Browsing by Subject "PHENOLOGY"

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  • Torresan, Chiara; Benito Garzón, Marta; O’Grady, Michael; Robson, Thomas Matthew; Picchi, Gianni; Panzacchi, Pietro; Tomelleri, Enrico; Smith, Melanie; Marshall, John; Wingate, Lisa; Tognetti, Roberto; Rustad, Lindsey E.; Kneeshaw, Dan (2021)
    Climate-smart forestry (CSF) is an emerging branch of sustainable adaptive forest management aimed at enhancing the potential of forests to adapt to and mitigate climate change. It relies on much higher data requirements than traditional forestry. These data requirements can be met by new devices that support continuous, in situ monitoring of forest conditions in real time. We propose a comprehensive network of sensors, i.e., a wireless sensor network (WSN), that can be part of a worldwide network of interconnected uniquely addressable objects, an Internet of Things (IoT), which can make data available in near real time to multiple stakeholders, including scientists, foresters, and forest managers, and may partially motivate citizens to participate in big data collection. The use of in situ sources of monitoring data as ground-truthed training data for remotely sensed data can boost forest monitoring by increasing the spatial and temporal scales of the monitoring, leading to a better understanding of forest processes and potential threats. Here, some of the key developments and applications of these sensors are outlined, together with guidelines for data management. Examples are given of their deployment to detect early warning signals (EWS) of ecosystem regime shifts in terms of forest productivity, health, and biodiversity. Analysis of the strategic use of these tools highlights the opportunities for engaging citizens and forest managers in this new generation of forest monitoring.
  • Linek, Nils; Brzek, Pawel; Gienapp, Phillip; O'Mara, M. Teague; Pokrovsky, Ivan; Schmidt, Andreas; Shipley, J. Ryan; Taylor, Jan R. E.; Tiainen, Juha; Volkmer, Tamara; Wikelski, Martin; Partecke, Jesko (2021)
    Background Many birds species range over vast geographic regions and migrate seasonally between their breeding and overwintering sites. Deciding when to depart for migration is one of the most consequential life-history decisions an individual may make. However, it is still not fully understood which environmental cues are used to time the onset of migration and to what extent their relative importance differs across a range of migratory strategies. We focus on departure decisions of a songbird, the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula, in which selected Russian and Polish populations are full migrants which travel relatively long-distances, whereas Finnish and German populations exhibit partial migration with shorter migration distances. Methods We used telemetry data from the four populations (610 individuals) to determine which environmental cues individuals from each population use to initiate their autumn migration. Results When departing, individuals in all populations selected nights with high atmospheric pressure and minimal cloud cover. Fully migratory populations departed earlier in autumn, at longer day length, at higher ambient temperatures, and during nights with higher relative atmospheric pressure and more supportive winds than partial migrants; however, they did not depart in higher synchrony. Thus, while all studied populations used the same environmental cues, they used population-specific and locally tuned thresholds to determine the day of departure. Conclusions Our data support the idea that migratory timing is controlled by general, species-wide mechanisms, but fine-tuned thresholds in response to local conditions.
