Browsing by Subject "PERUVIANUM BALECH"

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  • Le Tortorec, Anniina H.; Tahvanainen, Pia; Kremp, Anke; Simis, Stefan G. H. (2016)
    The toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii is the only bioluminescent bloom-forming phytoplankton in coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. We analysed partial luciferase gene (lcf) sequences and bioluminescence production in Baltic A. ostenfeldii bloom populations to assess the distribution and consistency of the trait in the Baltic Sea, and to evaluate applications for early detection of toxic blooms. Lcf was consistently present in 61 Baltic Sea A. ostenfeldii strains isolated from six separate bloom sites. All Baltic Sea strains except one produced bioluminescence. In contrast, the presence of lcf and the ability to produce bioluminescence did vary among strains from other parts of Europe. In phylogenetic analyses, lcf sequences of Baltic Sea strains clustered separately from North Sea strains, but variation between Baltic Sea strains was not sufficient to distinguish between bloom populations. Clustering of the lcf marker was similar to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences with differences being minor and limited to the lowest hierarchical clusters, indicating a similar rate of evolution of the two genes. In relation to monitoring, the consistent presence of lcf and close coupling of lcf with bioluminescence suggests that bioluminescence can be used to reliably monitor toxic bloom-forming A. ostenfeldii in the Baltic Sea.
  • Martens, Helge; Tillmann, Urban; Harju, Kirsi; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Tartaglione, Luciana; Krock, Bernd (2017)
    Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a toxic dinoflagellate that has recently bloomed in Ouwerkerkse Kreek, The Netherlands, and which is able to cause a serious threat to shellfish consumers and aquacultures. We used a large set of 68 strains to the aim of fully characterizing the toxin profiles of the Dutch A. ostenfeldii in consideration of recent reports of novel toxins. Alexandrium ostenfeldii is known as a causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning, and consistently in the Dutch population we determined the presence of several paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) including saxitoxin (STX), GTX2/3 (gonyautoxins), B1 and C1/C2. We also examined the production of spiroimine toxins by the Dutch A. ostenfeldii strains. An extensive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed a high intraspecific variability of spirolides (SPX) and gymnodimines (GYM). Spirolides included 13-desMethyl-spirolide C generally as the major compound and several other mostly unknown SPX-like compounds that were detected and characterized. Besides spirolides, the presence of gymnodimine A and 12-Methyl-gymnodimine A was confirmed, together with two new gymnodimines. One of these was tentatively identified as an analogue of gymnodimine D and was the most abundant gymnodimine (calculated cell quota up to 274 pg cell(-1), expressed as GYM A equivalents). Our multi-clonal approach adds new analogues to the increasing number of compounds in these toxin classes and revealed a high strain variability in cell quota and in toxin profile of toxic compounds within a single population.