Browsing by Subject "PERSPECTIVES"

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  • Bagheri, Mehrdad; Mladenovic, Milos; Kosonen, Iisakki; Nurminen, Jukka K; Roncoli, Claudio; Ylä-Jääski, Antti (2020)
    Evaluating potential of shifting to low-carbon transport modes requires considering limited travel-time budget of travelers. Despite previous studies focusing on time-relevant modal shift, there is a lack of integrated and transferable computational frameworks, which would use emerging smartphone-based high-resolution longitudinal travel datasets. This research explains and illustrates a computational framework for this purpose. The proposed framework compares observed trips with computed alternative trips and estimates the extent to which alternatives could reduce carbon emission without a significant increase in travel time.. The framework estimates potential of substituting observed car and public-transport trips with lower-carbon modes, evaluating parameters per individual traveler as well as for the whole city, from a set of temporal and spatial viewpoints. The illustrated parameters include the size and distribution of modal shifts, emission savings, and increased active-travel growth, as clustered by target mode, departure time, trip distance, and spatial coverage throughout the city. Parameters are also evaluated based on the frequently repeated trips. We evaluate usefulness of the method by analyzing door-to-door trips of a few hundred travelers, collected from smartphone traces in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland, during several months. The experiment's preliminary results show that, for instance, on average, 20% of frequent car trips of each traveler have a low-carbon alternative, and if the preferred alternatives are chosen, about 8% of the carbon emissions could be saved. In addition, it is seen that the spatial potential of bike as an alternative is much more sporadic throughout the city compared to that of bus, which has relatively more trips from/to city center. With few changes, the method would be applicable to other cities, bringing possibly different quantitative results. In particular, having more thorough data from large number of participants could provide implications for transportation researchers and planners to identify groups or areas for promoting mode shift. Finally, we discuss the limitations and lessons learned, highlighting future research directions.
  • Malde, S.; Umbach, R.; Wheeler, J.R.; Lytvyn, L.; Cornu, J.-N.; Gacci, M.; Gratzke, C.; Herrmann, T.R.W.; Mamoulakis, C.; Rieken, M.; Speakman, M.J.; Gravas, S.; Drake, M.J.; Guyatt, G.H.; Tikkinen, K.A.O. (2021)
    Context: Understanding men's values and preferences in the context of personal, physical, emotional, relational, and social factors is important in optimising patient counselling, facilitating treatment decision-making, and improving guideline recommendations. Objective: To systematically review the available evidence regarding the values, preferences, and expectations of men towards the investigation and treatment (conservative, pharmacological, and surgical) of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Evidence acquisition: We searched electronic databases until August 31, 2020 for quantitative and qualitative studies that reported values and preferences regarding the investigation and treatment of LUTS in men. We assessed the quality of evidence and risk of bias using the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and GRADE Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research (CERQual) approaches. Evidence synthesis: We included 25 quantitative studies, three qualitative studies, and one mixed-methods study recruiting 9235 patients. Most men reported urodynamic testing to be acceptable, despite discomfort or embarrassment, as it significantly informs treatment decisions (low certainty evidence). Men preferred conservative and less risky treatment options, but the preference varied depending on baseline symptom severity and the risk/benefit characteristics of the treatment (moderate certainty). Men preferred pharmacological treatments with a low risk of erectile dysfunction and those especially improving urgency incontinence (moderate certainty). Other important preference considerations included reducing the risk of acute urinary retention or surgery (moderate certainty). Conclusions: Men prefer lower-risk management options that have fewer sexual side effects and are primarily effective at improving urgency incontinence and nocturia. Overall, the evidence was rated to be of low to moderate certainty. This review can facilitate the treatment decision-making process and improve the trustworthiness of guideline recommendations. Patient summary: We thoroughly reviewed the evidence addressing men's values and preferences regarding the management of urinary symptoms and found that minimising adverse effects is particularly important. Further research to understand other factors that matter to men is required. (C) 2020 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Hagner, Marleena; Uusitalo, Marja; Ruhanen, Hanna; Heiskanen, Juha; Peltola, Rainer; Tiilikkala, Kari; Hyvonen, Juha; Sarala, Pertti; Makitalo, Kari (2021)
