Browsing by Subject "PERSISTENT PAIN"

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  • Sipila, Reetta M.; Haasio, Lassi; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Ripatti, Samuli; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Kalso, Eija A. (2017)
    The aim of this study was to identify clinical risk factors for unfavorable pain trajectories after breast cancer surgery, to better understand the association between pain expectation, psychological distress, and acute postoperative pain. This prospective study included 563 women treated for breast cancer. Psychological data included questionnaires for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Experimental pain tests for heat and cold were performed before surgery. The amount of oxycodone needed for satisfactory pain relief after surgery was recorded. Pain intensity in the area of operation before surgery and during the first postoperative week and expected intensity of postoperative pain were recorded using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS 0-10). Pain trajectories were formed to describe both initial intensity (the intercept) and the direction of the pain path (the slope). Factors associated with higher initial pain intensity (the intercept) were the amount of oxycodone needed for adequate analgesia, psychological distress, type of axillary surgery, preoperative pain in the area of the operation, and expectation of postoperative pain. The higher the pain initially was, the faster it resolved over the week. Expectation of severe postoperative pain was associated with higher scores of both experimental and clinical pain intensity and psychological factors. The results confirm that acute pain after breast cancer surgery is a multidimensional phenomenon. Psychological distress, pain expectation, and the patients' report of preoperative pain in the area to be operated should be recognized before surgery. Patients having axillary clearance need more efficient analgesic approaches.
  • Vartiainen, Pekka; Heiskanen, Tarja; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto P.; Kalso, Eija (2019)
    Background Multidisciplinary pain management (MPM) is a generally accepted method for treating chronic pain, but heterogeneous outcome measures provide only limited conclusions concerning its effectiveness. Therefore, further studies on the effectiveness of MPM are needed to identify subgroups of patients who benefit, or do not benefit, from these interventions. Our aim was to analyse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes after MPM and to identify factors associated with treatment outcomes. Methods We carried out a real world observational follow-up study of chronic pain patients referred to a tertiary multidisciplinary outpatient pain clinic to describe, using the validated HRQoL instrument 15D, the HRQoL change after MPM and to identify factors associated with this change. 1,043 patients responded to the 15D HRQoL questionnaire at baseline and 12 months after the start of treatment. Background data were collected from the pre-admission questionnaire of the pain clinic. Results Fifty-three percent of the patients reported a clinically important improvement and, of these, 81% had a major improvement. Thirty-five percent reported a clinically important deterioration, and 12% had no change in HRQoL. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that major improvement was positively associated with shorter duration of pain (
  • Lilius, T.; Kangas, E.; Niemi, M.; Rauhala, P.; Kalso, E. (2018)
    Background: Ketamine attenuates morphine tolerance by antagonising N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. However, a pharmacokinetic interaction between morphine and ketamine has also been suggested. The interaction between oxycodone and ketamine is unclear. We studied the effects of ketamine and norketamine on the attenuation of morphine and oxycodone tolerance focusing on both the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions. Methods: Morphine 9.6 mg day(-1) or oxycodone 3.6 mg day(-1) was delivered to SpragueeDawley rats by subcutaneous pumps. Once tolerance had developed, the rats received subcutaneous injections of ketamine or norketamine. Tail-flick, hot-plate, and rotarod tests were performed. Drug concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatographyetandem mass spectrometry. Results: Anti-nociceptive tolerance to morphine and oxycodone developed similarly by Day 6. Acute ketamine 10 mg kg(-1) and norketamine 30 mg kg(-1) attenuated morphine tolerance for 120 and 150 min, respectively, whereas in oxycodonetolerant rats the effect lasted only 60 min. Both ketamine and norketamine increased the brain and serum concentrations of morphine, and inhibited its metabolism to morphine-3-glucuronide, whereas oxycodone concentrations were not changed. Morphine, but not oxycodone, pretreatment increased the brain and serum concentrations of ketamine and norketamine. Ketamine, but not norketamine, significantly impaired the motor coordination. Conclusions: Ketamine and norketamine attenuated morphine tolerance more effectively than oxycodone tolerance. Ketamine and norketamine increased morphine, but not oxycodone brain concentrations, which may partly explain this difference. Norketamine is effective in attenuating morphine tolerance with minor effects on motor coordination. These results warrant pharmacokinetic studies in patients who are co-treated with ketamine and opioids.
