Browsing by Subject "PHASE-II"

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  • Nurmi, Anna Maria; Mustonen, Harri; Haglund, Caj; Seppänen, Hanna (2021)
    Introduction: Tumor and systemic inflammatory markers predict survival. This retrospective study aimed to explore the changes in CRP, CA19-9, and other routine laboratory tests during preoperative oncological therapy as prognostic factors in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Methods: Between 2000 and 2016, 68 borderline resectable PDAC patients received preoperative oncological therapy and underwent subsequent surgery at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. We investigated changes in CRP, CA19-9, CEA, albumin, leukocytes, bilirubin, and platelets and examined the impact on survival. Results: In the multivariate analysis, CRP remaining at >= 3 mg/L after preoperative oncological therapy predicted a poorer postoperative outcome when compared to CRP decreasing to or remaining at 90% during preoperative treatment predicted a favorable postoperative outcome (HR 0.297, 95% CI: 0.124-0.708, p = 0.006). In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the median survival for patients with CRP remaining at = 3 mg/L (42 months vs. 24 months, p = 0.001). Patients with a CA19-9 decrease >90% or level normalization (to
  • Autio, Matias; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Brück, Oscar; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Pellinen, Teijo; Leppä, Sirpa (2022)
    Purpose: Tumor-infiltrating immune cells have prognostic sig-nificance and are attractive therapeutic targets. Yet, the clinical significance of their spatial organization and phenotype in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unclear. Experimental Design: We characterized T cells, macrophages, and their spatial interactions by multiplex IHC (mIHC) in 178 patients with DLBCL and correlated the data with patient demo-graphics and survival. We validated the findings on gene expression data from two external DLBCL cohorts comprising 633 patients. Results: Macrophage and T-cell contents divided the samples into T cell-inflamed (60%) and noninflamed (40%) subgroups. The T cell-inflamed lymphoma microenvironment (LME) was also rich in other immune cells, defining immune hot phenotype, which did not as such correlate with outcome. However, when we divided the patients according to T-cell and macrophage contents, LME char-acterized by high T-cell/low macrophage content or a correspond-ing gene signature was associated with superior survival [5-year overall survival (OS): 92.3% vs. 74.4%, P = 0.036; 5-year progres-sion-free survival (PFS): 92.6% vs. 69.8%, P = 0.012]. High pro-portion of PD -L1-and TIM3-expressing CD163- macrophages in the T cell-inflamed LME defined a group of patients with poor outcome [OS: HR = 3.22, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.63-6.37, P-adj = 0.011; PFS: HR = 2.76, 95% CI, 1.44-5.28, P-adj = 0.016]. Furthermore, PD-L1 and PD-1 were enriched on macrophages interacting with T cells. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that the interplay between macrophages and T cells in the DLBCL LME is immune checkpoint dependent and clinically meaningful.
  • Joensuu, Heikki; Blay, Jean-Yves; Comandone, Alessandro; Martin-Broto, Javier; Fumagalli, Elena; Grignani, Giovanni; Del Muro, Xavier Garcia; Adenis, Antoine; Valverde, Claudia; Pousa, Antonio Lopez; Olivier, Bouche; Italiano, Antoine; Bauer, Sebastian; Barone, Carlo; Weiss, Claudia; Crippa, Stefania; Camozzi, Maura; Castellana, Ramon; Le Cesne, Axel (2017)
    Background: This multicentre phase II trial (DOVIGIST) evaluated the antitumour activity of dovitinib as second-line treatment of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) refractory to imatinib or who do not tolerate imatinib. Methods: Patients received oral dovitinib 500 mg day(-1), 5 days on/2 days off, until GIST progression or unacceptable toxicity, with an objective to evaluate efficacy, assessed as the disease control rate (DCR) at 12 weeks. Tumour assessment and response to dovitinib therapy were evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST v1.1) and the Choi criteria. Secondary objectives included assessment of progression-free survival (PFS), safety and tolerability, and DCR at the end of treatment. Results: Thirty-eight of the 39 patients enrolled had histologically confirmed GIST. The DCR at 12 weeks was 52.6% (90% confidence interval (CI), 38.2-66.7%) meeting the preset efficacy criterion for the primary end point. The objective response rate (complete response+partial response) was 2.6% (1 of 38; 90% CI, 0.1-11.9%), and 5.3% (n = 2; 90% CI, 0.9-15.7%) at the end of the study. The median PFS was 4.6 months (90% CI, 2.8-7.4 months). Dose interruption was required in 26 patients (66.7%), of which 18 (69.2%) were due to adverse events. The most frequently observed grade 3 adverse events included hypertension (n = 7), fatigue (n = 5), vomiting (n = 4), hypertriglyceridaemia (n = 4), and gamma-glutamyltransferase increase (n = 4). Conclusions: Dovitinib is an active treatment for patients with GIST who are intolerant to imatinib or whose GIST progresses on imatinib.
