Browsing by Subject "PHENOLIC-COMPOUNDS"

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  • Virjamo, Virpi; Fyhrquist, Pia; Koskinen, Akseli; Lavola, Anu; Nissinen, Katri; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta (2020)
    Knowledge about the defensive chemistry of coniferous trees has increased in recent years regarding a number of alkaloid compounds; in addition to phenolics and terpenes. Here, we show that Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), an important boreal zone tree species; accumulates 1,6-dehydropinidine (2-methyl-6-(2-propenyl)-1,6-piperideine) in its needles and bark. We reanalyzed previously published GC-MS data to obtain a full picture of 1,6-dehydropinidine in P. abies. 1,6-dehydropinidine appeared to especially accumulate in developing spring shoots. We used solid-phase partitioning to collect the alkaloid fraction of the sprouts and thin-layer chromatography to purify 1,6-dehydropinidine. The antibacterial properties of the 1,6-dehydropinidine fraction were tested using a broth microdilution method; with Streptococcus equi subsp. equi as a model organism. Based on our results 1,6-dehydropinidine is common in alkaloid extractions from P. abies (0.4 +/- 0.03 mg g(-1) dw in mature needles) and it is especially abundant in young spruce shoots (2.7 +/- 0.5 mg g(-1) dw). Moreover; 1,6-dehydropinidine extracted from P. abies sprouts showed mild antibacterial potential against Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (MIC 55 mu g mL(-1)). The antibacterial activity of a plant compound thought of as an intermediate rather than an end-product of biosynthesis calls for more detailed studies regarding the biological function of these coniferous alkaloids
  • Noman, Omar M.; Herqash, Rashed N.; Shahat, Abdelaaty A.; Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Mechchate, Hamza; Almoqbil, Abdulaziz N.; Alqahtani, Ali S. (2022)
    Centaurea is one of the most important genera within the family Asteraceae. An investigation of the phytochemical composition of Centaurea bruguieriana using Gas-Chromatography coupled to Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC) and validated by molecular docking for the major compounds of the most active fraction (1,10-di-epi-cubenol and methyl 8-oxooctanoate) of C. bruguieriana against three bacterial receptors (TyrRS, DNA gyrase, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)). Evaluation of antioxidant activity was conducted using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 '-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify the contents of major compounds from ethyl acetate fraction (luteolin 7-O-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol and isorhamnetin). The antimicrobial activity test showed that the chloroform fraction was more active against all microbial strains. The results of the molecular docking of two major compounds from chloroform fraction showed that good affinities were made between 1,10-di-epi-cubenol and the three selected receptors (TyrRs: -6.0 Kcal/mol against -8.2 Kcal/mol obtained with clorobiocin (standard); DNA gyrase: -6.6 Kcal/mol against -9.1 Kcal/mole obtained with clorobiocin; DHFR: -7.4 Kcal/mol against -6.3 Kcal/mol obtained with SCHEMBL2181345 Standard). Antioxidant evaluation showed that the ethyl acetate fraction was the most active fraction in DPPH (IC50 49.4 mu g/mL) and ABTS (IC50 52.8 mu g/mL) models. HPLC results showed the contents of luteolin 7-O-glucoside (7.4 mu g/mg), and chlorogenic acid (3.2 mu g/mg). Our study demonstrated that C. bruguierana is a promising source of bioactive compounds.
