for selected monoterpene + oxidant derived peroxy radicals. The monoterpenes considered are alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, trans-beta-ocimene, and Delta(3)-carene. The oxidants considered are the hydroxyl radical (OH), the nitrate radical (NO3), and ozone (O-3). The reaction Gibbs energies were calculated at the DLPNO-CCSD(T)/def2-QZVPP//omega B97X-D/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. All reactions studied here were found to be exergonic in terms of Gibbs energy. On the basis of a comparison with previous mechanistic studies, we predict that reaction a and reaction b are likely to be most important for first-generation peroxy radicals from O-3 oxidation (especially for beta-pinene), while being less so for most first-generation peroxy radicals from OH and NO3 oxidation. This is because both reactions are comparatively more exergonic for the O-3 oxidized systems than their OH and NO3 oxidized counterparts. Our results indicate that bimolecular reactions of certain complex RO, may contribute to an increase in radical and oxidant recycling under high HO2 conditions in the atmosphere, which can potentially enhance SOA formation.
  • Kurten, Theo; Rissanen, Matti P.; Mackeprang, Kasper; Thornton, Joel A.; Hyttinen, Noora; Jorgensen, Solvejg; Ehn, Mikael; Kjaergaard, Henrik G. (2015)
    Autoxidation by: sequential peroxy radical hydrogen shifts (H-shifts) and O-2 additions has recently emerged as a promising mechanism for the rapid formation of highly oxidized, low-Volatility organic Compounds in the. atmosphere: A kg prerequisite for auto)ddation is that the H-shifts of the initial peroxy radicals formed by, e.g., OH or O-3 oxidation are fast enough to compete with bimolecular sink reactions. In most atmospheric conditions, these restrict the lifetime Of peroxy.radicals to be on the order of seconds. We have systematically investigated all potentially important (nonmethyl, sterically unhindered) H-shifts of all four peroxy radicals formed in the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene using density functional (omega B97XD) and coupled cluster [CCSD(T)-F12] theory. In contrast to the related but chemically simpler tyclohexene ozonolysis system, none of the calculated li-shifts have rate constants above 1 s(-1) at 298 K, and most are below 0.01 s(-1). The law rate constants are connected to the presence of the' strained tyclobutyi sing in the alpha-pinene-derived peroxy radicals, which hinders H-shifts both from and across the ring. For autoxidation to yield the experimentally observed highly oxidized products in the alpha-pinene ozonolysis system, additional ring-opening reaction mechanisms breaking the cyclobutyl ring are therefore needed. We further investigate possible uni- and bimolecular pathways for,opening the cydobutyl ring in, the alpha-pinene ozonolysis system.
  • Hansel, Armin; Scholz, Wiebke; Mentler, Bernhard; Fischer, Lukas; Bernd, Torsten (2018)
    The performance of the novel ammonium chemical ionization time of flight mass spectrometer (NH4+-CI3-TOF) utilizing NH4+ adduct ion chemistry to measure first generation oxidized product molecules (OMs) as well as highly oxidized organic molecules (HOMs) was investigated for the first time. The gas-phase ozonolysis of cyclohexene served as a first test system. Experiments have been carried out in the TROPOS free-jet flow system at close to atmospheric conditions. Product ion signals were simultaneously observed by the NH4+-CI3-TOF and the acetate chemical ionization atmospheric pressure interface time of flight mass spectrometer (acetate-CI-APITOF). Both instruments are in remarkable good agreement within a factor of two for HOMs. For OMs not containing an OOH group the acetate technique can considerably underestimate OM concentrations by 2-3 orders of magnitude. First steps of cyclohexene ozonolysis generate ten different main products, detected with the ammonium-CI3-TOF, comprising 93% of observed OMs. The remaining 7% are distributed over several minor products that can be attributed to HOMs, predominately to highly oxidized RO2 radicals. Summing up, observed ammonium-CI3-TOF products yield 5.6 x le molecules cm" in excellent agreement with the amount of reacted cyclohexene of 4.5 x 10(9) molecules cm(-3) for reactant concentrations of [O-3] = 2.25 x 10(12) molecules cm(-3) and [cyclohexene] = 2.0 x 10(12) molecules cm(-3) and a reaction time of 7.9 s. NH4+ adduct ion chemistry is a promising CIMS technology for achieving carbon-closure due to the unique opportunity for complete detection of the whole product distribution including also peroxy radicals, and consequently, for a much better understanding of oxidation processes.