    In the northern boreal zone, revegetation and landscaping of closed mine tailings are challenging due to the high concentrations of potentially toxic elements; the use of nutrient-poor, glacigenic cover material (till); cool temperatures; and short growing period. Recycled waste materials such as biochar (BC) and composted sewage sludge (CSS) have been suggested to improve soil forming process and revegetation success as well as decrease metal bioavailability in closed mine tailing areas. We conducted two field experiments in old iron mine tailings at Rautuvaara, northern Finland, where the native mine soil or transported cover till soil had not supported plant growth since the mining ended in 1989. The impacts of CSS and spruce (Picea abies)-derived BC application to till soil on the survival and growth of selected plant species (Pinus sylvestris, Salix myrsinifolia, and grass mixture containing Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, and Trifolium repens) were investigated during two growing seasons. In addition, the potential of BC to reduce bioaccumulation of metals in plants was studied. We found that (1) organic amendment like CSS markedly enhanced the plant growth and is therefore needed for vegetation establishment in tailing sites that contained only transported till cover, and (2) BC application to till soil-CSS mixture further facilitated the success of grass mixtures resulting in 71-250% higher plant biomass. On the other hand, (3) no effects on P. sylvestris or S. myrsinifolia were recorded during the first growing seasons, and (4) accumulation of metals in cover plants was negligible and BC application to till further decreased the accumulation of Al, Cr, and Fe in the plant tissues.
  • Saastamoinen, Antti; Hyttinen, Virva; Kortelainen, Mika; Aaltio, Juho; Auranen, Mari; Ylikallio, Emil; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Sainio, Markus; Suomalainen, Anu; Tyynismaa, Henna; Isohanni, Pirjo (2020)
    This study examines how parents of pediatric patients might differ in their views and attitudes towards genetic technology and information when compared to adult patients. There is surprisingly little evidence on how parents compare to other parts of population in their attitudes. Previous empirical studies often relate health-related preferences and attitudes to factors such as age, education, and income instead of parental status, thus evading comparison of parents to others as health-related decision makers. Findings related to the parental status can be useful when implementing genetic technology in clinical practice. We conducted a survey of views on genetic technology and information for groups of adult neurology patients (n = 68) and parents of pediatric neurology patients (n = 31) to shed some light on this issue. In addition to our own survey instrument, we conducted other surveys to gain insight on psychosocial factors that might affect these attitudes. The results suggest that parents are more concerned about their children's genetic risk factors when compared to the attitudes of adult patients about their own risk. For both groups, negative emotional state was associated with more concerns towards genetic information. Our study provides insights on how parental views might affect the acceptance of genetic technology and information.
  • Engen, Sigrid; Hausner, Vera Helene; Gurney, Georgina G.; Broderstad, Else Grete; Keller, Rose; Lundberg, Aase Kristine; Murguzur, Francisco Javier Ancin; Salminen, Emma; Raymond, Christopher M.; Falk-Andersson, Jannike; Fauchald, Per (2021)
    Ocean-based economic development arising from an increasing interest in the 'blue economy' is placing ecosystems and small-scale fisheries under pressure. The dominant policy response for dealing with multiple uses is the allocation of coastal space through coastal zone planning (CZP). Recent studies have shown that the rush to develop the blue economy and regulate coastal activity can result in social injustices and the exclusion of less powerful and unrecognized groups (e.g., small-scale fishers, women, Indigenous peoples and youth). To achieve a primary goal of the 2030 sustainable development agenda to "leave no one behind", it is important to understand the implications of coastal planning and development for these groups. Here, we present a social survey protocol for examining perceptions of justice related to small-scale fisheries (SSF) in the context of the blue economy in coastal areas. Specifically, we designed the survey instrument and sampling protocol to assess whether decisions about the use of the coastal zone over the last five years have i) followed principles of good governance, ii) recognized fishers' knowledge, culture and rights and iii) been attentive to impacts of changed coastal zone use on fisheries. The survey will engage coastal planners (N = app. 120) and fishers (N = app. 4300) in all the coastal municipalities (N = 81) in Northern-Norway. The sampling protocol is designed to ensure representation of different sectors of society, including those defined by gender, age, ethnicity and occupation (e.g., small-scale fishers, large-scale fishers, coastal planners).
  • Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Byman, Jenny; Renlund, Jenny; Wong, Chin Chin (2020)
    Drawing on a relational ontology and scholarship of new literacies, we investigate the materiality and performativity of children’s augmented storying in nature. Our study is situated in a Finnish primary school in which a novel, augmented reality application (MyAR Julle) was utilized as a digital storytelling tool for children (n = 62, aged 7–9), allowing them to explore, interact, and imagine in nature and to create/share their stories. The data corpus consists of their narrations of their augmented stories in nature, their augmented story artefacts, and video/observational data from their construction of such stories in nature. Narrative analysis reveals how the children’s augmented storying in nature was performed through playful, affective, and sensuous, identity, cultural, and critical literacies, which were imaginatively constructed into being at the nexus of their sensed reality and fantasy. These literacies make visible human–material–spatial–temporal assemblages during which the children played with/through the augmented character Julle, felt and sensed with/through Julle, and re-storied their experiences, cultural knowledge, and identities with/through Julle. They also engaged in critical thinking with/through Julle. The study contributes to knowledge on the meaning of materiality in children’s storying in, with, and for nature and the educational possibilities of augmented storying for children’s (eco)literacies.
  • Salmi, Saara; Kumpulainen, Kristiina (2019)
    Despite vast research on school transitions, less attention has been paid to understanding children's own sense-making of their transition from preschool to first grade. Drawing on sociocultural and dialogic approaches, this study addresses this gap by investigating children's experiencing (perezhivanie) of their school transitioning nested in the interaction between their motives and perceived demands. The data are derived from an ethnographic research project with 19 first-graders aged six to seven years old attending a Finnish primary school. The children were invited to draw their transition experiences and narrate their drawings to their peers and the researchers. The visual narrations were videotaped, transcribed, and analysed. The findings highlight the children's dialogic sense-making processes of their educational transitioning. The study reveals that the children's motives were related to opportunities to engage in physical activities, play, make relationships, and make sense of their changing positions and identities in relation to transitioning to primary school. The results also illuminate how the children actively created subversive spaces for pushing the demands of school rules and routines to fulfil their subjective motives. Altogether, the study demonstrates the potential of visual narrative methods in contributing to a nuanced understanding of children's sense-making of their school transitioning, including the dialogic processes of what it entails to become a 'primary school child'.
  • Koskela, Kaisu (2021)
    This article is about self-defined social identities, other people’s perceptions of us and the potentially conflictual relationship between these two. Building on a Barthian focus on group boundaries, the article takes the interplay between external categorizations and internal group definitions as its point of departure to examine how individuals negotiate the boundaries of their social identities. Based on a case study of skilled migrants with racialized ethnicities in Finland, I look at how they express their self-defined identity as well-to-do, skilled professionals in the face of contradicting categorizations of them as un-skilled, lower-class migrant subjects. I identify two types of complementary approaches employed by the skilled migrants in boundary making strategies to their identity negotiations: those de-emphasizing ethnicity (or its importance), and those emphasizing class status. These approaches are two sides of the same coin; coming from different perspectives, they both aim at a more positively viewed identity, and for individuals to be seen as well-to-do, educated, working professionals, rather than as ethnic migrant subjects. As such, the article also highlights the interconnection of class and ethnicity for the social identities of skilled migrants in Finland.