  • Raudsepp, Piret; Koskar, Julia; Anton, Dea; Meremäe, Kadrin; Kapp, Karmen; Laurson, Peeter; Bleive, Uko; Kaldmäe, Hedi; Roasto, Mati; Püssa, Tõnu (2019)
    BACKGROUND It is important to find plant materials that can inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and other food-spoiling bacteria both in vitro and in situ. The aim of the study was to compare antibacterial and antioxidative activity of selected plant-ethanol infusions: leaves and berries of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.), berries of chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott) and blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. var. edulis); petioles and dark and light roots of garden rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum L.) for potential use in food matrices as antibacterial and antioxidative additives. RESULTS The strongest bacterial growth inhibition was observed in 96% ethanol infusions of the dark roots of rhubarbs. In 96% ethanol, nine out of ten studied plant infusions had antibacterial effect against L. monocytogenes, but in 20% ethanol only the infusions of dark rhubarb roots had a similar effect. Chokeberry and other berries had the highest antioxidative activity, both in 20% and 96% ethanol infusions. CONCLUSION The combination of dark rhubarb roots or petioles and berries of black chokeberry, blackcurrant or some other anthocyanin-rich berries would have potential as both antibacterial and antioxidative additives in food. (c) 2018 Society of Chemical Industry
  • Mauramo, Matti; Onali, Tuulia; Wahbi, Wafa; Vasara, Jenni; Lampinen, Anniina; Mauramo, Elina; Kivimäki, Anne; Martens, Stefan; Häggman, Hely; Sutinen, Meeri; Salo, Tuula (2021)
    Previous studies indicate that bilberry with high amounts of phenolic compounds can inhibit carcinogenic processes of colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. However, no studies have focused on the effects of bilberry on oral cancer. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of bilberry powder on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The effects of 0, 1, 10, and 25 mg/mL of whole bilberry powder on the viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of OSCC (HSC-3) cells were examined and compared with 0.01 mg/mL of cetuximab. Two oral keratinocyte cell lines served as controls. Tumor area was analyzed in zebrafish microinjected with HSC-3 cells and treated with 2.5, 10, or 25 mu g/mL of bilberry powder. Metastases in the head or tail areas were counted. Bilberry powder inhibited the viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of HSC-3 cells (p < 0.05), which was more pronounced with higher concentrations. Cetuximab had no effect on HSC-3 cell migration or invasion. Compared to controls, the tumor area in zebrafish treated with bilberry powder (10 and 25 mu g/mL) was reduced significantly (p = 0.038 and p = 0.021, respectively), but the number of fish with metastases did not differ between groups. Based on our in vitro and in vivo experiments, we conclude that whole bilberry powder has anti-tumor effects on OSCC cells.
  • Yilmaz-Turan, Secil; Jiménez-Quero, Amparo; Menzel, Carolin; Morais de Carvalho, Danila; Lindström, Mikael E.; Sevastyanova, Olena; Moriana, Rosana; Vilaplana, Francisco (2020)
    This study demonstrates the potential of feruloylated arabinoxylan (AX) from wheat bran for the preparation of bioactive barrier films with antioxidant properties. We have comprehensively evaluated the influence of the structural features and chemical acetylation of feruloylated AX extracted by subcritical water on their film properties, in comparison with alkaline extracted AX and a reference wheat endosperm AX. The degree of substitution (DS) of AX had a large influence on film formation, higher DS yielded better thermal and mechanical properties. The barrier properties of AX films were significantly enhanced by external plasticization by sorbitol. Chemical acetylation significantly improved the thermal stability but not the mechanical or barrier properties of the films. The presence of bound ferulic acid in feruloylated AX films resulted in higher antioxidant activity compared to external addition of free ferulic acid, which demonstrates their potential use in active packaging applications for the preservation of oxygen-sensitive foodstuff.
  • Virtanen, Tiina; Parkkila, Petteri; Koivuniemi, Artturi; Lahti, Jussi; Viitala, Tapani; Kallioinen, Mari; Mänttäri, Mika; Bunker, Alex (2018)
    Adsorptive fouling, by phenolic compounds, is a serious issue regarding the development and use of membrane based filtration technologies for water purification and wastewater treatment. We have developed a novel, combined, protocol of Raman spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments, along with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, to study the interaction of vanillin, a model phenolic compound, with the polyethersulfone (PES) surface of a membrane. The adsorption of vanillin to the PES surface was found to be highly pH dependent; the source of this was determined, by MD simulation, to be the stronger interaction with the protonated form of vanillin, predominant at low pH. Vanillin interacts with the PES surface, both through entropy driven, hydrophobic, interactions and, for the case of the protonated form, H-bonding of the hydroxyl group with the sulphur oxygens of the PES molecules. In addition to general insight into the fouling process that can be used to develop new methods to inhibit adsorptive fouling, our results also elucidate the specific interaction of the PES membrane with vanillin that can be used in the development of anti-fouling coatings, based on the structure of vanillin.