  • Radchuk, Viktoriia; Reed, Thomas; Teplitsky, Celine; van de Pol, Martijn; Charmantier, Anne; Hassall, Christopher; Adamik, Peter; Adriaensen, Frank; Ahola, Markus P.; Arcese, Peter; Miguel Aviles, Jesus; Balbontin, Javier; Berg, Karl S.; Borras, Antoni; Burthe, Sarah; Clobert, Jean; Dehnhard, Nina; de Lope, Florentino; Dhondt, Andre A.; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Doi, Hideyuki; Eeva, Tapio; Fickel, Joerns; Filella, Iolanda; Fossoy, Frode; Goodenough, Anne E.; Hall, Stephen J. G.; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael; Hasselquist, Dennis; Hickler, Thomas; Joshi, Jasmin; Kharouba, Heather; Gabriel Martinez, Juan; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Mills, James A.; Molina-Morales, Mercedes; Moksnes, Arne; Ozgul, Arpat; Parejo, Deseada; Pilard, Philippe; Poisbleau, Maud; Rousset, Francois; Roedel, Mark-Oliver; Scott, David; Carlos Senar, Juan; Stefanescu, Constanti; Stokke, Bard G.; Kusano, Tamotsu; Tarka, Maja; Tarwater, Corey E.; Thonicke, Kirsten; Thorley, Jack; Wilting, Andreas; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Merilä, Juha; Sheldon, Ben C.; Moller, Anders Pape; Matthysen, Erik; Janzen, Fredric; Dobson, F. Stephen; Visser, Marcel E.; Beissinger, Steven R.; Courtiol, Alexandre; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie (2019)
    Biological responses to climate change have been widely documented across taxa and regions, but it remains unclear whether species are maintaining a good match between phenotype and environment, i.e. whether observed trait changes are adaptive. Here we reviewed 10,090 abstracts and extracted data from 71 studies reported in 58 relevant publications, to assess quantitatively whether phenotypic trait changes associated with climate change are adaptive in animals. A meta-analysis focussing on birds, the taxon best represented in our dataset, suggests that global warming has not systematically affected morphological traits, but has advanced phenological traits. We demonstrate that these advances are adaptive for some species, but imperfect as evidenced by the observed consistent selection for earlier timing. Application of a theoretical model indicates that the evolutionary load imposed by incomplete adaptive responses to ongoing climate change may already be threatening the persistence of species.
  • Lundell, Robin; Hänninen, Heikki; Saarinen, Timo; Åström, Helena; Zhang, Rui (2020)
    Bud dormancy of plants has traditionally been explained either by physiological growth arresting conditions in the bud or by unfavourable environmental conditions, such as non-growth-promoting low air temperatures. This conceptual dichotomy has provided the framework also for developing process-based plant phenology models. Here, we propose a novel model that in addition to covering the classical dichotomy as a special case also allows the quantification of an interaction of physiological and environmental factors. According to this plant-environment interaction suggested conceptually decades ago, rather than being unambiguous, the concept of "non-growth-promoting low air temperature" depends on the dormancy status of the plant. We parameterized the model with experimental results of growth onset for seven boreal plant species and found that based on the strength of the interaction, the species can be classified into three dormancy types, only one of which represents the traditional dichotomy. We also tested the model with four species in an independent experiment. Our study suggests that interaction of environmental and physiological factors may be involved in many such phenomena that have until now been considered simply as plant traits without any considerations of effects of the environmental factors.
  • Weisshaupt, Nadja; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Mäkinen, Terhi; Koistinen, Jarmo (2021)
    Millions of bird observations have been entered on online portals in the past 20 years either as checklists or arbitrary individual entries. While several hundred publications have been written on a variety of topics based on bird checklists worldwide, unstructured non-checklist observations have received little attention and praise by academia. In the present study we tested the suitability of non-checklist data to estimate key figures of large-scale migration phenology in four zones covering the whole of Finland. For that purpose, we analysed 10 years of ornithological non-checklist data including over 400 million. individuals of 115 bird species. We discuss bird- and human-induced effects to be considered in handling non-checklist data in this context and describe applied methodologies to address these effects. We calculated 5%, 50% and 95% percentile dates of spring and autumn migration period for all species in all four zones. For validation purposes we compared the temporal distributions of 43 bird species with migration phenology from standardized long-term ringing data in autumn of which 24 species (56%) showed similar medians. In a model approach, non-checklist data successfully revealed latitudinal migration progression in spring and autumn. Overall, non-checklist data proved to be well suited to determine descriptors of migration phenology in Northern Europe which are challenging to attain by any other currently available means. The effort-to-yield ratio of data processing was commensurate to the outcomes. The unprecedented spatiotemporal coverage makes non-checklist data a valuable complement to current migration databases from bird observatories. The basic concept of the present methodology is applicable to data from other bird portals, if combined with local field ornithological knowledge and literature. Species-specific descriptors of migration phenology can be potentially used in climate change studies and to support echo interpretation in radar ornithology.
