Browsing by Subject "PERSONALITY-TRAITS"

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  • Oksman, Elli; Rosenstrom, Tom; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli Tuomas; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa (2018)
    Sociability and social domain-related behaviors have been associated with better well-being and endogenous oxytocin levels. Inspection of the literature, however, reveals that the effects between sociability and health outcomes, or between sociability and genotype, are often weak or inconsistent. In the field of personality psychology, the social phenotype is often measured by error-prone assessments based on different theoretical frameworks, which can partly explain the inconsistency of the previous findings. In this study, we evaluated the generalizability of "sociability" measures by partitioning the population variance in adulthood sociability using five indicators from three personality inventories and assessed in two to four follow-ups over a 15-year period (n = 1,573 participants, 28,323 person-observations; age range 20-50 years). Furthermore, we tested whether this variance partition would shed more light to the inconsistencies surrounding the "social" genotype, by using four genetic variants (rs1042778, rs2254298, rs53576, rs3796863) previously associated with a wide range of human social functions. Based on our results, trait (between-individual) variance explained 23% of the variance in overall sociability, differences between sociability indicators explained 41%, state (within-individual) variance explained 5% and measurement errors explained 32%. The genotype was associated only with the sociability indicator variance, suggesting it has specific effects on sentimentality and emotional sharing instead of reflecting general sociability.
  • Vaskivuo, Laura; Hokkanen, Laura; Hänninen, Tuomo; Antikainen, Riitta; Bäckman, Lars; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paajanen, Teemu; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia; Ngandu, Tiia (2018)
    Objectives: Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are among the key concerns in the elderly, but their role in detecting objective cognitive problems is unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between SMCs (both prospective and retrospective memory complaints) and neuropsychological test performance in older adults at risk of cognitive decline. Methods: This investigation is part of the FINGER project, a multicenter randomized controlled trial aiming at preventing cognitive decline in high-risk individuals. The cognitive assessment of participants was conducted at baseline using a modified neuropsychological test battery (NTB). SMCs were evaluated with the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) in a sub-sample of 560 participants (mean age, 69.9 years). Results: Having more prospective SMCs was associated with slower processing speed, but not with other NTB domains. Retrospective SMCs were linked to poorer function on NTB total score, processing speed, and memory. Executive function domain was not associated with any PRMQ ratings. Depressive symptoms and poor quality of life diluted the observed associations for NTB total score and memory. However, the association between PRMQ and processing speed remained even after full adjustments. Conclusions: Our results indicate that self-reported memory problems, measured with PRMQ, are associated with objectively measured cognitive performance. Such complaints in healthy elderly people also seem to reflect reduced mental tempo, rather than memory deficits. Slowing of processing speed may thus be negatively related to memory self-efficacy. It is also important to consider affective factors among those who report memory problems.
  • Blakey, Robert; Askelund, Adrian D.; Boccanera, Matilde; Immonen, Johanna; Plohl, Nejc; Popham, Cassandra; Sorger, Clarissa; Stuhlreyer, Julia (2017)
    Neuroscience has identified brain structures and functions that correlate with psychopathic tendencies. Since psychopathic traits can be traced back to physical neural attributes, it has been argued that psychopaths are not truly responsible for their actions and therefore should not be blamed for their psychopathic behaviors. This experimental research aims to evaluate what effect communicating this theory of psychopathy has on the moral behavior of lay people. If psychopathy is blamed on the brain, people may feel less morally responsible for their own psychopathic tendencies and therefore may be more likely to display those tendencies. An online study will provide participants with false feedback about their psychopathic traits supposedly based on their digital footprint (i.e., Facebook likes), thus classifying them as having either above-average or below-average psychopathic traits and describing psychopathy in cognitive or neurobiological terms. This particular study will assess the extent to which lay people are influenced by feedback regarding their psychopathic traits, and how this might affect their moral behavior in online tasks. Public recognition of these potential negative consequences of neuroscience communication will also be assessed. A field study using the lost letter technique will be conducted to examine lay people's endorsement of neurobiological, as compared to cognitive, explanations of criminal behavior. This field and online experimental research could inform the future communication of neuroscience to the public in a way that is sensitive to the potential negative consequences of communicating such science. In particular, this research may have implications for the future means by which neurobiological predictors of offending can be safely communicated to offenders.