  • Damerau, Annelie; Kakko, Tanja; Tian, Ye; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Sandell, Mari; Hopia, Anu; Yang, Baoru (2020)
    A promising way of processing Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras, is turning the fish into boneless mince. However, Baltic herring is prone to lipid oxidation, which possesses a challenge for industrial applications. The aim of this work was to study the efficacy of press cakes from Finnish berries and a supercritical CO2 plant extract to limit lipid oxidation during frozen storage of Baltic herring mince and to determine the impact of these additions on consumer acceptance in a fish product. Peroxide value, formation of volatile oxidation products and loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids showed that the tested natural additives decreased oxidation to a greater or similar extent as conventional antioxidants during 10-month storage. While potential of berry press cakes and plant extracts as "green label antioxidants" was shown, consumer study indicated need for further research to reach both optimal antioxidative efficacy and sensory properties.
  • Koski, Tuuli-Marjaana; Kalpio, Marika; Laaksonen, Toni; Sirkiä, Päivi; Kallio, Heikki P.; Yang, Baoru; Linderborg, Kaisa M.; Klemola, Tero (2017)
    The evolutionary purpose of a fleshy fruit is to attract seed dispersers and get the seeds dispersed by frugivorous animals. For this reason, fruits should be highly rewarding to these mutualists. However, insect herbivory can alter plant reproductive success e.g. by decreasing fruit yield or affecting the attractiveness of the fruits to mutualistic seed dispersers. Under natural conditions, we tested the effects of experimental larval-defoliation on berry ripening and consumption of a non-cultivated dwarf shrub, the bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), which produces animal-dispersed berries with high sugar and anthocyanin concentration. Bilberry ramets with high fruit yield were most likely to have their berries foraged, indicating that frugivores made foraging choices based on the abundance of berries. Moreover, the probability for berries being foraged was the lowest for non-defoliated ramets that grew adjacent to larval-defoliated ramets, even though larval-defoliation did not affect the biochemical composition (total concentrations of anthocyanins, sugars and organic acids) or the probability of ripening of berries. We hypothesise that the lower probability for berries being foraged in these ramets may be a consequence of rhizome- or volatile-mediated communication between ramets, resulting in a priming effect of the herbivore defence and lower attractiveness of the non-defoliated ramets.
  • Dou, Jinze; Chandgude, Vijaya; Vuorinen, Tapani; Bankar, Sandip; Hietala, Sami; Huy Quang Le (2021)
    Aiming to understand the importance of debarking on the controlled utilization of phenolic-rich willow biomass, biobutanol was produced from it by using Clostridium acetobutylicum. Acid-catalysed steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) were investigated before the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The hydrolysable sugar yield and ABE fermentation efficiency were found to decline progressively from willow wood (WW) to HWE WB (hot water extracted willow biomass), WB (willow biomass) and the WW + HWE (willow wood plus the artificial willow bark water extracts), indicating that the pre-removal of water extracts or the bark can significantly improve ABE yield. Notably, the ABE productivity of WW achieved 12.7 g/L at the solvent yield of 31%, and the butanol concentration (i.e. 8.5 g/L) generated by WW is relatively high among the reported lignocellulosic-derived biomass. Additionally, it is hypothesized that under acidic conditions and high temperatures the fructose present in willow water extracts form hydroxymethylfurfural during steam explosion, which then spontaneously condenses with phenolic substances of willow bark to form a solid furanic precipitate. The formed furanic precipitates play inhibitory role in the enzymatic hydrolysis and are thereby deleterious to the ABE fermentation.
  • Korpela, Bei; Pitkänen, Leena; Heinonen, Marina (2022)
    The effect of enzyme treatment on protein-tannin interactions was investigated using up-to-date analytical approaches for improving their physical properties. The formation of ligands between procyanidin B2 and native oat globulin (OG) was observed to be affected by the ratio of procyanidin B2 to OG and the availability of tryptophan. For the transglutaminase-treated OG, the results obtained from circular dichroism (CD) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) revealed that procyanidin B2 acted as an acyl acceptor in the process of OG deamidation. Procyanidin B2 also inhibited the non-covalent protein-protein interactions occurring between the aromatic side-chains or sedimentation of tryptophan aggregates. For trypsin-treated OG, procyanidin B2 interacted with phenylalanine and the tryptophan side-chain of OG. The inhibition of procyanidin B2 towards protein-protein aggregation was proved by the observation of CD, SEC and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation.
