Browsing by Subject "PERSPECTIVE"

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  • Engeström, Ritva; Käyhkö, Leena (2021)
    Background: Recent alternative concepts of school knowledge emphasize knowledge creation via networks of learning around real-world phenomena. We studied entrepreneurship education as an example of new epistemic activity which opens institutional boundaries for active engagement with society in learning. Methods: We used a case-study strategy and a methodology informed by the cultural-historical activity theory for investigating an entrepreneurship course of a middle school. We focused on meaning making in object formation of learning of the groups involved in boundary crossing. Meaning making was studied in a context-sensitive way with an analytic tool designed in the study. Findings: Lacking a knowledge system of a disciplinary school subject, the findings show that entrepreneurship becomes constructed in practice epistemologically as a value-free and politically neutral learning object. In light of these findings we discuss the theoretical link between conceptual learning and learning around real-world phenomena. Contribution: In addition to economic activity, globalization and climate change are also presently forming the social realities of school learners. Our study shows that more theoretical and empirical research on intermediate epistemological practices is needed to avoid a risk that teachers are left on their own to sort out the complex epistemic interrelationships.
  • Vesa, Juho Antti; Kantola, Anu; Binderkrantz, Anne Skorkjaer (2018)
  • Mammola, Stefano; Pavlek, Martina; Huber, Bernhard A.; Isaia, Marco; Ballarin, Francesco; Tolve, Marco; Cupic, Iva; Hesselberg, Thomas; Lunghi, Enrico; Mouron, Samuel; Graco-Roza, Caio; Cardoso, Pedro (2022)
    Species traits are an essential currency in ecology, evolution, biogeography, and conservation biology. However, trait databases are unavailable for most organisms, especially those living in difficult-to-access habitats such as caves and other subterranean ecosystems. We compiled an expert-curated trait database for subterranean spiders in Europe using both literature data (including grey literature published in many different languages) and direct morphological measurements whenever specimens were available to us. We started by updating the checklist of European subterranean spiders, now including 512 species across 20 families, of which at least 192 have been found uniquely in subterranean habitats. For each of these species, we compiled 64 traits. The trait database encompasses morphological measures, including several traits related to subterranean adaptation, and ecological traits referring to habitat preference, dispersal, and feeding strategies. By making these data freely available, we open up opportunities for exploring different research questions, from the quantification of functional dimensions of subterranean adaptation to the study of spatial patterns in functional diversity across European caves.
  • Korhonen, Jaana; Giurca, Alexandru; Brockhaus, Maria; Toppinen, Anne (2018)
    To foster innovativeness for supporting (forest-based) bioeconomy development, participation in decision-making and interaction between diverse actors become a necessary precondition for designing and implementing transition policies. However, who forms the emerging policy networks, and which policy beliefs are promoted? Based on data from a national online survey, we performed a quantitative social network analysis to investigate emerging social structures and policy beliefs in the context of the Finnish forest-based bioeconomy. Our explorative analysis shows that research, governmental, and industrial organizations mainly constitute the Finnish forest-based bioeconomy network. Actors primarily exchange information, and most key organizations report high levels of trust among each other. However, the network structure is rather closed. This raises concerns about equal benefit sharing and the inclusiveness of concerned actors. We discuss the implication of this network structure for enabling new innovations. Finally, we present the key aspects and drivers of business as usual, and suggest an option for or a more transformative change in the Finnish forest-based bioeconomy.
