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  • Hecht, Idan; Karesvuo, Petteri; Achiron, Asaf; Elbaz, Uri; Laine, Ilkka; Tuuminen, Raimo (2020)
    Purpose To assess the role of anti-inflammatory medication following cataract surgery on the formation of posterior capsular opacification. Design Cohort study. Methods A retrospective registry analysis of 25,818 consecutive cases who underwent cataract surgery between the years 2014 and 2018 at Helsinki University Hospital in Finland. Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy rates were compared between patients treated postoperatively with topical steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs), or their combination. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used. A single eye of each patient was included. Main outcomes were confirmed against a second independent dataset. Results 13,368 patients were included in the analysis with a mean age of 73.2±9.7 years and 61.7% were female. Pseudoexfoliation was noted in 10.1% of cases. The mean follow-up time was 22.8±15.7 months. Patients were treated with steroid monotherapy (28.9% of cases), NSAIDs monotherapy (62.2%), or a combination of both (8.9%). Treatment with steroids resulted in significantly lower Nd:YAG capsulotomy rates compared to NSAIDs (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.93, P=0.009). Treatment with combination therapy of steroids and NSAIDs showed no added benefit over steroid monotherapy (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.68-1.80, P=0.674). Cox regression analysis adjusted for patients’ age, gender, pseudoexfoliation, and risk stratification remained significantly predictive for lower capsulotomy rates with steroid treatment over NSAIDs (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.88, P=0.001). Conclusions Postoperative treatment with steroids among patients undergoing uncomplicated cataract surgery was associated with lower rates of clinically significant posterior capsule opacification compared to treatment with NSAIDs alone. Combination therapy of steroids and NSAIDs had no added benefit over steroids alone.
  • Ylinen, Petteri; Holmstrom, Emil; Laine, Ilkka; Lindholm, Juha-Matti; Tuuminen, Raimo (2018)
    PurposeTo examine the anti-inflammatory efficacy and tolerance between preservative-free dexamethasone (DEX) and diclofenac (DICL) eye drops, and their combination following cataract surgery. MethodsA randomized, double-blind, prospective single-centre study with 189 eyes of 180 patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. Laser flare meter measurement and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging were conducted before surgery and at the 28-day postoperative visit. Clinical characteristics, surgical parameters and assessment of postoperative symptoms were recorded. ResultsPreoperative flare was 9.00.6pu/ms and central retinal thickness (CRT) 269.6 +/- 1.9m (mean +/- SEM). On day 28, flare was 22.1 +/- 2.9 pu/ms for DEX, 17.4 +/- 2.5pu/ms for DICL and 13.0 +/- 1.6pu/ms (p ConclusionDiclofenac (DICL), as well as the combination of DEX and DICL, were superior to DEX monotherapy in minimizing CRT change and the incidence of PCME. Combination medication showed no added value compared to DICL monotherapy in uneventful cataract surgery.
  • Aaronson, Alexander; Viljanen, Antti; Kanclerz, Piotr; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Tuuminen, Raimo (2020)
    Background: To evaluate the learning-curve in performing cataract surgery with respect to developments in technology and different teaching strategies by comparing the incidence of capsular bag-related complications to operator experience. Methods: A review of the registry of 14,520 cataract surgeries carried out at the Ophthalmology Unit of Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Kotka, Finland, from August 8, 2009 to July 31, 2017. Results: We identified 144 cases with posterior capsule rupture and/or loss of capsular bag support (incidence 0.99% of all surgeries). The mean age of patients was 76.99.1 years and gender distribution ratio 29:71 male:female. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF; incidence 21%) and small pupil (incidence 14%) were over-represented in complication eyes, especially at the beginning of the study. Capsular bag-related complication rates were reported in 0.36% of surgeries for senior and 7.03% for resident surgeons at the beginning of the study, compared to 0.32% and 1.32%, respectively, at the end of the study. Best-corrected visual acuity at the final post-operative visit was 0.61 +/- 0.16 decimals at the beginning of the study, and 0.81 +/- 0.19 decimals at the end of the study. The mean number of post-operative visits was 4.3 +/- 2.7 and did not show trend over the study period. Conclusions: Real-world evidence suggests PXF and small pupil as significant risk factors in cataract surgery. A gradual decline in the rate complications was noted with increasing surgical experience, also among residents over the follow-up period.