  • Wang, Yaqin; Tuccillo, Fabio; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Knaapila, Antti; Pulkkinen, Marjo; Kariluoto, Susanna; Coda, Rossana; Edelmann, Minnamari; Jouppila, Kirsi; Sandell, Mari; Piironen, Vieno; Katina, Kati (2022)
    Demand for plant-based meat alternatives has increased in recent years due to concerns about health, ethics, the environment, and animal welfare. Nevertheless, the market share of plant-based meat alternatives must increase significantly if they are to support sustainable food production and consumption. Flavor is an important limiting factor of the acceptability and marketability of plant-based meat alternatives. Undesirable chemosensory perceptions, such as a beany flavor, bitter taste, and astringency, are often associated with plant proteins and products that use them. This study reviewed 276 articles to answer the following five research questions: (1) What are the volatile and nonvolatile compounds responsible for off-flavors? (2) What are the mechanisms by which these flavor compounds are generated? (3) What is the influence of thermal extrusion cooking (the primary structuring technique to transform plant proteins into fibrous products that resemble meat in texture) on the flavor characteristics of plant proteins? (4) What techniques are used in measuring the flavor properties of plant-based proteins and products? (5) What strategies can be used to reduce off-flavors and improve the sensory appeal of plant-based meat alternatives? This article comprehensively discusses, for the first time, the flavor issues of plant-based meat alternatives and the technologies available to improve flavor and, ultimately, acceptability.
  • Molmann, Jorgen A. B.; Dalmannsdottir, Sigridur; Hykkerud, Anne Linn; Hytönen, Timo; Samkumar, Amos; Jaakola, Laura (2021)
    The natural light conditions above the Arctic Circle are unique in terms of annual variation creating special growth conditions for crop production. These include low solar elevations, very long daily photosynthetic light periods, midnight sun/absence of dark nights, and altered spectral distribution depending on solar elevation. All these factors are known to affect the growth and the metabolism of plants, although their influence on northern crop plants has not yet been reviewed. The ongoing global warming is especially affecting the temperature x light interactions in the Arctic, and understanding the impact on crop production and plant metabolism will be important for an Arctic contribution to global food production. Arctic light conditions have a strong influence on the timing of plant development, which together with temperature limits the number of cultivars suitable for Arctic agriculture. This review compiles information from the reports about the effects of light conditions at high latitudes on growth, biomass production, flowering and quality of the crop plants and discusses the gained knowledge and the key gaps to be addressed.
  • Lan, Hangzhen; Salmi, Leo D.; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Jussila, Matti; Hartonen, Kari; Kemell, Marianna; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2018)
    New chemical vapor reaction (CVR) and atomic layer deposition (ALD)-conversion methods were utilized for preparation of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) coatings of solid phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow for the first time. With simple, easy and convenient one-step reaction or conversion, four MOF coatings were made by suspend ALD iron oxide (Fe2O3) film or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) film above terephthalic acid (H2BDC) or trimesic acid (H3BTC) vapor. UIO-66 coating was made by zirconium (Zr)-BDC film in acetic acid vapor. As the first documented instance of all-gas phase synthesis of SPME Arrow coatings, preparation parameters including CVR/conversion time and temperature, acetic acid volume, and metal oxide film/metal-ligand films thickness were investigated. The optimal coatings exhibited crystalline structures, excellent uniformity, satisfactory thickness (2-7.5 μm), and high robustness (>80 times usage). To study the practical usefulness of the coatings for the extraction, several analytes with different chemical properties were tested. The Fe-BDC coating was found to be the most selective and sensitive for the determination of benzene ring contained compounds due to its highly hydrophobic surface and unsaturated metal site. UIO-66 coating was best for small polar, aromatic, and long chain polar compounds owing to its high porosity. The usefulness of new coatings were evaluated for gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) determination of several analytes, present in wastewater samples at three levels of concentration, and satisfactory results were achieved.