  • Foulds, Chris; Royston, Sarah; Berker, Thomas; Nakopoulou, Efi; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez; Robison, Rosie; Abram, Simone; Ancic, Branko; Arapostathis, Stathis; Badescu, Gabriel; Bull, Richard; Cohen, Jed; Dunlop, Tessa; Dunphy, Niall; Dupont, Claire; Fischer, Corinna; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Grandclement, Catherine; Heiskanen, Eva; Labanca, Nicola; Jeliazkova, Maria; Jorgens, Helge; Keller, Margit; Kern, Florian; Lombardi, Patrizia; Mourik, Ruth; Ornetzeder, Michael; Pearson, Peter J. G.; Rohracher, Harald; Sahakian, Marlyne; Sari, Ramazan; Standal, Karina; Zivcic, Lidija (2022)
    Decades of techno-economic energy policymaking and research have meant evidence from the Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH)-including critical reflections on what changing a society's relation to energy (efficiency) even means-have been underutilised. In particular, (i) the SSH have too often been sidelined and/or narrowly pigeonholed by policymakers, funders, and other decision-makers when driving research agendas, and (ii) the setting of SSH-focused research agendas has not historically embedded inclusive and deliberative processes. The aim of this paper is to address these gaps through the production of a research agenda outlining future SSH research priorities for energy efficiency. A Horizon Scanning exercise was run, which sought to identify 100 priority SSH questions for energy efficiency research. This exercise included 152 researchers with prior SSH expertise on energy efficiency, who together spanned 62 (sub-)disciplines of SSH, 23 countries, and a full range of career stages. The resultant questions were inductively clustered into seven themes as follows: (1) Citizenship, engagement and knowledge exchange in relation to energy efficiency; (2) Energy efficiency in relation to equity, justice, poverty and vulnerability; (3) Energy efficiency in relation to everyday life and practices of energy consumption and production; (4) Framing, defining and measuring energy efficiency; (5) Governance, policy and political issues around energy efficiency; (6) Roles of economic systems, supply chains and financial mechanisms in improving energy efficiency; and (7) The interactions, unintended consequences and rebound effects of energy efficiency interventions. Given the consistent centrality of energy efficiency in policy programmes, this paper highlights that well-developed SSH approaches are ready to be mobilised to contribute to the development, and/or to understand the implications, of energy efficiency measures and governance solutions. Implicitly, it also emphasises the heterogeneity of SSH policy evidence that can be produced. The agenda will be of use for both (1) those new to the energy-SSH field (including policyworkers), for learnings on the capabilities and capacities of energy-SSH, and (2) established energy-SSH researchers, for insights on the collectively held futures of energy-SSH research.
  • Matthies, Brent D.; D'Amato, Dalia; Berghäll, Sami; Ekholm, Tommi; Hoen, Hans Fredrik; Holopainen, Jani; Korhonen, Jaana E.; Lähtinen, Katja; Mattila, Osmo; Toppinen, Anne; Valsta, Lauri; Wang, Lei; Yousefpour, Rasoul (2016)
    Natural and business ecosystems are complex and dynamic service systems that interact through the utilization of ecosystem service offerings for human well-being. Currently, natural and business sciences have not developed a shared and common set of service-based terms or concepts for discussing ecosystem service offerings in the process of value co-creation. In this study, the ecosystem service approach was compared with marketing science's service-dominant logic. The terminology and concepts were harmonized, and the two approaches were then integrated into a service-dominant value creation (SVC) framework. The incorporation of natural ecosystems includes accounting for the flow of positive and negative impacts through associated value networks. Therefore, the term value-in-impact was proposed to describe these value flows. A case study of the global forest-based sector was then presented, demonstrating how to discuss current research challenges using the proposed framework. In conclusion, a shared service-dominant approach provides an opportunity for deeper inter-disciplinary discussion between natural and business sciences. This study represents a contribution towards the development of a holistic service science that includes consideration for natural ecosystems. The SVC framework also addresses many of the multidimensional challenges noted by previous sustainability frameworks. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Molander, Mikael Andreas; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    Measurements of elliptic (v(2)) and triangular (v(3)) flow coefficients of pi(+/-), K-+/-, p+(p) over bar, K-S(0), and Lambda+(Lambda) over bar obtained with the scalar product method in Xe-Xe collisions at root sNN = 5.44TeV are presented. The results are obtained in the rapidity range |y| < 0.5 and reported as a function of transverse momentum, p(T), for several collision centrality classes. The flow coefficients exhibit a particle mass dependence for pT < 3 GeV/c, while a grouping according to particle type (i.e., meson and baryon) is found at intermediate transverse momenta (3 < p(T) < 8 GeV/c). The magnitude of the baryon v(2) is larger than that of mesons up to pT = 6 GeV/c. The centrality dependence of the shape evolution of the p(T)-differential v(2) is studied for the various hadron species. The v(2) coefficients of pi(+/-), K-+/-, and p+(p) over bar are reproduced by MUSIC hydrodynamic calculations coupled to a hadronic cascade model (UrQMD) for p(T) < 1 GeV/c. A comparison with vn measurements in the corresponding centrality intervals in Pb-Pb collisions at root sNN = 5.02TeV yields an enhanced v(2) in central collisions and diminished value in semicentral collisions.