  • Hilden, Hanna-Mari; Hautamäki, Lotta; Korkeila, Jyrki (2021)
    Purpose Psychiatric patients' awareness of treatments options and their possibilities to influence their care has increased. For the clinicians, the management of evidence-based care, as well as organizational and resource aspects, set different goals for the clinical encounter. In this article we are focusing on the clinicians' experiences and ask: How do the clinicians view situations in which there is a conflict between patients' individual needs and goals and other aspects in decision-making? Materials and methods We implemented a qualitative study of 13 thematic semi-structured interviews with clinicians working in psychiatry. We used discourse analysis to investigate how the clinician view the doctor-patient interaction. Results We identified three discources which were termed the medical standpoint, the psychodynamic standpoint and the standpoint of the patient's experience. Conclusions In their talk, the clinicians use the three discources to make sense of the diverse expectations from both the patient and the mental health care system. The three discources also reflect different aspects in psychiatric treatment cultures, such as evidence-based medicine, the ideal of patient-centeredness, therapeutic interaction and organizational requirements.
  • Räsänen, Aleksi; Lein, Haakon; Bird, Deanne; Setten, Gunhild (2020)
    Community resilience is often assessed in disaster risk management (DRM) research and it has been argued that it should be strengthened for more robust DRM. However, the term community is seldom precisely defined and it can be understood in many ways. We argue that it is crucial to explore the concept of community within the context of DRM in more detail. We identify three dominating views of conceptualizing community (place-based community, interaction-based community, community of practice and interest), and discuss the relevance of these conceptualizations. We base this discussion on quantitative and qualitative empirical and policy document data regarding flood and storm risk management in Finland, wildfire risk management in Norway and volcanic risk management Iceland. According to our results, all three conceptualizations of community are visible but in differing situations. Our results emphasize the strong role of public sector in DRM in the studied countries. In disaster preparedness and response, a professionalized community of practice and interest appear to be the most prominent within all three countries. The interaction-based community of informal social networks is of less relevance, although its role is more visible in disaster response and recovery. The place-based (local) community is visible in some of the policy documents, but otherwise its role is rather limited. Finally, we argue that the measured resilience of a community depends on how the community is conceptualized and operationalized, and that the measures to strengthen resilience of a particular community should be different depending on what the focal community is.
  • Mendoza, Laura; Lehtonen, Tuula; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Hyytinen, Heidi (2022)
    This qualitative study analyzes first-year university students' conceptions of their second language (L2) self-concept and self-efficacy for academic writing in English. The data consist of learning journals (N = 74), collected at a Finnish university in an English as a medium of instruction (EMI) context. L2 self-concept descriptions included positive, mixed, and negative ends of the continuum as well as stories of change. These descriptions encompassed various contextual mentions including grades, the current EMI context, and social comparison. The self-efficacy beliefs for academic writing reflected a stage of change among the students. The students reporting more positive, emerging self-efficacy described sensations of familiarity with academic writing. In turn, the students reporting low self-efficacy emphasized that academic writing was new and that they needed more guidance and feedback. An analysis of how the L2 self-concept conceptions and self-efficacy beliefs for academic writing co-occurred on an individual level revealed further variation among this group. Nevertheless, the negative L2 self-concept conceptions seemed to co-occur more with low self-efficacy for academic writing. Furthermore, the findings suggest that positive L2 self-concept conceptions may be of help when building self efficacy for academic writing in English. The implications are discussed on theoretical and pedagogical levels.
  • Liu, Pengyuan; Koivisto, Sonja Maria; Hiippala, Tuomo; Van der Lijn, Charlotte Jacoba Cornelia; Väisänen, Tuomas Lauri Aleksanteri; Nurmi, Marisofia Kaarina; Toivonen, Tuuli; Vehkakoski, Kirsi; Pyykönen, Janne; Virmasalo, Ilkka; Simula, Mikko; Hasanen, Elina; Salmikangas, Anna-Katriina; Muukkonen, Petteri (2022)
    Sport and exercise contribute to health and well-being in cities. While previous research has mainly focused on activities at specific locations such as sport facilities, "informal sport" that occur at arbitrary locations across the city have been largely neglected. Such activities are more challenging to observe, but this challenge may be addressed using data collected from social media platforms, because social media users regularly generate content related to sports and exercise at given locations. This allows studying all sport, including those "informal sport" which are at arbitrary locations, to better understand sports and exercise-related activities in cities. However, user-generated geographical information available on social media platforms is becoming scarcer and coarser. This places increased emphasis on extracting location information from free-form text content on social media, which is complicated by multilingualism and informal language. To support this effort, this article presents an end-to-end deep learning-based bilingual toponym recognition model for extracting location information from social media content related to sports and exercise. We show that our approach outperforms five state-of-the-art deep learning and machine learning models. We further demonstrate how our model can be deployed in a geoparsing framework to support city planners in promoting healthy and active lifestyles.