  • Kolberg, Matthias; Bruun, Jarle; Murumagi, Astrid; Mpindi, John P.; Bergsland, Christian H.; Holand, Maren; Eilertsen, Ina A.; Danielsen, Stine A.; Kallioniemi, Olli; Lothe, Ragnhild A. (2017)
    Patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), a rare soft tissue cancer associated with loss of the tumor suppressor neurofibromin (NF1), have poor prognosis and typically respond poorly to adjuvant therapy. We evaluated the effect of 299 clinical and investigational compounds on seven MPNST cell lines, two primary cultures of human Schwann cells, and five normal bone marrow aspirates, to identify potent drugs for MPNST treatment with few side effects. Top hits included Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitors (volasertib and BI2536) and the fluoronucleoside gemcitabine, which were validated in orthogonal assays measuring viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis. DNA copy number, gene expression, and protein expression were determined for the cell lines to assess pharmacogenomic relationships. MPNST cells were more sensitive to BI2536 and gemcitabine compared to a reference set of 94 cancer cell lines. PLK1, RRM1, and RRM2 mRNA levels were increased in MPNST compared to benign neurofibroma tissue, and the protein level of PLK1 was increased in the MPNST cell lines compared to normal Schwann cells, indicating an increased dependence on these drug targets in malignant cells. Furthermore, we observed an association between increased mRNA expression of PLK1, RRM1, and RRM2 in patient samples and worse disease outcome, suggesting a selective benefit from inhibition of these genes in the most aggressive tumors.
  • Bauer, Sebastian; Joensuu, Heikki (2015)
    Imatinib is strongly positioned as the recommended first-line agent for most patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) due to its good efficacy and tolerability. Imatinib-resistant advanced GIST continues to pose a therapeutic challenge, likely due to the frequent presence of multiple mutations that confer drug resistance. Sunitinib and regorafenib are approved as second- and third-line agents, respectively, for patients whose GIST does not respond to imatinib or who do not tolerate imatinib, and their use is supported by large randomized trials. ATP-mimetic tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide clinical benefit even in heavily pretreated GIST suggesting that oncogenic dependency on KIT frequently persists. Several potentially useful tyrosine kinase inhibitors with distinct inhibitory profiles against both KIT ATP-binding domain and activation loop mutations have not yet been fully evaluated. Agents that have been found promising in preclinical models and early clinical trials include small molecule KIT and PDGFRA mutation-specific inhibitors, heat shock protein inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, allosteric KIT inhibitors, KIT and PDGFRA signaling pathway inhibitors, and immunological approaches including antibody-drug conjugates. Concomitant or sequential administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with KIT signaling pathway inhibitors require further evaluation, as well as rotation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as a means to suppress drug-resistant cell clones.