  • Peltomaa, Elina; Ojala, Anne; Holopainen, Anna-Liisa; Salonen, Kalevi (2013)
  • Mõttus, Matti; Aragão, Luiz; Bäck, Jaana; Clemente, Rocío Hernandez; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Markiet, Vincent Robert Leon; Nichol, Caroline; Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia (2019)
    The spectral properties of plant leaves relate to the state of their photosynthetic apparatus and the surrounding environment. An example is the well known photosynthetic downregulation, active on the time scale from minutes to hours, caused by reversible changes in the xanthophyll cycle pigments. These changes affect leaf spectral absorption and are frequently quantified using the photochemical reflectance index (PRI). This index can be used to remotely monitor the photosynthetic status of vegetation, and allows for a global satellite-based measurement of photosynthesis. Such earth observation satellites in near-polar orbits usually cover the same geographical location at the same local solar time at regular intervals. To facilitate the interpretation of these instantaneous remote PRI measurements and upscale them temporally, we measured the daily course of leaf PRI in two evergreen biomes—a European boreal forest and an Amazon rainforest. The daily course of PRI was different for the two locations: At the Amazonian forest, the PRI of Manilkara elata leaves was correlated with the average photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) ( R2=0.59 ) of the 40 minutes preceding the leaf measurement. In the boreal location, the variations in Pinus sylvestris needle PRI were only weakly ( R2=0.27) correlated with mean PPFD of the preceding two hours; for Betula pendula, the correlation was insignificant regardless of the averaging period. The measured daily PRI curves were specific to species and/or environmental conditions. Hence, for a proper interpretation of satellite-measured instantaneous photosynthesis, the scaling of PRI measurements should be supported with information on its correlation with PPFD.
  • Blomberg, Anna S.; Vasko, Ville; Salonen, Saku; Petersons, Gunars; Lilley, Thomas M. (2021)
    Highly mobile species are considered to be the first to respond to climate change by transforming their ranges of distribution. There is evidence suggesting that Pipistrellus nathusii, a species capable of long-distance migration, is expanding both its reproduction and overwintering ranges to the North. We recorded the echolocation calls of bats at 16 sites in South-Western Finland on two consecutive winters, and detected calls of P. nathusii at one of the sites throughout the second winter. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost record of an overwintering P. nathusii, and contributes to evidence that the species is already responding to climate change.
  • Nunes, Matheus; Camargo, José Luís Campana; Vincent, Gregoire; Calders, Kim; Oliveira, Rafael; Huete, Alfredo; Moura, Yhasmin Mende; Nelson, Bruce; Smith, Marielle; Stark, Scott; Maeda, Eduardo (2022)
    Predictions of the magnitude and timing of leaf phenology in Amazonian forests remain highly controversial. Here, we use terrestrial LiDAR surveys every two weeks spanning wet and dry seasons in Central Amazonia to show that plant phenology varies strongly across vertical strata in old-growth forests, but is sensitive to disturbances arising from forest fragmentation. In combination with continuous microclimate measurements, we find that when maximum daily temperatures reached 35 °C in the latter part of the dry season, the upper canopy of large trees in undisturbed forests lost plant material. In contrast, the understory greened up with increased light availability driven by the upper canopy loss, alongside increases in solar radiation, even during periods of drier soil and atmospheric conditions. However, persistently high temperatures in forest edges exacerbated the upper canopy losses of large trees throughout the dry season, whereas the understory in these light-rich environments was less dependent on the altered upper canopy structure. Our findings reveal a strong influence of edge effects on phenological controls in wet forests of Central Amazonia.
  • Zhang, Zhixin; Mammola, Stefano; Xian, Weiwei; Zhang, Hui (2020)
    Aim Species distribution models (SDMs) are an effective tool to explore the potential distribution of terrestrial, freshwater and marine organisms; however, SDMs have been seldom used to model ichthyoplankton distributions, and thus, our understanding of how larval stages of fishes will respond to climate change is still limited. Here, we developed SDMs to explore potential impacts of climate change on habitat suitability of ichthyoplankton. Location Yangtze Estuary, China. Methods Using long-term ichthyoplankton survey data and a large set of marine predictor variables, we developed ensemble SDMs for five abundant ichthyoplankton species in the Yangtze Estuary (Coilia mystus, Hypoatherina valenciennei, Larimichthys polyactis, Salanx ariakensis and Chelidonichthys spinosus). Then, we projected their habitat suitability under present and future climate conditions. Results The ensemble SDMs had good predictive performance and were successful in estimating the known distributions of the five species. Model projections highlighted two contrasting patterns of response to future climates: while C. mystus will likely expand its range, the ranges of the other four species will likely contract and shift northward. Main conclusions According to our SDM projections, the five ichthyoplankton species that we tested in the Yangtze Estuary are likely to respond differently to future climate changes. These projected different responses seemingly reflect the differential functional attributes and life-history strategies of these species. To the extent that climate change emerges as a critical driver of the future distribution of these species, our findings provide an important roadmap for designing future conservation strategies for ichthyoplankton in this region.
  • Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Virkkala, Raimo (2016)
    There is increasing evidence that climate change shifts species distributions towards poles and mountain tops. However, most studies are based on presence-absence data, and either abundance or the observation effort has rarely been measured. In addition, hardly any studies have investigated the direction of shifts and factors affecting them. Here, we show using count data on a 1000km south-north gradient in Finland, that between 1970-1989 and 2000-2012, 128 bird species shifted their densities, on average, 37km towards the north north-east. The species-specific directions of the shifts in density were significantly explained by migration behaviour and habitat type. Although the temperatures have also moved on average towards the north north-east (186km), the species-specific directions of the shifts in density and temperature did not correlate due to high variation in density shifts. Findings highlight that climate change is unlikely the only driver of the direction of species density shifts, but species-specific characteristics and human land-use practices are also influencing the direction. Furthermore, the alarming results show that former climatic conditions in the north-west corner of Finland have already moved out of the country. This highlights the need for an international approach in research and conservation actions to mitigate the impacts of climate change.
  • Abera, Temesgen Alemayehu; Heiskanen, Janne Hermanni; Pellikka, Petri Kauko Emil; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji (2018)
    Climate–vegetation interaction can be perturbed by human activities through deforestation and natural extreme climatic events. These perturbations can affect the energy and water balance, exacerbating heat stress associated with droughts. Such phenomena are particularly relevant in the Horn of Africa, given its economic and social vulnerability to environmental changes. In this paper, we used 16-year time series (2001–2016) of remotely sensed environmental data with the objective of 1) clarifying how rainfall–vegetation interaction affects land surface temperature (LST) seasonality across the Horn of Africa, and 2) evaluating how this interaction affects LST anomalies during forest loss and drought events. Our results showed that vegetation seasonality follows rainfall modality patterns in 81% of the region. On the other hand, seasonality of daytime LST was negatively related to vegetation greenness patterns across ecoregions, and rainfall modality. LST varied more strongly in grasslands and shrublands than over other vegetation classes. Comparison of LST before and after forest loss in three selected areas (two in Ethiopia and one in Kenya) revealed an annual average increase in LST of 0.7 °C, 1.8 °C, and 0.2 °C after climate variability correction, respectively. The average increase in LST was relatively high and consistent during dry months (1.5 °C, 3 °C, and 0.6 °C). As expected, the rainfall anomalies during droughts (2010/2011, 2015, and 2016) were positively correlated with vegetation greenness anomalies. Nonetheless, the degree with which vegetation cover is affected by extreme rainfall events has a strong influence in regulating the impact of droughts on temperature anomalies. This highlights the importance of vegetation resilience and land cover management in regulating the impact of extreme events.
  • Garate-Escamilla, Homero; Hampe, Arndt; Vizcaino-Palomar, Natalia; Robson, T. Matthew; Garzon, Marta Benito (2019)
    Aim To better understand and more realistically predict future species distribution ranges, it is critical to account for local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in populations' responses to climate. This is challenging because local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity are trait-dependent and traits covary along climatic gradients, with differential consequences for fitness. Our aim is to quantify local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity of vertical and radial growth, leaf flushing and survival across the range of Fagus sylvatica and to estimate the contribution of each trait to explaining the species' occurrence. Location Europe. Time period 1995-2014; 2070. Major taxa studied Fagus sylvatica L. Methods We used vertical and radial growth, flushing phenology and mortality of F. sylvatica L. recorded in the BeechCOSTe52 database (>150,000 trees). Firstly, we performed linear mixed-effect models that related trait variation and covariation to local adaptation (related to the planted populations' climatic origin) and phenotypic plasticity (accounting for the climate of the plantation), and we made spatial predictions under current and representative concentration pathway (RCP 8.5) climates. Secondly, we combined spatial trait predictions in a linear model to explain the occurrence of the species. Results The contribution of plasticity to intraspecific trait variation is always higher than that of local adaptation, suggesting that the species is less sensitive to climate change than expected; different traits constrain beech's distribution in different parts of its range: the northernmost edge is mainly delimited by flushing phenology (mostly driven by photoperiod and temperature), the southern edge by mortality (mainly driven by intolerance to drought), and the eastern edge is characterized by decreasing radial growth (mainly shaped by precipitation-related variables in our model); considering trait covariation improved single-trait predictions. Main conclusions Population responses to climate across large geographical gradients are dependent on trait x environment interactions, indicating that each trait responds differently depending on the local environment.