  • McNeil, Robyn J.; McCarthy, Maria; Dunt, David; Thompson, Kate; Kosola, Silja; Orme, Lisa; Drew, Sarah; Sawyer, Susan (2019)
    This study examined the financial impact of cancer and the use of income support in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer and their parent caregivers. As part of a national Australian study exploring the psychosocial impacts of cancer, 196 AYAs ages 15 to 25 years, six to 24 months from diagnosis, and 204 parent caregivers from 18 cancer sites were surveyed. Logistic regression and chi-square analyses were conducted to assess the influence of clinical and sociodemographic variables on financial status. Qualitative responses were coded, and key themes were identified using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that more than half of AYAs and parents reported financial issues as a consequence of AYA cancer. Financial issues resulted from direct medical costs, associated costs from treatment, and indirect costs from loss of income. AYAs and parents reported that it was important for them to receive income support, both during and after cancer treatment. However, large proportions of those who reported needing income support had difficulty accessing it. AYAs and their families are substantially financially disadvantaged by cancer, many for a prolonged time. Patient- and family-centered assessments and interventions are required to reduce the financial burden of AYA cancer.
  • Virtanen, Mikko J.; Salmivaara, Saara (2021)
    In the present study, we examine socio-cultural and practical aspects of human papillomavirus vaccination (HPVV) through a multi-sited study of framings. We ask how HPVV is framed in the daily lives of vaccination-aged Finnish girls and in school nurses' everyday work. We then mirror these framings against both each other and Finland's official vaccination campaign. Based on analysis of interviews with 24 nurses and 12 girls and the campaign materials, we argue first that the campaign frames vaccination as an individual, knowledge-based decision reflecting the informed consent principle. Second, however, the vaccination is framed in the everyday lives of eligible girls through gendered social ties and as a gendered and cohort-specific event pivoting around the needle prick. Third, HPVV is not primarily framed in the school nurses' work as preparing the girls for the vaccination decision by sharing official information but through trust-based social relationships with the girls and their parents. We conclude that, as the vaccination is not an issue of individually reflected and knowledge-based decision-making for the two interviewed key groups, the official Finnish HPVV campaign and the undergirding informed consent principle drift into problems in their practical implementation.
  • Sandström, Niclas; Nevgi, Anne (2020)
    This paper took a pedagogical campus developer’s look into a campus retrofitting process. The paper presents a case study of a major Finnish research-intensive university. The data consist of semi-structured interviews of information-rich key stakeholders identified using snowball sampling method. The findings suggest that co-design should be followed through the whole retrofitting process with sufficient communications between stakeholders. The study introduces the concept of learning landscape reliability, putting digital age basic needs in the centre of learning landscape usability.
  • Hakkarainen, Viola T; Anderson, Christopher B.; Eriksson, Max; van Riper, Carena J.; Horcea-Milcu, Andra-Ioana; Raymond, C.M (2020)
    This study identifies and analyses the underlying assumptions of experts involved in the first author meeting (FAM) of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)'s Values Assessment, and how they shape understandings of the multiple values of nature. We draw from survey data collected from 94 experts attending the FAM. Respondents self-report the tendencies and aims they bring to the assessment (i.e. motivation), the type and amount of evidence they require for knowledge to be valid (i.e. confirmation) and their epistemic worldviews (i.e. objectivity). Four clusters emerged that correspond to Pragmatist, Post-Positivist, Constructivist and Transformative epistemic worldviews. This result clarifies how different knowledge claims are represented in science-policy processes. Despite the proportionately higher number of social scientists in the Values Assessment, compared with previous IPBES assessments, we still found that fewer experts have Constructivist or Transformative worldviews than Pragmatist or Post-Positivist outlooks, an imbalance that may influence the types of values and valuation perspectives emphasised in the assessment. We also detected a tension regarding what constitutes valid knowledge between Post-Positivists, who emphasised high levels of agreement, and Pragmatists and Constructivists, who did not necessarily consider agreement crucial. Conversely, Post-Positivists did not align with relational values and were more diverse in their views regarding definitions of multiple values of nature compared to other clusters. Pragmatists emphasized relational values, while Constructivists tended to consider all value types (including relational values) as important. We discuss the implications of our findings for future design and delivery of IPBES processes and interdisciplinary research.