  • Voutilainen, Sari; Heikkila, Paivi; Sampo, Mika; Nevanlinna, Heli; Blomqvist, Carl; Mattson, Johanna (2021)
    Background Metaplastic breast cancer (MpBC) is a heterogeneous subtype of invasive mammary carcinoma associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell characteristics. Data regarding prognostic markers and potentially actionable targets for therapy are still limited. The present study aimed to characterize the immunohistochemical landscape of this rare malignancy and to identify potential prognostic factors and targets for therapy. Material and methods A total of 75 patients diagnosed with MpBC over a 15-year period were included in the study. We performed immunohistochemical analyses for Ki-67 (MIB-1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cytokeratin 5/6, vimentin, CD44, and androgen receptor (AR) and correlated their expression with clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes. The p-values for survival analyses were corrected for multiple testing (threshold 0.01). Results Most tumors expressed CK5/6 (73%), EGFR (59%), CD44 (81%), and vimentin (87%). Eighty-nine percent had a high Ki-67 index. Eighty-four percent were classified as basal-like (CK 5/6 or EGFR positive). AR was expressed in 21% of the tumors. The basal-like phenotype was significantly (p = 0.009) associated with inferior disease-free (DFS) and breast-cancer-specific overall survival (BCOS) with borderline significance (p = 0.01). In addition, a low Ki-67 index was associated with improved DFS (p = 0.033) and BCOS (p = 0.03). Conclusion Most MpBCs express basal markers (CK5/6, EGFR), epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker vimentin, and the stem cell marker CD44. Expression of basal-like markers was significantly related to inferior DFS. All the 11 patients with a lack of expression of basal markers survived without relapse.
  • Mpindi, John Patrick; Sara, Henri; Haapa-Paananen, Saija; Kilpinen, Sami; Pisto, Tommi; Bucher, Elmar; Ojala, Kalle; Iljin, Kristiina; Vainio, Paula; Bjorkman, Mari; Gupta, Santosh; Kohonen, Pekka; Nees, Matthias; Kallioniemi, Olli (2011)
    Background Meta-analysis of gene expression microarray datasets presents significant challenges for statistical analysis. We developed and validated a new bioinformatic method for the identification of genes upregulated in subsets of samples of a given tumour type (‘outlier genes’), a hallmark of potential oncogenes. Methodology A new statistical method (the gene tissue index, GTI) was developed by modifying and adapting algorithms originally developed for statistical problems in economics. We compared the potential of the GTI to detect outlier genes in meta-datasets with four previously defined statistical methods, COPA, the OS statistic, the t-test and ORT, using simulated data. We demonstrated that the GTI performed equally well to existing methods in a single study simulation. Next, we evaluated the performance of the GTI in the analysis of combined Affymetrix gene expression data from several published studies covering 392 normal samples of tissue from the central nervous system, 74 astrocytomas, and 353 glioblastomas. According to the results, the GTI was better able than most of the previous methods to identify known oncogenic outlier genes. In addition, the GTI identified 29 novel outlier genes in glioblastomas, including TYMS and CDKN2A. The over-expression of these genes was validated in vivo by immunohistochemical staining data from clinical glioblastoma samples. Immunohistochemical data were available for 65% (19 of 29) of these genes, and 17 of these 19 genes (90%) showed a typical outlier staining pattern. Furthermore, raltitrexed, a specific inhibitor of TYMS used in the therapy of tumour types other than glioblastoma, also effectively blocked cell proliferation in glioblastoma cell lines, thus highlighting this outlier gene candidate as a potential therapeutic target. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these results support the GTI as a novel approach to identify potential oncogene outliers and drug targets. The algorithm is implemented in an R package (Text S1).
  • Ollila, Hely; Paajanen, Juuso; Wolff, Henrik; Ilonen, Ilkka; Sutinen, Eva; Välimäki, Katja; Östman, Arne; Anttila, Sisko; Kettunen, Eeva; Räsänen, Jari; Kallioniemi, Olli; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Pellinen, Teijo (2021)
    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has a rich stromal component containing mesenchymal fibroblasts. However, the properties and interplay of MPM tumor cells and their surrounding stromal fibroblasts are poorly characterized. Our objective was to spatially profile known mesenchymal markers in both tumor cells and associated fibroblasts and correlate their expression with patient survival. The primary study cohort consisted of 74 MPM patients, including 16 patients who survived at least 60 months. We analyzed location-specific tissue expression of seven fibroblast markers in clinical samples using multiplexed fluorescence immunohistochemistry (mfIHC) and digital image analysis. Effect on survival was assessed using Cox regression analyses. The outcome measurement was all-cause mortality. Univariate analysis revealed that high expression of secreted protein acidic and cysteine rich (SPARC) and fibroblast activation protein in stromal cells was associated with shorter survival. Importantly, high expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) in tumor cells, but not in stromal cells, was associated with shorter survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02, p <0.001). A multivariable survival analysis adjusted for clinical parameters and stromal mfIHC markers revealed that tumor cell PDGFRB and stromal SPARC remained independently associated with survival (HR = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.03 and HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00-1.11, respectively). The prognostic effect of PDGFRB was validated with an artificial intelligence-based analysis method and further externally validated in another cohort of 117 MPM patients. In external validation, high tumor cell PDGFRB expression associated with shorter survival, especially in the epithelioid subtype. Our findings suggest PDGFRB and SPARC as potential markers for risk stratification and as targets for therapy.