  • Acharjee, Mrityunjoy; Hoque, Rezaul; Shreya, Shawda Shafiq; Tabassum, Nafisa; Acharjee, Mahima Ranjan; Rezanujjaman, Md; Rahman, Moshfiqur; Al Amin, Shilu; Mahmud, Md Rayhan (2021)
    Background: The ability of many bacteria to adhere on the host surfaces and forming biofilms has major implications in a wide variety of industries including the food industry, where biofilms may create a persistent source of contamination. In the same environmental condition, the multiple bacterial species can closely interact with each other and may easily enhance their drug resistance capability, which finally increases the multidrug resistant (MDR) attribute of the species. Objective: The present study examined whether the mixed-species biofilm possesses any impact on the enhancement of the antibiotic resistance of the planktonic or single-cell bacterial isolates present in the fish samples. Methods: In this regard, Cyprinus rubrofuscus (Koi), Heteropneustes fossilis (Shing) and Mystus vittatus (Tengra) fishes were collected and subjected to form an in vitro biofilm by shaking condition into the wise bath. The drug-resistant pattern was determined by the Kirby Bauer technique. Results: All the samples exhibited a huge array (up to 10(7) cfu/ml or g) of bacteria such as E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Proteus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. The isolates from both the bulk samples and their corresponding biofilms were subjected to antibiogram assay using antibiotics such as Ampicillin (10 mu g), Erythromycin (15 mu g), Streptomycin (STP 10 mu g), Oxacillin (10 mu g), Nalidixic acid (30 mu g). Before biofilm formation, few of the isolates were found to be sensitive and few were resistant against the antibiotics. But when the species were isolated from the biofilm the sensitive one acquired drug resistance and resistant strain unveiled more resistance towards the same antibiotics. The present study revealed extensive bacterial contamination in fish samples among those some were resistant against the supplied drugs. Conclusion: After the formation of multi-species biofilm, the isolates became more resistant against the same drugs that is alarming for consumers and major obstacles to maintain sustainable health. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
  • Holopainen, Jani; Mattila, Osmo; Poyry, Essi; Parvinen, Petri (2020)
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The Fourier coefficients v(2) and v(3) characterizing the anisotropy of the azimuthal distribution of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at root S-NN = 5.02 TeV are measured with data collected by the CMS experiment. The measurements cover a broad transverse momentum range, 1 <p(T) <100 GeV/c. The analysis focuses on the p(T) > 10 GeV/c range, where anisotropic azimuthal distributions should reflect the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in the created medium. Results are presented in several bins of PbPb collision centrality, spanning the 60% most central events. The v(2) coefficient is measured with the scalar product and the multiparticle cumulant methods, which have different sensitivities to initial-state fluctuations. The values from both methods remain positive up to p(T) similar to 60-80 GeV/c, in all examined centrality classes. The v(3) coefficient, only measured with the scalar product method, tends to zero for p(T) greater than or similar to 20 GeV/c. Comparisons between theoretical calculations and data provide new constraints on the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in heavy ion collisions and highlight the importance of the initial-state fluctuations. (C) 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Skålen, Per; Fougère, Martin (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2007)
  • Elands, B. H. M.; Vierikko, K.; Andersson, E.; Fischer, L. K.; Concalves, P.; Haase, D.; Kowarik, Ingo; Luz, A. C.; Niemela, J.; Santos-Reis, M.; Wiersum, K. F. (2019)
    Biocultural diversity is an evolving perspective for studying the interrelatedness between people and their natural environment, not only in ecoregional hotspots and cultural landscapes, but also in urban green spaces. Developed in the 1990s in order to denote the diversity of life in all its manifestations. biological, cultural and linguistic. co-evolving within complex socio-ecological systems such as cities, biocultural diversity was identified in the GREEN SURGE project as a response to recent challenges cities face. Most important challenges are the loss of nature and degradation of ecosystems in and around cities as well as an alienation of urban residents from and loss of interaction with nature. The notion of biocultural diversity is dynamic in nature and takes local values and practices of relating to biodiversity of different cultural groups as a starting point for sustainable living with biodiversity. The issue is not only how to preserve or restore biocultural practices and values, but also how to modify, adapt and create biocultural diversity in ways that resonate with urban transformations. As future societies will largely diverge from today's societies, the cultural perspective on living with (urban) nature needs careful reconsideration. Biocultural diversity is not conceived as a definite concept providing prescriptions of what to see and study, but as a reflexive and sensitising concept that can be used to assess the different values and knowledge of people that reflect how they live with biodiversity. This short communication paper introduces a conceptual framework for studying the multi-dimensional features of biocultural diversity in cities along the three key dimensions of materialized, lived and stewardship, being departure points from which biocultural diversity can be studied.