  • Hypponen, Hannele; Lumme, Sonja; Reponen, Jarmo; Vanska, Jukka; Kaipio, Johanna; Heponiemi, Tarja; Laaveri, Tinja (2019)
    Introduction: Timely, complete and accurate patient data is needed in care decisions along the continuum of care. To access patient data from other organizations, there are three types of regional health information exchange systems (RHIS) in use In Finland. Some regions use multiple RHISs while others do not have a RHIS available. The recently introduced National Patient Data Repository (Kanta) is increasingly used for health information exchange (HIE). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess usage of paper, RHISs and Kanta by context in 2017; evolution of paper use over the years; and predictors of paper use in 2017 among Finnish physicians for HIE system development. Methods: Data from national electronic health record (EHR) usage and user experience surveys were taken from 2010 (prior to ePrescription system implementation), 2014 (prior to implementation of Kanta) and 2017 (Kanta was in full use in the public sector and in large private organizations). The web-based surveys were targeted to all physicians engaged in clinical work in Finland. Results: Kanta was the most frequently used means of HIE in 2017. Paper use had reduced significantly from 2010 to 2014. The trend continued in 2017. Still, up to half of the physicians reported using paper daily or weekly in 2017. There were great variations in paper use by healthcare sector, available RHIS type and EHR system used. In multivariable analysis (with all other variables constant), predictors of more frequent use of paper than electronic means for HIE were: private sector or hospital, access to Master Patient Index RHIS (type 1), multiple RHIS (type 4) or no RHIS (type 5), two particular EHR systems, older age, less experience, operative, psychiatric or diagnostic specialties, and male gender. Conclusions: Usability of HIE systems including EHRs as access points to HIE need to be improved to facilitate usage of electronic HIE. Usage ensures more timely and complete patient data for safe, coordinated care. Specialty-specific needs and requirements call for more user participation in HIE design. Especially older professionals need training to better exploit HIS for HIE.
  • Maki-Nevala, Satu; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur; Ronty, Mikko; Kettunen, Eeva; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Wolff, Henrik; Knuuttila, Aija; Knuutila, Sakari (2016)
    Objectives: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a common cancer with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to screen Finnish NSCLC tumor samples for common cancer-related mutations by targeted next generation sequencing and to determine their concurrences and associations with clinical features. Materials and methods: Sequencing libraries were prepared from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor material of 425 patients using the AmpliSeq Colon and Lung panel covering mutational hot spot regions of 22 cancer genes. Sequencing was performed with the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Results: Data analysis of the hot spot mutations revealed mutations in 77% of the patients, with 7% having 3 or more mutations reported in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. Two of the most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (46%) and KRAS (25%). KRAS codon 12 mutations were the most recurrently occurring mutations. EGFR mutations were significantly associated with adenocarcinoma, female gender and never/light-smoking history; CTNNB1 mutations with light ex-smokers, PlIC3CA and TP53 mutations with squamous cell carcinoma, and KRAS with adenocarcinoma. TP53 mutations were most prevalent in current smokers and ERBB2, ERBB4, PIK3CA, NRAS, NOTCH1, FBWX7, PTEN and STK11 mutations occurred exclusively in a group of ever-smokers, however the association was not statistically significant. No mutation was found that associated with asbestos exposure. Conclusion: Finnish NSCLC patients have a similar mutation profile as other Western patients, however with a higher frequency of BRAF mutations but a lower frequency of STK11 and ERBB2 mutations. Moreover, TP53 mutations occurred frequently with other gene mutations, most commonly with KRAS, MET, EGFR and PIK3CA mutations. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.