  • Wang, Sainan; Wu, Runrun; Berndt, Torsten; Ehn, Mikael; Wang, Liming (2017)
    Aromatic hydrocarbons contribute significantly to tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Despite large efforts in elucidating the formation mechanism of aromatic-derived SOA, current models still substantially underestimate the SOA yields when comparing to field measurements. Here we present a new, up to now undiscovered pathway for the formation of highly oxidized products from the OH-initiated oxidation of alkyl benzenes based on theoretical and experimental investigations. We propose that unimolecular H-migration followed by O-2-addition, a so-called autoxidation step, can take place in bicyclic peroxy radicals (BPRs), which are important intermediates of the OH -initiated oxidation of aromatic compounds. These autoxidation steps lead to the formation of highly oxidized multifunctional compounds (HOMs), which are able to form SOA. Our theoretical calculations suggest that the intramolecular H-migration in BPRs of substituted benzenes could be fast enough to compete with bimolecular reactions with HO2 radicals or NO under atmospheric conditions. The theoretical findings are experimentally supported by flow tube studies using chemical ionization mass spectrometry to detect the highly oxidized peroxy radical intermediates and closed-shell products. This new unimolecular BPR route to form HOMs in the gas phase enhances our understanding of the aromatic oxidation mechanism, and contributes significantly to a better understanding of aromatic-derived SOA in urban areas.
  • Molteni, Ugo; Bianchi, Federico; Klein, Felix; El Haddad, Imad; Frege, Carla; Rossi, Michel J.; Dommen, Josef; Baltensperger, Urs (2018)
    Anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AV-OCs) often dominate the urban atmosphere and consist to a large degree of aromatic hydrocarbons (ArHCs), such as benzene, toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes, e.g., from the handling and combustion of fuels. These compounds are important precursors for the formation of secondary organic aerosol. Here we show that the oxidation of aromatics with OH leads to a subsequent autoxidation chain reaction forming highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) with an O:C ratio of up to 1.09. This is exemplified for five single-ring ArHCs (benzene, toluene, o-/m-/p-xylene, mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) and ethylbenzene), as well as two conjugated polycyclic ArHCs (naphthalene and biphenyl). We report the elemental composition of the HOMs and show the differences in the oxidation patterns of these ArHCs. A potential pathway for the formation of these HOMs from aromatics is presented and discussed. We hypothesize that AV-OCs may contribute substantially to new particle formation events that have been detected in urban areas.
  • Ehn, Mikael; Berndt, Torsten; Wildt, Juergen; Mentel, Thomas (2017)
    Recent advances in chemical ionization mass spectrometry have allowed the detection of a new group of compounds termed highly oxygenated molecules (HOM). These are atmospheric oxidation products of volatile organic compounds (VOC) retaining most of their carbon backbone, and with O/C ratios around unity. Owing to their surprisingly high yields and low vapor pressures, the importance of HOM for aerosol formation has been easy to verify. However, the opposite can be said concerning the exact formation pathways of HOM from major aerosol precursor VOC. While the role of peroxy radical autoxidation, i.e., consecutive intramolecular H-shifts followed by O-2 addition, has been recognized, the detailed formation mechanisms remain highly uncertain. A primary reason is that the autoxidation process occurs on sub-second timescales and is extremely sensitive to environmental conditions like gas composition, temperature, and pressure. This, in turn, poses a great challenge for chemical kinetics studies to be able to mimic the relevant atmospheric reaction pathways, while simultaneously using conditions suitable for studying the short-lived radical intermediates. In this perspective, we define six specific challenges for this community to directly observe the initial steps of atmospherically relevant autoxidation reactions and thereby facilitate vital improvements in the understanding of VOC degradation and organic aerosol formation. (C) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Berndt, Torsten; Richters, Stefanie; Jokinen, Tuija; Hyttinen, Noora; Kurten, Theo; Otkjaer, Rasmus V.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Sipilä, Mikko; Kulmala, Markku; Ehn, Mikael (2016)
    Explaining the formation of secondary organic aerosol is an intriguing question in atmospheric sciences because of its importance for Earth's radiation budget and the associated effects on health and ecosystems. A breakthrough was recently achieved in the understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone reactions of biogenic emissions by the rapid formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds via autoxidation. However, the important daytime hydroxyl radical reactions have been considered to be less important in this process. Here we report measurements on the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with alpha- and beta- pinene applying improved mass spectrometric methods. Our laboratory results prove that the formation of highly oxidized products from hydroxyl radical reactions proceeds with considerably higher yields than previously reported. Field measurements support these findings. Our results allow for a better description of the diurnal behaviour of the highly oxidized product formation and subsequent secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere.