  • Riikonen, Sini; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai (2020)
    The present investigation aimed to analyze the collaborative making processes and ways of organizing collaboration processes of five student teams. As a part of regular school work, the seventh-grade students were engaged in the use of traditional and digital fabrication technologies for inventing, designing, and making artifacts. To analyze complex, longitudinal collaborative making processes, we developed the visual Making-Process-Rug video analysis method, which enabled tracing intertwined with social-discursive and materially mediated making processes and zoomed in on the teams' efforts to organize their collaborative processes. The results indicated that four of the five teams were able to take on multifaceted epistemic and fabrication-related challenges and come up with novel co-inventions. The successful teams' social-discursive and embodied making actions supported each another. These teams dealt with the complexity of invention challenges by spending a great deal of their time in model making and digital experimentation, and their making process progressed iteratively. The development of adequate co-invention and well-organized collaboration processes appeared to be anchored in the team's shared epistemic object.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Kral, J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; The ALICE collaboration (2016)
    We report on the measurement of freeze-out radii for pairs of identical-charge pions measured in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV as a function of collision centrality and the average transverse momentum of the pair k(T). Three-dimensional sizes of the system (femtoscopic radii), as well as direction-averaged one-dimensional radii are extracted. The radii decrease with k(T), following a power-law behavior. This is qualitatively consistent with expectations from a collectively expanding system, produced in hydrodynamic calculations. The radii also scale linearly with <dN(ch)/d eta >(1/3). This behavior is compared to world data on femtoscopic radii in heavy-ion collisions. While the dependence is qualitatively similar to results at smaller root s(NN), a decrease in the ratio R-out/R-side is seen, which is in qualitative agreement with a specific prediction from hydrodynamic models: a change from inside-out to outside-in freeze-out configuration. The results provide further evidence for the production of a collective, strongly coupled system in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    We present the charged-particle pseudorapidity density in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV in centrality classes measured by ALICE. The measurement covers a wide pseudorapidity range from -3.5 to 5, which is sufficient for reliable estimates of the total number of charged particles produced in the collisions. For the most central (0-5%) collisions we find 21 400 +/- 1 300, while for the most peripheral (80-90%) we find 230 +/- 38. This corresponds to an increase of (27 +/- 4)% over the results at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV previously reported by ALICE. The energy dependence of the total number of charged particles produced in heavy-ion collisions is found to obey a modified power-law like behaviour. The charged-particle pseudorapidity density of the most central collisions is compared to model calculations-none of which fully describes the measured distribution. We also present an estimate of the rapidity density of charged particles. The width of that distribution is found to exhibit a remarkable proportionality to the beam rapidity, independent of the collision energy from the top SPS to LHC energies. (C) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The CMS collaboration; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkila, J. K.; Jarvinen, T.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Maenpaa, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Karimäki, V.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    Azimuthal correlations of charged particles in xenon-xenon collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of root s(NN) = 5.44 TeV are studied. The data were collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC with a total integrated luminosity of 3.42 mu b(-1). The collective motion of the system formed in the collision is parametrized by a Fourier expansion of the azimuthal particle density distribution. The azimuthal anisotropy coefficients v(2), v(3), and v(4) are obtained by the scalar-product, two-particle correlation, and multiparticle correlation methods. Within a hydrodynamic picture, these methods have different sensitivities to noncollective and fluctuation effects. The dependence of the Fourier coefficients on the size of the colliding system is explored by comparing the xenon-xenon results with equivalent lead-lead data. Model calculations that include initial-state fluctuation effects are also compared to the experimental results. The observed angular correlations provide new constraints on the hydrodynamic description of heavy ion collisions.