  • Leikas, Sointu; Ilmarinen, Ville-Juhani (2017)
    ObjectiveExperience sampling studies on Big Five-related behavior show that people display the whole spectrum of each trait in their daily behavior, and that desirable Big Five statesespecially state Extraversionare related to positive mood. However, other research lines suggest that extraverted and conscientious behavior may be mentally depleting. The present research examined this possibility by extending the time frame of the measured personality processes. MethodA 12-day experience sampling study (N=48; observations=2,328) measured Big Five states, mood, stress, and fatigue five times a day. ResultsExtraverted and conscientious behavior were concurrently related to positive mood and lower fatigue, but to higher fatigue after a 3-hour delay. These relations were not moderated by personality traits. The relation between extraverted behavior and delayed fatigue was mediated by the number of people the person had encountered. Whether the person had a goal mediated the relation between conscientious behavior and delayed fatigue. ConclusionExtraverted and conscientious behavior predict mental depletion after a 3-hour delay. The results help reconcile previous findings regarding the consequences of state Extraversion and provide novel information about the consequences of state Conscientiousness.
  • Merjonen, P.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L.; Jokela, M.; Seppälä, I.; Lyytikäinen, L.-P.; Pulkki-Råback, L.; Kivimäki, M.; Elovainio, M.; Kettunen, J.; Ripatti, S.; Kähönen, M.; Viikari, J.; Palotie, A.; Peltonen, L.; Raitakari, O. T.; Lehtimäki, T. (2011)
  • Vaysse, Amaury; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Derrien, Thomas; Axelsson, Erik; Pielberg, Gerli Rosengren; Sigurdsson, Snaevar; Fall, Tove; Seppala, Eija H.; Hansen, Mark S. T.; Lawley, Cindy T.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Bannasch, Danika; Vila, Carles; Lohi, Hannes; Galibert, Francis; Fredholm, Merete; Haggstrom, Jens; Hedhammar, Ake; Andre, Catherine; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hitte, Christophe; Webster, Matthew T.; LUPA Consortium (2011)
  • Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Savolainen, Iina; Oksanen, Atte (2020)
    Online hate is widely identified as a social problem, but its social psychological dimensions are yet to be explored. We used an integrative social psychological framework for analyzing online hate offending and found that both personal risk factors and online group behavior were associated with online hate offending. Study 1, based on socio-demographically balanced survey data (N = 1200) collected from Finnish adolescents and young adults, found that impulsivity and internalizing symptoms were positively associated with online hate offending. Furthermore, social homophily was positively associated with online hate offending but only among those with average or high level of internalizing symptoms. Social identification with online communities was not associated with hate offending. In Study 2, based on a vignette experiment (N = 160), online hate offenders were more likely than others to rely on in-group stereotypes (i.e. self-stereotype) in anonymous online interaction and, as a consequence, follow perceived group norms. These associations were found only when a shared group identity was primed. We conclude that both personal risk factors and group behavior are related to online hate but they have different implications for reducing hateful communication in social media.
  • Tuovinen, Sanna; Tang, Xin; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2020)
    Learning through social interaction has been documented widely, however, how introverted people are socially engaged in learning is largely unknown. The aim of this study was, first, to examine the reliability and validity of the social engagement scale among students at Finnish comprehensive schools. Then we aimed to examine the interaction effect of introversion and social engagement on self-esteem, schoolwork engagement and school burnout. Based on a sample of 862 ninth grade students in Finland, we found that two-factor model best fitted the social engagement scale (i.e., social engagement and social disengagement). Further, we found that introverts with high social engagement have higher self-esteem than introverts with low social engagement. Our results implied that introverts should be given extra support when they encounter group work in school.
  • Terracciano, A.; Esko, T.; Sutin, A. R.; de Moor, M. H. M.; Meirelles, O.; Zhu, G.; Tanaka, T.; Giegling, I.; Nutile, T.; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Hansell, N. K.; Wright, M. J.; Montgomery, G. W.; Willemsen, G.; Hottenga, J-J; Friedl, M.; Ruggiero, D.; Sorice, R.; Sanna, S.; Cannas, A.; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, E.; Palotie, A.; Eriksson, J. G.; Cucca, F.; Krueger, R. F.; Lahti, J.; Luciano, M.; Smoller, J. W.; van Duijn, C. M.; Abecasis, G. R.; Boomsma, D. I.; Ciullo, M.; Costa, P. T.; Ferrucci, L.; Martin, N. G.; Metspalu, A.; Rujescu, D.; Schlessinger, D.; Uda, M. (2011)
  • Alioravainen, Nico; Prokkola, Jenni M.; Lemopoulos, Alexandre; Härkönen, Laura; Hyvärinen, Pekka; Vainikka, Anssi (2020)
    Behaviour that is adaptive in captivity may be maladaptive in the wild and compromise postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The understanding of behavioural variation displayed immediately after release could help to improve hatchery protocols and development of behavioural tests for assessing the fitness of fish reared for releases. We characterized the postrelease behaviour of common-garden-raised offspring of wild resident, captive-bred migratory, and hybrid brown trout (Salmo trutta) in two experiments: in small artificial channels and in high and low densities in seminatural streams. The results from seminatural streams showed that hatchery fish were more likely to disperse downstream from the initial stocking site compared with hybrid and wild strain fish. The small-scale experiment did not reveal this ecologically pivotal difference in postrelease performance among strains, and individual responses were inconsistent between the experiments. Circadian activity patterns did not differ among strains. These detailed observations of postrelease behaviour reveal important intrinsic differences in dispersal traits among brown trout strains and suggest that selective breeding and crossbreeding can substantially affect these traits.
