Browsing by Subject "PHOSPHATASE"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Saurus, Pauliina; Tolvanen, Tuomas A.; Lindfors, Sonja; Kuusela, Sara; Holthofer, Harry; Lehtonen, Eero; Lehtonen, Sanna (2017)
    Lack of CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) in mice increases podocyte apoptosis and leads to glomerulosclerosis and renal failure. We showed previously that SHIP2, a negative regulator of the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway, interacts with CD2AP. Here, we found that the expression level and activity of SHIP2 and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased in cultured CD2AP knockout (CD2AP-/-) mouse podocytes. Oxidative stress was also increased in CD2AP-/- mouse glomeruli in vivo. We found that puromycin aminonucleoside (PA), known to increase ROS production and apoptosis, increases SHIP2 activity and reduces CD2AP expression in cultured human podocytes. PDK1 and CDK2, central regulators of AKT, were downregulated in CD2AP-/- or PA-treated podocytes. Downregulation of PDK1 and CDK2, ROS generation and apoptosis were prevented by CD2AP overexpression in both models. Notably, inhibition of SHIP2 activity with a small molecule inhibitor AS1949490 ameliorated ROS production in CD2AP-/- podocytes, but, surprisingly, further reduced PDK1 expression and aggravated apoptosis. AKT-and ERK-mediated signalling was diminished and remained reduced after AS1949490 treatment in the absence of CD2AP. The data suggest that inhibition of the catalytic activity of SHIP2 is beneficial in reducing oxidative stress, but leads to deleterious increase in apoptosis in podocytes with reduced expression of CD2AP.
  • Ikäheimo, Kuu; Herranen, Anni; Iivanainen, Vilma; Lankinen, Tuuli; Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Sivonen, Ville; Patel, Kashyap A.; Demir, Korcan; Saarma, Mart; Lindahl, Maria; Pirvola, Ulla (2022)
    Failure in the structural maintenance of the hair cell stereocilia bundle and ribbon synapse causes hearing loss. Here, we have studied how ER stress elicits hair cell pathology, using mouse models with inactivation of Manf (mesencephalic astrocytederived neurotrophic factor), encoding an ER-homeostasispromoting protein. From hearing onset, Manf deficiency caused disarray of the outer hair cell stereocilia bundle and reduced cochlear sound amplification capability throughout the tonotopic axis. In high-frequency outer hair cells, the pathology ended in molecular changes in the stereocilia taper region and in strong stereocilia fusion. In high-frequency inner hair cells, Manf deficiency degraded ribbon synapses. The altered phenotype strongly depended on the mouse genetic background. Altogether, the failure in the ER homeostasis maintenance induced early-onset stereociliopathy and synaptopathy and accelerated the effect of genetic causes driving age-related hearing loss. Correspondingly, MANF mutation in a human patient induced severe sensorineural hearing loss from a young age onward. Thus, we present MANF as a novel protein and ER stress as a mechanism that regulate auditory hair cell maintenance in both mice and humans.
  • Berg, Mika Erik Anthon; Naams, Jette-Britt; Hautala, Laura; Tolvanen, Tuomas; Ahonen, Jari; Lehtonen, Sanna; Wähälä, Kristiina (2020)
    A series of substituted sulfonanilide analogs were prepared and evaluated as novel potent inhibitors of SH2 domaincontaining inositol polyphosphate 5′-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2). SHIP2 has been shown to be a new attractive target for the treatment of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), which can lead to life-threatening diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Amongst the synthesized compounds, the two most promising candidates, 10 and 11, inhibited SHIP2 significantly. Additionally, these compounds induced Akt activation in a dose-dependent manner, increased the presence of glucose transporter 4 at the plasma membrane, and enhanced glucose uptake in cultured myotubes in vitro at lower concentrations than metformin, the most widely used antidiabetic drug. These results show that the novel SHIP2 inhibitors have insulin sensitizing capacity and provide prototypes for further drug development for T2D and DKD.