  • Järvinen, Tommi; Paajanen, Juuso; Ilonen, Ilkka; Räsänen, Jari (2021)
    Simple Summary Treatment of malignant mesothelioma with high-temperature chemotherapeutic instillation of the affected pleural space seems to be advantageous, but higher-quality studies are needed. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignancy of the pleural lining with exceptionally poor survival. Hyperthermic intrathoracic chemoperfusion (HITHOC) is commonly used with surgery in limited disease. However, data on its effect on survival are limited. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analyzed a total of 11 observational articles. HITHOC was compared to control arm that did not receive HITHOC in three studies including 762 patients. The pooled analysis of these studies revealed an SMD of 0.24, with 95% CI of 0.06-0.41 favoring the HITHOC group, reaching statistical significance. The survival effect of HITHOC in epithelioid MPM vs. non-epithelioid MPM was analyzed in four studies. Pooled analysis showed an SMD of 0.79 (95% CI = 0.48-1.10) favoring epithelioid MPM. Based on available data, there seems to be a benefit with HITHOC in regards to overall survival in the treatment of all mesothelioma patients. Multicenter randomized controlled trials are needed to validate and standardize this treatment approach.
  • Majumder, Muntasir Mamun; Silvennoinen, Raija; Anttila, Pekka; Tamborero, David; Eldfors, Samuli; Yadav, Bhagwan; Karjalainen, Riikka; Kuusanmaki, Heikki; Lievonen, Juha; Parsons, Alun; Suvela, Minna; Jantunen, Esa; Porkka, Kimmo; Heckman, Caroline A. (2017)
    Novel agents have increased survival of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, however high-risk and relapsed/refractory patients remain challenging to treat and their outcome is poor. To identify novel therapies and aid treatment selection for MM, we assessed the ex vivo sensitivity of 50 MM patient samples to 308 approved and investigational drugs. With the results we i) classified patients based on their ex vivo drug response profile; ii) identified and matched potential drug candidates to recurrent cytogenetic alterations; and iii) correlated ex vivo drug sensitivity to patient outcome. Based on their drug sensitivity profiles, MM patients were stratified into four distinct subgroups with varied survival outcomes. Patients with progressive disease and poor survival clustered in a drug response group exhibiting high sensitivity to signal transduction inhibitors. Del(17p) positive samples were resistant to most drugs tested with the exception of histone deacetylase and BCL2 inhibitors. Samples positive for t(4; 14) were highly sensitive to immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors and several targeted drugs. Three patients treated based on the ex vivo results showed good response to the selected treatments. Our results demonstrate that ex vivo drug testing may potentially be applied to optimize treatment selection and achieve therapeutic benefit for relapsed/refractory MM.