  • Paaso, Ulla; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Keinänen, Markku; Karvinen, Heini; Silfver, Tarja; Rousi, Matti; Mikola, Juha (2017)
    Abundant secondary metabolites, such as condensed tannins, and their interpopulation genotypic variation can remain through plant leaf senescence and affect litter decomposition. Whether the intrapopulation genotypic variation of a more diverse assortment of secondary metabolites equally persists through leaf senescence and litter decomposition is not well understood. We analyzed concentrations of intracellular phenolics, epicuticular flavonoid aglycones, epicuticular triterpenoids, condensed tannins, and lignin in green leaves, senescent leaves and partly decomposed litter of silver birch, Betula pendula. Broad-sense heritability (H-2) and coefficient of genotypic variation (CVG) were estimated for metabolites in senescent leaves and litter using 19 genotypes selected from a B. pendula population in southern Finland. We found that most of the secondary metabolites remained through senescence and decomposition and that their persistence was related to their chemical properties. Intrapopulation H-2 and CVG for intracellular phenolics, epicuticular flavonoid aglycones and condensed tannins were high and remarkably, increased from senescent leaves to decomposed litter. The rank of genotypes in metabolite concentrations was persistent through litter decomposition. Lignin was an exception, however, with a diminishing genotypic variation during decomposition, and the concentrations of lignin and condensed tannins had a negative genotypic correlation in the senescent leaves. Our results show that secondary metabolites and their intrapopulation genotypic variation can for the most part remain through leaf senescence and early decomposition, which is a prerequisite for initial litter quality to predict variation in litter decomposition rates. Persistent genotypic variation also opens an avenue for selection to impact litter decomposition in B. pendula populations through acting on their green foliage secondary chemistry. The negative genotypic correlations and diminishing heritability of lignin concentrations may, however, counteract this process.
  • Arora, Himanshu; Sharma, Abhishek; Poczai, Peter; Sharma, Satyawati; Haron, Farah Farhanah; Gafur, Abdul; Sayyed, R. Z. (2022)
    Fungal infections transmitted through the soil continue to pose a threat to a variety of horticultural and agricultural products, including tomato and chilli. The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides has resulted in a slew of unintended consequences for the surrounding ecosystem. To achieve sustainable productivity, experts have turned their attention to natural alternatives. Due to their biodegradability, varied mode of action, and minimal toxicity to non-target organisms, plant-derived protectants (PDPs) are being hailed as a superior replacement for plant pesticides. This review outlines PDPs' critical functions (including formulations) in regulating soil-borne fungal diseases, keeping tomato and chilli pathogens in the spotlight. An in-depth examination of the impact of PDPs on pathogen activity will be a priority. Additionally, this review emphasises the advantages of the in silico approach over conventional approaches for screening plants' secondary metabolites with target-specific fungicidal activity. Despite the recent advances in our understanding of the fungicidal capabilities of various PDPs, it is taking much longer for that information to be applied to commercially available pesticides. The restrictions to solving this issue can be lifted by breakthroughs in formulation technology, governmental support, and a willingness to pursue green alternatives among farmers and industries.
