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  • Fernandez-Llamazares Onrubia, Alvaro; Garteizgogeascoa, María; Basu, Niladri; Brondizio, Eduardo S.; Cabeza, Mar; Martínez-Alier, Joan; McElwee, Pamela; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria (2020)
    Indigenous peoples (IPs) worldwide are confronted by the increasing threat of pollution. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature (n = 686 studies), we present the current state of knowledge on: 1) the exposure and vulnerability of IPs to pollution; 2) the environmental, health, and cultural impacts of pollution upon IPs; and 3) IPs' contributions to prevent, control, limit, and abate pollution from local to global scales. Indigenous peoples experience large burdens of environmental pollution linked to the expansion of commodity frontiers and industrial development, including agricultural, mining, and extractive industries, as well as urban growth, waste dumping, and infrastructure and energy development. Nevertheless, IPs are contributing to limit pollution in different ways, including through environmental monitoring and global policy advocacy, as well as through local resistance toward polluting activities. This work adds to growing evidence of the breadth and depth of environmental injustices faced by IPs worldwide, and we conclude by highlighting the need to increase IPs' engagement in environmental decision‐making regarding pollution control. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2020;16:324–341. © 2019 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC)
  • Koskinen, Jyri-Pekka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vlasoff, Tiina; von Hertzen, Leena; Mäkelä, Mika; Laatikainen, Tiina; Haahtela, Tari (2016)
    Background: Atopic allergy is much more common in Finnish compared with Russian Karelia, although these areas are geographically and genetically close. To explore the role of environmental chemicals on the atopy difference a random sample of 200 individuals, 25 atopic and 25 non-atopic school-aged children and their mothers, were studied. Atopy was defined as having at least one positive skin prick test response to 14 common inhalant and food allergens tested. Concentrations of 11 common environmental pollutants were measured in blood samples. Results: Overall, the chemical levels were much higher in Russia than in Finland, except for 2,2', 4,4'-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE47). In Finland but not in Russia, the atopic children had higher concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE) than the non-atopic children. In Russia but not in Finland, the atopic mothers had higher DDE concentrations than the non-atopic mothers. Conclusions: Higher concentrations of common environmental chemicals were measured in Russian compared with Finnish Karelian children and mothers. The chemicals did not explain the higher prevalence of atopy on the Finnish side.
  • Atashgahi, Siavash; Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M. (2018)
    Humans and their associated microbiomes are exposed to numerous xenobiotics through drugs, dietary components, personal care products as well as environmental chemicals. Most of the reciprocal interactions between the microbiota and xenobiotics, such as halogenated compounds, occur within the human gut harboring diverse and dense microbial communities. Here, we provide an overview of the flux of halogenated compounds in the environment, and diverse exposure routes of human microbiota to these compounds. Subsequently, we review the impact of halogenated compounds in perturbing the structure and function of gut microbiota and host cells. In turn, cultivation-dependent and metagenomic surveys of dehalogenating genes revealed the potential of the gut microbiota to chemically alter halogenated xenobiotics and impact their fate. Finally, we provide an outlook for future research to draw attention and attract interest to study the bidirectional impact of halogenated and other xenobiotic compounds and the gut microbiota.
  • Reckermann, Marcus; Omstedt, Anders; Soomere, Tarmo; Aigars, Juris; Akhtar, Naveed; Beldowska, Magdalena; Beldowski, Jacek; Cronin, Tom; Czub, Michal; Eero, Margit; Hyytiainen, Kari Petri; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Kiessling, Anders; Kjellstrom, Erik; Kulinski, Karol; Larsen, Xiaoli Guo; McCrackin, Michelle; Meier, H. E. Markus; Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Parnell, Kevin; Pons-Seres de Brauwer, Cristian; Poska, Anneli; Saarinen, Jarkko; Szymczycha, Beata; Undeman, Emma; Worman, Anders; Zorita, Eduardo (2022)
    Coastal environments, in particular heavily populated semi-enclosed marginal seas and coasts like the Baltic Sea region, are strongly affected by human activities. A multitude of human impacts, including climate change, affect the different compartments of the environment, and these effects interact with each other. As part of the Baltic Earth Assessment Reports (BEAR), we present an inventory and discussion of different human-induced factors and processes affecting the environment of the Baltic Sea region, and their interrelations. Some are naturally occurring and modified by human activities (i.e. climate change, coastal processes, hypoxia, acidification, submarine groundwater discharges, marine ecosystems, non-indigenous species, land use and land cover), some are completely human-induced (i.e. agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries, river regulations, offshore wind farms, shipping, chemical contamination, dumped warfare agents, marine litter and microplastics, tourism, and coastal management), and they are all interrelated to different degrees. We present a general description and analysis of the state of knowledge on these interrelations. Our main insight is that climate change has an overarching, integrating impact on all of the other factors and can be interpreted as a background effect, which has different implications for the other factors. Impacts on the environment and the human sphere can be roughly allocated to anthropogenic drivers such as food production, energy production, transport, industry and economy. The findings from this inventory of available information and analysis of the different factors and their interactions in the Baltic Sea region can largely be transferred to other comparable marginal and coastal seas in the world.