  • Zhang, Zhengwei; Yao, Jinhan; Chang, Shuimiao; Kanclerz, Piotr; Khoramnia, Ramin; Deng, Minghui; Wang, Xiaogang (2022)
    Background: This study investigates the incidence and risk factors for the development of Berger's space (BS) after uneventful phacoemulsification based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: Cataractous eyes captured using qualified SS-OCT images before and after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery were included. Six high-resolution cross-sectional anterior segment SS-OCT images at 30 degrees intervals were used for BS data measurements. BS width was measured at three points on each scanned meridian line: the central point line aligned with the cornea vertex and two point lines at the pupil's margins. Results: A total of 223 eyes that underwent uneventful cataract surgery were evaluated. Preoperatively, only two eyes (2/223, 0.9%) were observed to have consistent BS in all six scanning directions. BS was observed postoperatively in 44 eyes (44/223, 19.7%). A total of 13 eyes (13/223, 5.8%) with insufficient image quality, pupil dilation, or lack of preoperative image data were excluded from the study. A total of 31 postoperative eyes with BS and 31 matched eyes without BS were included in the final data analysis. The smallest postoperative BS width was in the upper quadrant of the vertical meridian line (90 degrees), with a mean value of 280 mu m. The largest BS width was observed in the opposite area of the main clear corneal incision, with a mean value >500 mu m. Conclusions: Uneven-width BS is observable after uneventful phacoemulsification. Locations with a much wider BS (indirect manifestation of Wieger zonular detachment) are predominantly located in the opposite direction to the main corneal incisions.
  • Lindholm, Juha-Matti; Laine, Ilkka; Tuuminen, Raimo (2020)
    The present study estimated the 5-year cumulative probability of Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy according to the diopter power of implanted hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). Data were retrospectively collected of 15,375 eyes having cataract surgery and in-the-bag implantation of hydrophobic acrylic monofocal IOLs at the Ophthalmology Unit of Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Kotka, Finland between the years 2007 and 2016. The cumulative probability of Nd:YAG capsulotomy was calculated by Kaplan-Meier estimates, and potential risk factors were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The 5-year cumulative probability of Nd:YAG capsulotomy after cataract surgery was 27.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 22.9-32.6%) for low-diopter (5-16.5 D) IOLs, 14.6% (13.8-15.5%) for mid-diopter (17-24.5 D) IOLs, and 13.6% (11.7-15.6%) for high-diopter (25-30 D) IOLs. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that low-diopter IOLs (HR 1.76; 95% CI 1.38-2.25; p <0.001) were associated with an increased risk of Nd:YAG capsulotomy compared to mid-diopter IOLs over the follow-up period after accounting for other predictors. Real-world evidence shows that low-diopter IOLs are associated with significantly higher risk of Nd:YAG capsulotomy within five years following implantation. Estimation should help in evaluating the risks of cataract surgery in myopic eyes.
  • Ilveskoski, Lotta; Taipale, Claudia; Holmstrom, Emil J.; Tuuminen, Raimo (2019)
    Background: The purpose of the study was to identify macular edema after cataract surgery in eyes with and without pseudoexfoliation syndrome. The study was a post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, prospective single-center study. Patients were enrolled between January 2016 and October 2016 as per the national guidelines for the management of cataract in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Kotka, Finland. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six eyes of 149 patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. Postoperatively anti-inflammatory medication was either dexamethasone (N = 78) or diclofenac (N = 78). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging and laser flare meter measurement of the anterior chamber were conducted before surgery and at the control visit 28 days postoperatively. Results: Baseline variables were comparable between eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (N = 32) and those without (N = 124), except for intraocular pressure (P = 0.002) and glaucoma medication (P <0.001). In patients having pseudoexfoliation syndrome, central retinal thickness increase (mean +/- standard error of the mean) was 63.3 +/- 35.5 mu m for dexamethasone and 17.6 +/- 5.8 mu m for diclofenac, compared to 28.9 +/- 8.0 mu m (P = NS) and 6.9 +/- 1.3 mu m (P = 0.014) in eyes without pseudoexfoliation syndrome, respectively. Aqueous flare at 28 days was 25.8 +/- 5.4 pu/ms for patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and 18.3 +/- 1.8 pu/ms for those without (P = 0.030). Best corrected visual acuity gain and best corrected visual acuity at 28 days were less in patients having pseudoexfoliation syndrome compared to those without (0.39 +/- 0.07 vs 0.59 +/- 0.03 decimals, P = 0.007; and 0.77 +/- 0.06 vs 0.92 +/- 0.03 decimals, P = 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: Eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome may be predisposed to an increased aqueous flare and macular edema after cataract surgery. This study outlines the need to determine the optimal anti-inflammatory medication after cataract surgery in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome.