  • Abidizadegan, Maryam; Blomster, Jaanika; Fewer, David; Peltomaa, Elina (2022)
    Simple Summary In recent decades, the demand for natural and sustainable bioproducts has risen markedly. Accordingly, microalgae have received much attention as a promising biological resource with great industrial potential, since the microalgal production of biologically active compounds can be boosted by changing their cultivation conditions. Light is one of the key factors in the photosynthetic process, which directly affects cell division and the production of biochemical compounds. This study investigated the effect of light color and the species-specific capability of cryptophyte algae to produce phycoerythrin, phenolic compounds, and exopolysaccharides. The produced biomolecules were further studied for their antioxidant activity. The results showed that changes in light quality significantly affect the biochemical compositions of cryptophyte algae. Moreover, species-specific responses to changes in light quality were identified. The quantity and quality of derived biomolecules from the studied cryptophytes are remarkable and indicate that cryptophytes could be considered promising candidates for producing natural biochemical products for practical applications in various industry sectors, such as food, pharmacy, and cosmetics. The accumulation and production of biochemical compounds in microalgae are influenced by available light quality and algal species-specific features. In this study, four freshwater cryptophyte strains (Cryptomonas ozolinii, C. pyrenoidifera, C. curvata, and C. sp. (CPCC 336)) and one marine strain (Rhodomonas salina) were cultivated under white (control), blue, and green (experimental conditions) lights. Species-specific responses to light quality were detected, i.e., the color of light significantly affected cryptophyte biomass productivity and biochemical compositions, but the optimal light for the highest chemical composition with high antioxidant capacity was different for each algal strain. Overall, the highest phycoerythrin (PE) content (345 mg g(-1) dry weight; DW) was reached by C. pyrenoidifera under green light. The highest phenolic (PC) contents (74, 69, and 66 mg g(-1) DW) were detected in C. curvata under control conditions, in C. pyrenoidifera under green light, and in C. ozolinii under blue light, respectively. The highest exopolysaccharide (EPS) content (452 mg g(-1) DW) was found in C. curvata under the control light. In terms of antioxidant activity, the biochemical compounds from the studied cryptophytes were highly active, with IC50 -values < 50 mu g mL(-1). Thus, in comparison to well-known commercial microalgal species, cryptophytes could be considered a possible candidate for producing beneficial biochemical compounds.
  • Prescott, Cindy E.; Grayston, Sue J.; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Kastovska, Eva; Körner, Christian; Lambers, Hans; Meier, Ina C.; Millard, Peter; Ostonen, Ivika (2020)
    Plant growth is usually constrained by the availability of nutrients, water, or temperature, rather than photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation. Under these conditions leaf growth is curtailed more than C fixation, and the surplus photosynthates are exported from the leaf. In plants limited by nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P), photosynthates are converted into sugars and secondary metabolites. Some surplus C is translocated to roots and released as root exudates or transferred to root-associated microorganisms. Surplus C is also produced under low moisture availability, low temperature, and high atmospheric CO2 concentrations, with similar below-ground effects. Many interactions among above- and below-ground ecosystem components can be parsimoniously explained by the production, distribution, and release of surplus C under conditions that limit plant growth.
  • Manner, Suvi; Skogman, Malena; Goeres, Darla; Vuorela, Pia; Fallarero, Adyary (2013)
  • Kara, Mohammed; Assouguem, Amine; Al Kamaly, Omkulthom Mohamed; Benmessaoud, Safaa; Imtara, Hamada; Mechchate, Hamza; Hano, Christophe; Zerhouni, Abdou Rachid; Bahhou, Jamila (2021)
    Apple vinegar is a natural product widely used in food and traditional medicine as it contains many bioactive compounds. The apple variety and production methods are two factors that play a major role in determining the quality of vinegar. Therefore, this study aims to determine the quality of apple vinegar samples from different varieties (Red Delicious, Gala, Golden Delicious, and Starking Delicious) prepared by three methods using small apple pieces, apple juice, and crushed apple, through determining the physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity of these samples. The antibacterial activity was studied against five pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli (ATB: 57), Escherichia coli (ATB: 97), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using two methods, disk diffusion and microdilution, for determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations and the minimum bactericidal concentrations. The results of this study showed that the lowest pH value was 3.6 for Stark Delicious, obtained by liquid fermentation, and the highest acetic acid values were 4.7 and 4% for the vinegar of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, prepared by solid fermentation, respectively. The results of the antibacterial activity showed considerable activity of apple vinegar on the tested strains. Generally, the Staphylococcus aureus strain appears less sensitive and Pseudomonas aeruginosa seems to be very sensitive against all samples, while the other strains have distinct sensitivities depending on the variety studied and the method used. A higher antibacterial activity was found in vinegar obtained by the apple pieces method and the Red Delicious variety, with a low MIC and MBC recorded, at 1.95 and 3.90 mu L/mL, respectively. This study has shown that the choice of both apple variety and production method is therefore an essential step in determining and aiming for the desired quality of apple vinegar.