  • McGlinchey, Aidan; Sinioja, Tim; Lamichhane, Santosh; Sen, Partho; Bodin, Johanna; Siljander, Heli; Dickens, Alex M.; Geng, Dawei; Carlsson, Cecilia; Duberg, Daniel; Ilonen, Jorma; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Dirven, Hubert; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin; Nygaard, Unni C.; Oresic, Matej; Knip, Mikael; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia (2020)
    In the last decade, increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) stabilized in Finland, a phenomenon that coincides with tighter regulation of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Here, we quantified PFAS to examine their effects, during pregnancy, on lipid and immune-related markers of T1D risk in children. In a mother-infant cohort (264 dyads), high PFAS exposure during pregnancy associated with decreased cord serum phospholipids and progression to T1D-associated islet autoantibodies in the offspring. This PFAS-lipid association appears exacerbated by increased human leukocyte antigen-conferred risk of T1D in infants. Exposure to a single PFAS compound or a mixture of organic pollutants in non-obese diabetic mice resulted in a lipid profile characterized by a similar decrease in phospholipids, a marked increase of lithocholic acid, and accelerated insulitis. Our findings suggest that PFAS exposure during pregnancy contributes to risk and pathogenesis of T1D in offspring.
  • EFSA Panel Contaminants Food Chain; Knutsen, Helle; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami; Bruschweiler; Ceccatelli; Cottrill; Dinovi; Edler; Grasl-Kraupp; Hogstrand; Nebbia; Oswald; Petersen; Rose; Roudot; Schwerdtle; Vleminckx; Vollmer; Wallace; Furst; Håkansson, Helen; Halldorsson; Lundebye; Pohjanvirta, Raimo Kalevi; Rylander; Smith; van Loveren; Waalkens-Berendsen; Zeilmaker; Binaglia; Gomez Ruiz; Horvath; Christoph; Ciccolallo; Ramos Bordajandi; Steinkellner; Hoogenboom, Ron (2018)
    The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs in feed and food. The data from experimental animal and epidemiological studies were reviewed and it was decided to base the human risk assessment on effects observed in humans and to use animal data as supportive evidence. The critical effect was on semen quality, following pre- and postnatal exposure. The critical study showed a NOAEL of 7.0 pg WHO2005-TEQ/g fat in blood sampled at age 9 years based on PCDD/F-TEQs. No association was observed when including DL-PCB-TEQs. Using toxicokinetic modelling and taking into account the exposure from breastfeeding and a twofold higher intake during childhood, it was estimated that daily exposure in adolescents and adults should be below 0.25 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. The CONTAM Panel established a TWI of 2 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. With occurrence and consumption data from European countries, the mean and P95 intake of total TEQ by Adolescents, Adults, Elderly and Very Elderly varied between, respectively, 2.1 to 10.5, and 5.3 to 30.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/week, implying a considerable exceedance of the TWI. Toddlers and Other Children showed a higher exposure than older age groups, but this was accounted for when deriving the TWI. Exposure to PCDD/F-TEQ only was on average 2.4- and 2.7-fold lower for mean and P95 exposure than for total TEQ. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs are transferred to milk and eggs, and accumulate in fatty tissues and liver. Transfer rates and bioconcentration factors were identified for various species. The CONTAM Panel was not able to identify reference values in most farm and companion animals with the exception of NOAELs for mink, chicken and some fish species. The estimated exposure from feed for these species does not imply a risk.