  • Määttä, Suvi; Gubbels, Jessica; Ray, Carola; Koivusilta, Leena; Nislin, Mari; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    The physical environment in preschool, covering all indoor and outdoor equipment, and the surfaces of the preschool yard, may have a large potential for increasing children's physical activity (PA). However, it is less clear which specific physical environmental factors are associated with children's PA. Cross-sectional associations between the individual observed items (e.g. fixed and portable equipment, surfaces, terrain in the grounds) as well as composite scores for the PA equipment on the one hand, and children's PA, measured by accelerometers, on the other, were investigated in a sample of 3-6 year old children (N = 778) attending preschool in Finland. Having balance equipment and trampolines in group facilities, having balance equipment, gym mats and sticks in the gym and having skipping ropes, sand and mostly hilly terrain on the outdoor playground were associated with children's higher PA, regardless of gender. On the contrary, having gravel as the terrain in the playground and having a seesaw outdoors were associated with lower PA levels, regardless of gender. Four significant interactions with gender were found, but none of the environmental predictors remained significant in the post-hoc gender-stratified analyses. Variety in PA equipment and playground terrain may be beneficial for increasing children's PA in preschools. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Lallukka, Tea; Mekuria, Gashaw B.; Nummi, Tapio; Virtanen, Pekka; Virtanen, Marianna; Hammarström, Anne (2019)
    BackgroundCo-occurrence of mental and somatic symptoms is common, and recent longitudinal studies have identified single trajectories of these symptoms, but it is poorly known whether the symptom trajectories can also co-occur and change across the lifespan. We aimed to examine co-occurring symptoms and their joint trajectories from adolescence to midlife.MethodsLongitudinal data were derived from Northern Sweden, where 506 girls and 577 boys aged 16years participated at baseline in 1981 (99.7% of those initially invited), and have been followed up in four waves until the age of 43. Survey data were collected about depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms. Potential joint development of this three-component symptom set was examined with multiple response trajectory analysis, a method that has not been previously used to study co-occurrence of these symptoms.ResultsWe identified a five trajectory solution as the best: very low (19%), low (31%), high (22%), late sharply increasing (16%) and a very high increasing (12%). In the late sharply increasing and very high increasing groups the scores tended to increase with age, while in the other groups the levels were more stable. Overall, the results indicated that depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms co-exist from adolescence to midlife.ConclusionsThe multiple response trajectory analysis confirmed high stability in the co-occurrence of depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms from adolescence to midlife. Clinicians should consider these findings to detect symptoms in their earliest phase in order to prevent the development of co-occurring high levels of symptoms.
  • Chen, An; Tenhunen, Henni; Torkki, Paulus; Heinonen, Seppo; Lillrank, Paul; Stefanovic, Vedran (2017)
    Introduction Nowadays, an important decision for pregnant women is whether to undergo prenatal testing for aneuploidies and which tests to uptake. We investigate the factors influencing women's choices between non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and invasive prenatal tests in pregnancies with elevated a priori risk of fetal aneuploidies. Methodology This is a mixed-method study. We used medical data (1st Jan 2015-31st Dec 2015) about women participating in further testing at Fetomaternal Medical Center at Helsinki University Hospital and employed Chi-square tests and ANOVA to compare the groups of women choosing different methods. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed the significant clinical factors influencing women's choice. We explored the underlying values, beliefs, attitudes and other psychosocial factors that affect women's choice by interviewing women with the Theory of Planned Behavior framework. The semi-structured interview data were processed by thematic analysis. Results Statistical data indicated that gestational age and counseling day were strong factors influencing women's choice. Interview data revealed that women's values and moral principles on pregnancy and childbirth chiefly determined the choices. Behavioral beliefs (e.g. safety and accuracy) and perceived choice control (e.g. easiness, rapidness and convenience) were also important and the major trade-offs happened between these constructs. Discussion Values are the determinants of women's choice. Service availability and convenience are strong factors. Medical risk status in this choice context is not highly influential. Choice aids can be developed by helping women to identify their leading values in prenatal testing and by providing lists of value-matching test options and attributes.
  • Jackson, Raphaella; Monnin, David; Patapiou, Patapios A.; Golding, Gemma; Helanterä, Heikki; Oettler, Jan; Heinze, Juergen; Wurm, Yannick; Economou, Chloe K.; Chapuisat, Michel; Henry, Lee M. (2022)
    Ants are among the most successful organisms on Earth. It has been suggested that forming symbioses with nutrient-supplementing microbes may have contributed to their success, by allowing ants to invade otherwise inaccessible niches. However, it is unclear whether ants have evolved symbioses repeatedly to overcome the same nutrient limitations. Here, we address this question by comparing the independently evolved symbioses in Camponotus, Plagiolepis, Formica and Cardiocondyla ants. Our analysis reveals the only metabolic function consistently retained in all of the symbiont genomes is the capacity to synthesise tyrosine. We also show that in certain multi-queen lineages that have co-diversified with their symbiont for millions of years, only a fraction of queens carry the symbiont, suggesting ants differ in their colony-level reliance on symbiont-derived resources. Our results imply that symbioses can arise to solve common problems, but hosts may differ in their dependence on symbionts, highlighting the evolutionary forces influencing the persistence of long-term endosymbiotic mutualisms.