  • Rantala, Elina S.; Kivelä, Tero T.; Hernberg, Micaela M. (2021)
    No data exist regarding whether any first-line treatment for metastatic uveal melanoma provides overall survival (OS) benefit, if staged and compared to best supportive care (BSC). We analyzed OS in a nationwide, consecutive cohort diagnosed with metastatic uveal melanoma between January 1999 and December 2016. The Helsinki University Hospital Working Formulation was used to assign patients to stage IVa, IVb and IVc, corresponding to predicted median OS >= 12,
  • Skaga, Erlend; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Fayzullin, Artem; Sandberg, Cecilie J.; Potdar, Swapnil; Kyttälä, Aija; Langmoen, Iver A.; Laakso, Aki; Gaal-Paavola, Emilia; Perola, Markus; Wennerberg, Krister; Vik-Mo, Einar O. (2019)
    BackgroundA major barrier to effective treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is the large intertumoral heterogeneity at the genetic and cellular level. In early phase clinical trials, patient heterogeneity in response to therapy is commonly observed; however, how tumor heterogeneity is reflected in individual drug sensitivities in the treatment-naive glioblastoma stem cells (GSC) is unclear.MethodsWe cultured 12 patient-derived primary GBMs as tumorspheres and validated tumor stem cell properties by functional assays. Using automated high-throughput screening (HTS), we evaluated sensitivity to 461 anticancer drugs in a collection covering most FDA-approved anticancer drugs and investigational compounds with a broad range of molecular targets. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and Spearman correlation.ResultsAlthough tumor stem cell properties were confirmed in GSC cultures, their in vitro and in vivo morphology and behavior displayed considerable tumor-to-tumor variability. Drug screening revealed significant differences in the sensitivity to anticancer drugs (p
  • McCaughan, Georgia J.; Gandolfi, Sara; Moore, John J.; Richardson, Paul G. (2022)
    For patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, survival outcomes continue to improve significantly: however, nearly all patients will relapse following induction treatment. Optimisation of induction therapy is essential to provide longer term disease control and the current standard of care for most patients incorporates an immunomodulatory agent and proteasome inhibitor, most commonly lenalidomide and bortezomib in combination with dexamethasone (RVD), with maintenance until progression. Historically there has been limited access to RVD as an induction strategy outside of the United States; fortunately, there is now increasing access worldwide. This review discusses the rationale for use of RVD as induction therapy and aims to provide guidance in prescribing this regimen in order to optimise efficacy while minimising the toxicities of treatment. We also highlight the increasing evidence for the utility of addition of a monoclonal antibody to the RVD backbone to deepen responses and potentially provide longer disease control.
  • Li, Li; Hu, Yizhou; Ylivinkka, Irene; Li, Huini; Chen, Ping; Keski-Oja, Jorma; Hyytiäinen, Marko (2013)
  • Bono, Petri; Oudard, Stephane; Bodrogi, Istvan; Hutson, Thomas E.; Escudier, Bernard; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Thompson, John A.; Figlin, Robert A.; Ravaud, Alain; Basaran, Mert; Porta, Camillo; Bracarda, Sergio; Brechenmacher, Thomas; Lin, Chinjune; Voi, Maurizio; Grunwald, Viktor; Motzer, Robert J. (2016)
    In this study we examined the outcome of metastatic renal cell cancer patients with everolimus treatment related hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. All patients were treated in 2 large, international prospective trials, RECORD-1 (REnal Cell cancer treatment with Oral RADOO1 given Daily) and REACT (RADOO1 Expanded Access Clinical Trial in RCC). Patients who experienced these events might have experienced an improved response to everolimus. Background: Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia are class effects of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to characterize safety and efficacy of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with everolimus in RECORD-1 (REnal Cell cancer treatment with Oral RAD001 given Daily) and REACT (RAD001 Expanded Access Clinical Trial in RCC) who developed these events. Patients and Methods: Adults with vascular endothelial growth factor refractory mRCC received everolimus 10 mg/d in the randomized RECORD-1 (n = 277) and open-label REACT (n = 1367) studies. Outcomes included safety, treatment duration, overall response, and progression free survival for patients who developed hypercholesterolemia or hyperglycemia. Results: In RECORD-1, 12% (33 of 277) and 20% (55 of 277) of patients developed any grade hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia, respectively, with only 6% (78 of 1367) and 1% (14 of 1367) of the same events, respectively, in REACT. Median everolimus treatment duration was similar for patients with hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia (RECORD-1, 6.2 and 6.2 months, respectively; REACT, 4.4 and 4.5 months, respectively), but longer-than the overall populations (RECORD-1, 4.6 months; REACT, 3.2 months). In RECORD-1/REACT, 82%/68% of patients with hyperglycemia and 75%/71% of patients with hypercholesterolemia achieved partial response or stable disease. The incidence of clinically notable Grade 3 or 4 adverse events, other than anemia and lymphopenia, appeared to be similar across trials and subgroups. Although there was a trend for improved progression-free survival with development of hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia, the association was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were observed in low numbers of patients, and although these events might be associated with improved response to everolimus, the differences were not significant. These findings should be validated with prospective biomarker studies.