  • Lehti, Tuuli Elina; Rinkinen, M. -O.; Aalto, U.; Roitto, H. M.; Knuutila, M.; Öhman, H.; Kautiainen, H.; Karppinen, H.; Tilvis, R.; Strandberg, T.; Pitkälä, K. H. (2021)
    Background Pain is undertreated in older populations. At the same time, increased use of opioids is of concern in the Western world. Aims We sought to analyze temporal trends in musculoskeletal pain and prescribed analgesic treatment among community-dwelling people aged 75-95 years using cross-sectional cohort data spanning 20 years. Methods The Helsinki Aging Study recruited random samples of people aged 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 years in 1999, 2009, and 2019. In total, 5707 community-dwelling persons participated in the study. The participants reported their medical diagnoses, regular prescription medications, and the presence of back pain or joint pain within the last 2 weeks (never, sometimes, or daily). We compared analgesic use among participants reporting and not reporting musculoskeletal pain in 1999, 2009, and 2019. Results Of the participants, 57-61% reported intermittent or daily musculoskeletal pain. The percentage receiving a prescribed daily analgesic increased from 9% in 1999 to 16% in 2019. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decreased from 1999 to 2019, while the use of paracetamol increased from 2 to 11%. Opioids were taken by 2% in 1999 and 3% in 2019. Of those reporting daily musculoskeletal pain, 20%, 35%, and 32% received regular pain medication in 1999, 2009, and 2019, respectively. Conclusions Pain remains undertreated in the community-dwelling older population, although the use of regular prescribed analgesics increased between 1999 and 2019. The use of NSAIDs has decreased, while the use of paracetamol has increased. Daily opioid use has remained modest.
  • Mustonen, L.; Vollert, J.; Rice, A. S. C.; Kalso, E.; Harno, H. (2020)
    Purpose We performed a detailed analysis of sensory function in patients with chronic post-surgical neuropathic pain (NP) after breast cancer treatments by quantitative sensory testing (QST) with DFNS (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain) protocol and bed side examination (BE). The nature of sensory changes in peripheral NP may reflect distinct pathophysiological backgrounds that can guide the treatment choices. NP with sensory gain (i.e., hyperesthesia, hyperalgesia, allodynia) has been shown to respond to Na+-channel blockers (e.g., oxcarbazepine). Methods 104 patients with at least "probable" NP in the surgical area were included. All patients had been treated for breast cancer 4-9 years ago and the handling of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) was verified by the surgeon. QST was conducted at the site of NP in the surgical or nearby area and the corresponding contralateral area. BE covered the upper body and sensory abnormalities were marked on body maps and digitalized for area calculation. The outcomes of BE and QST were compared to assess the value of QST in the sensory examination of this patient group. Results Loss of function in both small and large fibers was a prominent feature in QST in the area of post-surgical NP. QST profiles did not differ between spared and resected ICBN. In BE, hypoesthesia on multiple modalities was highly prevalent. The presence of sensory gain in BE was associated with more intense pain. Conclusions Extensive sensory loss is characteristic for chronic post-surgical NP several years after treatment for breast cancer. These patients are unlikely to respond to Na+-channel blockers.
  • Sipilä, Reetta M.; Kalso, Eija A. (2021)
    Sleep disturbance, pain, and having a surgical procedure of some kind are all very likely to occur during the average lifespan. Postoperative pain continues to be a prevalent problem and growing evidence supports the association between pain and sleep disturbances. The bidirectional nature of sleep and pain is widely acknowledged. A decline in sleep quality adds a risk for the onset of pain and also exacerbates existing pain. The risk factors for developing insomnia and experiencing severe pain after surgery are quite similar. The main aim of this narrative review is to discuss why it is important to be aware of sleep disturbances both before and after surgery, to know how sleep disturbances should be assessed and monitored, and to understand how better sleep can be supported by both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.
  • Mustonen, Laura; Aho, Tommi; Harno, Hanna; Kalso, Eija (2020)
    Objectives: Static mechanical allodynia (SMA), i. e., pain caused by normally non-painful static pressure, is a prevalent manifestation of neuropathic pain (NP). Although SMA may significantly affect the patient's daily life, it is less well studied in the clinical context. We aimed to characterize SMA in women with chronic post-surgical NP (CPSNP) after breast cancer surgery. Our objective was to improve understanding of the clinical picture of this prevalent pain condition. This is a substudy of a previously published larger cohort of patients with intercostobrachial nerve injury after breast cancer surgery (Mustonen et al. Pain. 2019;160:246-56). Methods: We studied SMA in 132 patients with CPSNP after breast cancer surgery. The presence, location, and intensity of SMA were assessed at clinical sensory examination. The patients gave self-reports of pain with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). We studied the association of SMA to type of surgery, oncological treatments, BMI, other pains, and psychological factors. General pain sensitivity was assessed by the cold pressor test. Results: SMA was prevalent (84%) in this cohort whereas other forms of allodynia were scarce (6%). Moderate-to-severe SMA was frequently observed even in patients who reported mild pain in BPI. Breast and the side of chest were the most common locations of SMA. SMA was associated with breast surgery type, but not with psychological factors. Severe SMA, but not self-reported pain, was associated with lower cold pain tolerance. Conclusions: SMA is prevalent in post-surgical NP after breast cancer surgery and it may represent a distinct NP phenotype. High intensities of SMA may signal the presence of central sensitization. Implications: SMA should be considered when examining and treating patients with post-surgical NP after breast cancer surgery.