  • Alekseychik, P. K.; Korrensalo, A.; Mammarella, I.; Vesala, Timo; Tuittila, E. -S. (2017)
    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter in natural ecosystems, representing the seasonal development of vegetation and photosynthetic potential. However, direct measurement techniques require labor-intensive field campaigns that are usually limited in time, while remote sensing approaches often do not yield reliable estimates. Here we propose that the bulk LAI of sedges (LAI(s)) can be estimated alternatively from a micrometeorological parameter, the aerodynamic roughness length for momentum (z(0)). z(0) can be readily calculated from high-response turbulence and other meteorological data, typically measured continuously and routinely available at ecosystem research sites. The regressions of LAI versus z(0) were obtained using the data from two Finnish natural sites representative of boreal fen and bog ecosystems. LAI(s) was found to be well correlated with z(0) and sedge canopy height. Superior method performance was demonstrated in the fen ecosystem where the sedges make a bigger contribution to overall surface roughness than in bogs.
  • Viitaniemi, Heidi M.; Verhagen, Irene; Visser, Marcel E.; Honkela, Antti; van Oers, Kees; Husby, Arild (2019)
    In seasonal environments, timing of reproduction is a trait with important fitness consequences, but we know little about the molecular mechanisms that underlie the variation in this trait. Recently, several studies put forward DNA methylation as a mechanism regulating seasonal timing of reproduction in both plants and animals. To understand the involvement of DNA methylation in seasonal timing of reproduction, it is necessary to examine within-individual temporal changes in DNA methylation, but such studies are very rare. Here, we use a temporal sampling approach to examine changes in DNA methylation throughout the breeding season in female great tits (Parus major) that were artificially selected for early timing of breeding. These females were housed in climate-controlled aviaries and subjected to two contrasting temperature treatments. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing on red blood cell derived DNA showed genome-wide temporal changes in more than 40,000 out of the 522,643 CpG sites examined. Although most of these changes were relatively small (mean within-individual change of 6%), the sites that showed a temporal and treatment-specific response in DNA methylation are candidate sites of interest for future studies trying to understand the link between DNA methylation patterns and timing of reproduction.
  • Rautiainen, Miina; Lukes, Petr (2015)
    Boreal forests exhibit strong seasonal dynamics in their reflectance spectra during the short, snow-free growing period. This short communication paper reports an analysis of the seasonality of boreal forest spectra from the end of snowmelt until the time of maximal leaf area. We apply a forest reflectance model (FRT) to estimate the seasonal contribution of understow vegetation to forest reflectance from a time series of three Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion images acquired in May, June and July. The reflectance simulations are based on detailed seasonal series of leaf area index and understory spectra measurements carried out in ten stands at the Hyytiala Forestry Field Station in Finland. Our results show that the contribution of understory to boreal forest reflectance is high in the visible domain, but it drops at the red edge and stays relatively low and constant in near infrared (NIR). Throughout the growing season, the contribution of the understory remains approximately the same in the NIR domain, whereas larger changes can be observed in the visible domain. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Santangeli, Andrea; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Bock, Anna; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Girardello, Marco; Valkama, Jari (2018)
    Climate change is triggering adaptation by people and wildlife. The speed and magnitude of these responses may disrupt ecological equilibria and potentially cause further biodiversity losses, but this has rarely been studied. Species inhabiting human-dominated landscapes may be particularly negatively affected by human adaptations to climate change. This could be, for example, the case of ground-nesting farmland birds, a group of highly vulnerable species that may be impacted by shifts in the timing of mechanical farming operations in response to climate change. Here we aim to explore whether trends in phenology of breeding ground-nesting birds differ from those of farming practices, and whether differences lead to the emergence of phenological mistiming with detrimental consequences to the birds. To achieve our objective, we tan linear mixed effects models using a 38 year dataset on onset of farming practices (i.e. sowing dates) and laying date of two endangered ground-nesting farmland birds (Northern lapwing and Eurasian curlew) in Finland. We found that timing of farming practices advanced slower than birds nesting phenology, with birds progressively starting nesting before fields are sown. These nests are at high risk of destruction from incoming sowing operations. The results highlight the importance of considering human adaptation responses, in addition to those of wildlife, for implementing species conservation in managed landscapes under climate change.