  • Ylinen, Petteri; Laine, Ilkka; Lindholm, Juha-Matti; Tuuminen, Raimo (2017)
    Purpose: To specify the risk factors for pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME) in patients with diabetes. Setting: Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Unit of Ophthalmology, Kotka, Finland. Design: Prospective case series. Methods: Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes having routine cataract surgery were evaluated. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging was performed before surgery and 1 month postoperatively. Results: The study comprised 93 patients (95 eyes). The central retinal thickness increase was 9.7 mu m 1.7 (SEM) in diabetic patients with no retinopathy, 22.7 +/- 8.6 mu m in those who had nonproliferative retinopathy, and 73.8 +/- 37.4 mu m in those who had proliferative retinopathy (P Conclusions: Young patient age and poor glycemic control were risk factors for postoperative central retinal thickness increase. This study showed it is necessary to identify, effectively treat, and followup with patients with diabetes who are at a greater risk for pseudophakic CME. (C) 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS
  • Aaronson, Alexander; Taipale, Claudia; Achiron, Asaf; Aaltonen, Vesa; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Tuuminen, Raimo (2021)
    Purpose: To assess whether aqueous flare is related to an increased risk of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) following uneventful cataract surgery in nondiabetic and diabetic patients. Methods: A post hoc analysis of five consecutive randomized clinical trials in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Finland. Aqueous flare levels were recorded in 448 eyes of 448 patients before surgery, and after the course of topical anti-inflammatory treatment 28 days and three months after cataract surgery. Results: Aqueous flare increase of = 50%, >= 100%, and >= 200% associated in central subfield macular thickness (CSMT) increase across the groups at 28 days and three months after surgery. Increase of aqueous flare >= 100% compared to those with Conclusions: At 28 days, aqueous flare increase was associated with macular thickening. A 100% cutoff value could potentially be used when studying anti-inflammatory efficacy of different treatment protocols. Flare values exceeding this cutoff value could be considered as an indication for extending anti-inflammatory therapy. Translational relevance: A 100% increase in aqueous flare at 28 days after cataract surgery from baseline predicted macular thickening up to three months postoperatively. Identifying a correlation between increased aqueous flare levels and pseudophakic cystoid macular edema may allow recognition of the most vulnerable patients, development of prophylactic treatment strategies and reduction of the number and severity of postoperative complications.
  • Loukovaara, Sirpa; Haukka, Jari (2018)
    Background: Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with phacoemulsification and primary intraocular lens implantation can be performed for the repair of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD; PHACOVIT group). The safety and efficacy of this combined ophthalmic procedure on RRD surgery outcomes remain unclear compared with more conventional PPV technique alone (VITRET group). We explored the need for reoperation after primary surgical procedure in these two groups. Methods: Retrospective, longitudinal, register-based cohort of RRD patients was operated in University Eye Clinic, Helsinki, Finland, during 2008-2014. The main outcome measure was reoperation rate during a postoperative follow-up period of 1 year due to retinal re-detachment, vitreous rehemorrhage, postoperative endophthalmitis, secondary pucker, macular hole or other reasons. Results: We analyzed 1,690 consecutive RRD cases, out of which 1,564 patients were treated in the PPV VITRET group and 126 patients in the PHACOVIT-operated group. Risk for reoperation was 2.67 times higher in the PHACOVIT group compared to the PPV VITRET group (95% CI 1.85-3.85). Conclusion: The reoperation rate was higher in RRD eyes operated with combined cataract surgery plus PPV, suggesting that RRD eyes should not primarily undergo combined PHACOVIT surgery.