  • Leppä, Sirpa; Jorgensen, Judit; Tierens, Anne; Meriranta, Leo; Østlie, Ingunn; Brown, Peter de Nully; Fagerli, Unn-Merete; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Mannisto, Susanna; Munksgaard, Lars; Maisenholder, Martin; Vasala, Kaija; Meyer, Peter; Jerkeman, Mats; Bjorkholm, Magnus; Fluge, Oystein; Jyrkklo, Sirkku; Liestol, Knut; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Spetalen, Signe; Beiske, Klaus; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Holte, Harald (2020)
    Survival of patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is suboptimal, and the risk of central nervous system (CNS) progression is relatively high. We conducted a phase 2 trial in 139 patients aged 18 to 64 years who had primary DLBCL with an age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aaIPI) score of 2 to 3 or site-specific risk factors for CNS recurrence. The goal was to assess whether a dose-dense immunochemotherapy with early systemic CNS prophylaxis improves the outcome and reduces the incidence of CNS events. Treatment consisted of 2 courses of high-dose methotrexate in combination with biweekly rituximab (R), cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP-14), followed by 4 courses of R-CHOP-14 with etoposide (R-CHOEP) and 1 course of high-dose cytarabine with R. In addition, liposomal cytarabine was administered intrathecally at courses 1, 3, and 5. Coprimary endpoints were failure-free survival and CNS progression rates. Thirty-six (26%) patients experienced treatment failure. Progression occurred in 23 (16%) patients, including three (2.2%) CNS events. At 5 years of median follow-up, failure-free survival, overall survival, and CNS progression rates were 74%, 83%, and 2.3%, respectively. Treatment reduced the risk of progression compared with our previous trial, in which systemic CNS prophylaxis was given after 6 courses of biweekly R-CHOEP (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31-0.77; P=.002) and overcame the adverse impact of an aaIPI score of 3 on survival. In addition, outcome of the patients with BCL2/MYC double-hit lymphomas was comparable to the patients without the rearrangements. The results are encouraging, with a low toxic death rate, low number of CNS events, and favorable survival rates.
  • Adam, Rene; Yi, Bin; Innominato, Pasquale F.; Barroso, Eduardo; Laurent, Christophe; Giuliante, Felice; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Lapointe, Real; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Lopez-Ben, Santiago; Isoniemi, Helena; Hubert, Catherine; Lin, Jen-Kou; Gruenberger, Thomas; Elias, Dominique; Skipenko, Oleg G.; Guglielmi, Alfredo; LiverMetSurvey Int Contributing (2017)
    Purpose: Patient outcome after resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) following second-line preoperative chemotherapy (PCT) performed for insufficient response or toxicity of the first-line, is little known and has here been compared to the outcome following first-line. Patients and methods: From January 2005 to June 2013, 5624 and 791 consecutive patients of a prospective international cohort received 1 and 2 PCT lines before CLM resection (group 1 and 2, respectively). Survival and prognostic factors were analysed. Results: After a mean follow-up of 30.1 months, there was no difference in survival from CLM diagnosis (median, 3-, and 5-year overall survival [OS]: 58.6 months, 76% and 49% in group 2 versus 58.9 months, 71% and 49% in group 1, respectively, P = 0.32). After hepatectomy, disease-free survival (DFS) was however shorter in group 2: 17.2 months, 27% and 15% versus 19.4 months, 32% and 23%, respectively (P = 0.001). Among the initially unresectable patients of group 1 and 2, no statistical difference in OS or DFS was observed. Independent predictors of worse OS in group 2 were positive primary lymph nodes, extrahepatic disease, tumour progression on second line, R2 resection and number of hepatectomies/year Conclusion: CLM resection following second-line PCT, after oncosurgically favourable selection, could bring similar OS compared to what observed after first-line. For initially unresectable patients, OS or DFS is comparable between first-and second-line PCT. Surgery should not be denied after the failure of first-line chemotherapy. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Nordberg, Janne; Mpindi, John Patrick; Iljin, Kristiina; Pulliainen, Arto Tapio; Kallajoki, Markku; Kallioniemi, Olli; Elenius, Klaus; Elenius, Varpu (2012)