  • Tiira, Katriina; Sulkama, Sini; Lohi, Hannes (2016)
    Fear is an emotion needed to survive, but when prolonged and frequent, causes suffering in both humans and animals. The most common forms of canine anxiety are as follows: general fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety are responsible for a large proportion of behavioral problems. Information on the prevalence and comorbidity of different anxieties is necessary for breeding, veterinary behavior, and also for behavioral genetic research, where accurate information of the phenotype is essential. We used a validated owner-completed questionnaire to collect information on dogs' fearfulness (toward unfamiliar people, dogs, in new situations), noise sensitivity, separation anxiety, as well as aggressive behavior. We received 3284 answers from 192 breeds. The prevalence estimate for noise sensitivity was 39.2 %, 26.2% for general fearfulness, and 17.2% for separation anxiety. The owner reported the median onset age for noise sensitivity to be 2 years and varied between 8 weeks and 10 years (N = 407). High comorbidity was observed between different anxieties: fearful dogs had a significantly higher noise sensitivity (P <0.001) and separation anxiety (P <0.001) compared with nonfearful dogs. Fearful dogs were also more aggressive compared with nonfearful dogs (P <0.001). Prevalence estimates of fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety are in agreement with earlier studies. Previous studies have suggested early onset of noise sensitivity during the first year of life; however, we found a later onset with large variation in the onset age. High comorbidity between anxieties suggests a genetic overlap. Fearful personality may predispose to specific anxieties such as noise sensitivity or separation anxiety. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Tiira, Katriina (2019)
    What are the key factors of psychological resilience in dogs? Why do some individuals recover swiftly from neglect, abuse or several years of harsh kennel environments, while some seem to be permanently traumatized by much milder adverse experiences? Resilience is a concept seldom discussed in canine studies; however, many studies have identified risk factors (both environmental and genetic) for developing anxieties, aggression or other behavioral problems. These studies also indicate several factors that may act as protective agents against life adversities. In this paper, I will present some of the most commonly identified key factors of resilience in other species and discuss what has been found in dogs. This paper is an attempt to raise focus on the positive key factors in a dog's life that are important for dog welfare, a healthy psychological outcome and are also important building blocks of a happy and well-behaving pet.
  • Rawlings, Anna Maria; Tapola, Anna; Niemivirta, Markku (2021)
    The present research examined the connections between temperament (punishment sensitivity; interindividual reward sensitivity; intraindividual reward sensitivity), students’ domain- and course-specific motivational appraisals (interest, strain, effort), and performance, in two studies. Study 1 explored the relationships between temperamental sensitivities, motivational appraisals, and task achievement among secondary students (N = 268) in the domain of mathematics, using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) for the analyses. Study 2 was conducted longitudinally among upper-secondary students (N = 155) during a course in four key school subjects. Subject interest was included alongside the temperamental sensitivities as a predictor of course-specific motivation and course grades, and the data were analysed with Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Previous achievement was controlled in both studies. The findings showed temperamental sensitivities to be differentially linked with motivational appraisals. Punishment sensitivity in Study 1, and interindividual reward sensitivity (sensitivity to reward dependent on others’ approval or attention) in Study 2 were found to have an effect on psychological strain. In both studies, interest and effort were predicted by intraindividual reward sensitivity (positive responsiveness to novelty and own successes). In Study 2, subject interest was a consistent predictor of higher course interest and lower strain. In both studies, connections were found between strain and lower performance. The findings suggest individual characteristics may predispose students to certain motivational experiences, and contribute to educational outcomes, in both domain and course contexts and across subject content.
  • Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.; Zwir, Igor; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2019)
    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that temperament is strongly influenced by more than 700 genes that modulate associative conditioning by molecular processes for synaptic plasticity and long-term learning and memory. The results were replicated in three independent samples despite variable cultures and environments. The identified genes were enriched in pathways activated by behavioral conditioning in animals, including the two major molecular pathways for response to extracellular stimuli, the Ras-MEK-ERK and the PI3K-AKT-mTOR cascades. These pathways are activated by a wide variety of physiological and psychosocial stimuli that vary in positive and negative valence and in consequences for health and survival. Changes in these pathways are orchestrated to maintain cellular homeostasis despite changing conditions by modulating temperament and its circadian and seasonal rhythms. In this review we first consider traditional concepts of temperament in relation to the new genetic findings by examining the partial overlap of alternative measures of temperament. Then we propose a definition of temperament as the disposition of a person to learn how to behave, react emotionally, and form attachments automatically by associative conditioning. This definition provides necessary and sufficient criteria to distinguish temperament from other aspects of personality that become integrated with it across the life span. We describe the effects of specific stimuli on the molecular processes underlying temperament from functional, developmental, and evolutionary perspectives. Our new knowledge can improve communication among investigators, increase the power and efficacy of clinical trials, and improve the effectiveness of treatment of personality and its disorders.
  • Uusi-Heikkilä, Silva; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Kuparinen, Anna; Matsumura, Shuichi; Venturelli, Paul A.; Wolter, Christian; Slate, Jon; Primmer, Craig R.; Meinelt, Thomas; Killen, Shaun S.; Bierbach, David; Polverino, Giovanni; Ludwig, Arne; Arlinghaus, Robert (2015)
    Size-selective harvesting is assumed to alter life histories of exploited fish populations, thereby negatively affecting population productivity, recovery, and yield. However, demonstrating that fisheries-induced phenotypic changes in the wild are at least partly genetically determined has proved notoriously difficult. Moreover, the population-level consequences of fisheries-induced evolution are still being controversially discussed. Using an experimental approach, we found that five generations of size-selective harvesting altered the life histories and behavior, but not the metabolic rate, of wild-origin zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish adapted to high positively size selective fishing pressure invested more in reproduction, reached a smaller adult body size, and were less explorative and bold. Phenotypic changes seemed subtle but were accompanied by genetic changes in functional loci. Thus, our results provided unambiguous evidence for rapid, harvest-induced phenotypic and evolutionary change when harvesting is intensive and size selective. According to a life-history model, the observed life-history changes elevated population growth rate in harvested conditions, but slowed population recovery under a simulated moratorium. Hence, the evolutionary legacy of size-selective harvesting includes populations that are productive under exploited conditions, but selectively disadvantaged to cope with natural selection pressures that often favor large body size.
  • Zwir, Igor; Arnedo, Javier; Del-Val, Coral; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Konte, Bettina; Yang, Sarah S.; Romero-Zaliz, Rocio; Hintsanen, Mirka; Cloninger, Kevin M.; Garcia, Danilo; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Rozsa, Sandor; Martinez, Maribel; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Giegling, Ina; Kähönen, Mika; Hernandez-Cuervo, Helena; Seppälä, Ilkka; Raitoharju, Emma; de Erausquin, Gabriel A.; Raitakari, Olli; Rujescu, Dan; Postolache, Teodor T.; Sung, Joohon; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Lehtimäki, Terho; Cloninger, C. Robert (2020)
    Experimental studies of learning suggest that human temperament may depend on the molecular mechanisms for associative conditioning, which are highly conserved in animals. The main genetic pathways for associative conditioning are known in experimental animals, but have not been identified in prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of human temperament. We used a data-driven machine learning method for GWAS to uncover the complex genotypic-phenotypic networks and environmental interactions related to human temperament. In a discovery sample of 2149 healthy Finns, we identified sets of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that cluster within particular individuals (i.e., SNP sets) regardless of phenotype. Second, we identified 3 clusters of people with distinct temperament profiles measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory regardless of genotype. Third, we found 51 SNP sets that identified 736 gene loci and were significantly associated with temperament. The identified genes were enriched in pathways activated by associative conditioning in animals, including the ERK, PI3K, and PKC pathways. 74% of the identified genes were unique to a specific temperament profile. Environmental influences measured in childhood and adulthood had small but significant effects. We confirmed the replicability of the 51 Finnish SNP sets in healthy Korean (90%) and German samples (89%), as well as their associations with temperament. The identified SNPs explained nearly all the heritability expected in each sample (37-53%) despite variable cultures and environments. We conclude that human temperament is strongly influenced by more than 700 genes that modulate associative conditioning by molecular processes for synaptic plasticity and long-term memory.