  • Gehrmann, Friederike; Lehtimäki, Iida-Maria; Hänninen, Heikki; Saarinen, Timo (2020)
    In tundra ecosystems, snow cover protects plants from low temperatures in winter and buffers temperature fluctuations in spring. Climate change may lead to reduced snowfall and earlier snowmelt, potentially exposing plants to more frequent and more severe frosts in the future. Frost can cause cell damage and, in combination with high solar irradiance, reduce the photochemical yield of photosystem II (phi(PSII)). Little is known about the natural variation in frost exposure within individual habitats of tundra plant populations and the populations' resilience to this climatic variation. Here, we assessed how natural differences in snowmelt timing affect microclimatic variability of frost exposure in habitats of the evergreenVaccinium vitis-idaeain sub-Arctic alpine Finland and whether this variability affects the extent of cell damage and reduction in phi(PSII). Plants in early melting plots were exposed to more frequent and more severe frost events, and exhibited a more pronounced decrease in phi(PSII), during winter and spring compared to plants in late-melting plots. Snowmelt timing did not have a clear effect on the degree of cell damage as assessed by relative electrolyte leakage. Our results show that sub-Arctic alpineV. vitis-idaeais currently exposed to strong climatic variation on a small spatial scale, similar to that projected to be caused by climate change, without significant resultant damage. We conclude thatV. vitis-idaeais effective in mitigating the effects of large variations in frost exposure caused by differences in snowmelt timing. This suggests thatV. vitis-idaeawill be resilient to the ongoing climate change.
  • Bi, Jian; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Choi, Sungho; Park, Taejin; Barichivich, Jonathan; Ciais, Philippe; Fu, Rong; Ganguly, Sangram; Hall, Forrest; Hilker, Thomas; Huete, Alfredo; Jones, Matthew; Kimball, John; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Mõttus, Matti; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Piao, Shilong; Poulter, Benjamin; Saleska, Scott R.; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Xu, Liang; Zhou, Liming; Myneni, Ranga B. (2015)
    Resolving the debate surrounding the nature and controls of seasonal variation in the structure and metabolism of Amazonian rainforests is critical to understanding their response to climate change. In situ studies have observed higher photosynthetic and evapotranspiration rates, increased litterfall and leaf flushing during the Sunlight-rich dry season. Satellite data also indicated higher greenness level, a proven surrogate of photosynthetic carbon fixation, and leaf area during the dry season relative to the wet season. Some recent reports suggest that rainforests display no seasonal variations and the previous results were satellite measurement artefacts. Therefore, here we re-examine several years of data from three sensors on two satellites under a range of sun positions and satellite measurement geometries and document robust evidence for a seasonal cycle in structure and greenness of wet equatorial Amazonian rainforests. This seasonal cycle is concordant with independent observations of solar radiation. Weattribute alternative conclusions to an incomplete study of the seasonal cycle, i. e. the dry season only, and to prognostications based on a biased radiative transfer model. Consequently, evidence of dry season greening in geometry corrected satellite data was ignored and the absence of evidence for seasonal variation in lidar data due to noisy and saturated signals was misinterpreted as evidence of the absence of changes during the dry season. Our results, grounded in the physics of radiative transfer, buttress previous reports of dry season increases in leaf flushing, litterfall, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration in well-hydrated Amazonian rainforests.