  • Garmash, Olga; Rissanen, Matti P.; Pullinen, Iida; Schmitt, Sebastian; Kausiala, Oskari; Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Percival, Carl J.; Bannan, Thomas; Priestley, Michael; Hallquist, Asa M.; Kleist, Einhard; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Hallquist, Mattias; Berndt, Torsten; McFiggans, Gordon; Wildt, Jürgen; Mentel, Thomas F.; Ehn, Mikael (2020)
    Recent studies have recognised highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) in the atmosphere as important in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A large number of studies have focused on HOM formation from oxidation of biogenically emitted monoterpenes. However, HOM formation from anthropogenic vapours has so far received much less attention. Previous studies have identified the importance of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for SOA formation. In this study, we investigated several aromatic compounds, benzene (C6H6), toluene (C7H8), and naphthalene (C10H8), for their potential to form HOMs upon reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH). We performed flow tube experiments with all three VOCs and focused in detail on benzene HOM formation in the Julich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC). In JPAC, we also investigated the response of HOMs to NOx and seed aerosol. Using a nitrate-based chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF), we observed the formation of HOMs in the flow reactor oxidation of benzene from the first OH attack. However, in the oxidation of toluene and naphthalene, which were injected at lower concentrations, multi-generation OH oxidation seemed to impact the HOM composition. We tested this in more detail for the benzene system in the JPAC, which allowed for studying longer residence times. The results showed that the apparent molar benzene HOM yield under our experimental conditions varied from 4.1% to 14.0%, with a strong dependence on the OH concentration, indicating that the majority of observed HOMs formed through multiple OH-oxidation steps. The composition of the identified HOMs in the mass spectrum also supported this hypothesis. By injecting only phenol into the chamber, we found that phenol oxidation cannot be solely responsible for the observed HOMs in benzene experiments. When NOx was added to the chamber, HOM composition changed and many oxygenated nitrogen-containing products were observed in CI-APi-TOF. Upon seed aerosol injection, the HOM loss rate was higher than predicted by irreversible condensation, suggesting that some undetected oxygenated intermediates also condensed onto seed aerosol, which is in line with the hypothesis that some of the HOMs were formed in multi-generation OH oxidation. Based on our results, we conclude that HOM yield and composition in aromatic systems strongly depend on OH and VOC concentration and more studies are needed to fully understand this effect on the formation of HOMs and, consequently, SOA. We also suggest that the dependence of HOM yield on chamber conditions may explain part of the variability in SOA yields reported in the literature and strongly advise monitoring HOMs in future SOA studies.
  • Rissanen, Matti P. (2018)
    Atmospheric autoxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) leads to prompt formation of highly oxidized multifunctional compounds (HOM) that have been found crucial in forming ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). As a radical chain reaction mediated by oxidized peroxy (RO2) and alkoxy (RO) radical intermediates, the formation pathways can be intercepted by suitable reaction partners, preventing the production of the highest oxidized reaction products, and thus the formation of the most condensable material. Commonly, NO is expected to have a detrimental effect on RO2 chemistry, and thus on autoxidation, whereas the influence of NO2 is mostly neglected. Here it is shown by dedicated flow tube experiments, how high concentration of NO2 suppresses cyclohexene ozonolysis initiated autoxidation chain reaction. Importantly, the addition of NO2 ceases covalently bound dimer production, indicating their production involving acylperoxy radical (RC(O)OO•) intermediates. In related experiments NO was also shown to strongly suppress the highly oxidized product formation, but due to possibility for chain propagating reactions (as with RO2 and HO2 too), the suppression is not as absolute as with NO2. Furthermore, it is shown how NOx reactions with oxidized peroxy radicals lead into indistinguishable product compositions, complicating mass spectral assignments in any RO2 + NOx system. The present work was conducted with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) as the detection method for the highly oxidized end-products and peroxy radical intermediates, under ambient conditions and at short few second reaction times. Specifically, the insight was gained by addition of a large amount of NO2 (and NO) to the oxidation system, upon which acylperoxy radicals reacted in RC(O)O2 + NO2 → RC(O)O2NO2 reaction to form peroxyacylnitrates, consequently shutting down the oxidation sequence. Keywords: acylperoxy radicals; Autoxidation; dimers; Highly oxidized multifunctional compounds; Highly oxygenated molecules; HOM; nitrogen oxides; peroxyacylnitrate
  • Roldin, Pontus; Ehn, Mikael; Kurten, Theo; Olenius, Tinja; Rissanen, Matti P.; Sarnela, Nina; Elm, Jonas; Rantala, Pekka; Hao, Liqing; Hyttinen, Noora; Heikkinen, Liine; Worsnop, Douglas; Pichelstorfer, Lukas; Xavier, Carlton; Clusius, Petri; Öström, Emilie; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Virtanen, Annele; Riipinen, Ilona; Boy, Michael (2019)
    Over Boreal regions, monoterpenes emitted from the forest are the main precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and the primary driver of the growth of new aerosol particles to climatically important cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Autoxidation of monoterpenes leads to rapid formation of Highly Oxygenated organic Molecules (HOM). We have developed the first model with near-explicit representation of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and HOM formation. The model can reproduce the observed NPF, HOM gas-phase composition and SOA formation over the Boreal forest. During the spring, HOM SOA formation increases the CCN concentration by similar to 10 % and causes a direct aerosol radiative forcing of -0.10 W/m(2). In contrast, NPF reduces the number of CCN at updraft velocities <0.2 m/s, and causes a direct aerosol radiative forcing of +0.15 W/m(2). Hence, while HOM SOA contributes to climate cooling, NPF can result in climate warming over the Boreal forest.