Browsing by Subject "PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE"

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  • Najumudeen, A. K.; Jaiswal, A.; Lectez, B.; Oetken-Lindholm, C.; Guzman, C.; Siljamaki, E.; Posada, I. M. D.; Lacey, E.; Aittokallio, T.; Abankwa, D. (2016)
    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be responsible for treatment relapse and have therefore become a major target in cancer research. Salinomycin is the most established CSC inhibitor. However, its primary mechanistic target is still unclear, impeding the discovery of compounds with similar anti-CSC activity. Here, we show that salinomycin very specifically interferes with the activity of K-ras4B, but not H-ras, by disrupting its nanoscale membrane organization. We found that caveolae negatively regulate the sensitivity to this drug. On the basis of this novel mechanistic insight, we defined a K-ras-associated and stem cell-derived gene expression signature that predicts the drug response of cancer cells to salinomycin. Consistent with therapy resistance of CSC, 8% of tumor samples in the TCGA-database displayed our signature and were associated with a significantly higher mortality. Using our K-ras-specific screening platform, we identified several new candidate CSC drugs. Two of these, ophiobolin A and conglobatin A, possessed a similar or higher potency than salinomycin. Finally, we established that the most potent compound, ophiobolin A, exerts its K-ras4B-specific activity through inactivation of calmodulin. Our data suggest that specific interference with the K-ras4B/calmodulin interaction selectively inhibits CSC.
  • Oliveira, Aline A.; Rog, Tomasz; da Silva, Alberico B. F.; Amaro, Rommie E.; Johnson, Mark S.; Postila, Pekka A. (2022)
    The outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) is involved in multiple cellular functions such as apoptosis, inflammation and signaling via its membrane-associated and -embedded proteins. Despite the central role of the OMM in these vital phenomena, the structure and dynamics of the membrane have regularly been investigated in silico using simple two-component models. Accordingly, the aim was to generate the realistic multi-component model of the OMM and inspect its properties using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. All major lipid components, phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylserine (PS), were included in the probed OMM models. Because increased levels of anionic PS lipids have potential effects on schizophrenia and, more specifically, on monoamine oxidase B enzyme activity, the effect of varying the PS concentration was explored. The MD simulations indicate that the complex membrane lipid composition (MLC) behavior is notably different from the two-component PC-PE model. The MLC changes caused relatively minor effects on the membrane structural properties such as membrane thickness or area per lipid; however, notable effects could be seen with the dynamical parameters at the water-membrane interface. Increase of PS levels appears to slow down lateral diffusion of all lipids and, in general, the presence of anionic lipids reduced hydration and slowed down the PE headgroup rotation. In addition, sodium ions could neutralize the membrane surface, when PI was the main anionic component; however, a similar effect was not seen for high PS levels. Based on these results, it is advisable for future studies on the OMM and its protein or ligand partners, especially when wanting to replicate the correct properties on the water-membrane interface, to use models that are sufficiently complex, containing anionic lipid types, PI in particular.
  • Lombardi, Elisabetta; Matte, Alessandro; Risitano, Antonio M.; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D.; De Zanet, Denise; Jokiranta, Sakari T.; Martinelli, Nicola; Scambi, Cinzia; Salvagno, Gianluca; Bisoffi, Zeno; Colato, Chiara; Siciliano, Angela; Bortolami, Oscar; Mazzuccato, Mario; Zorzi, Francesco; De Marco, Luigi; De Franceschi, Lucia (2019)
    Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive genetic red cell disorder with a worldwide distribution. Growing evidence suggests a possible involvement of complement activation in the severity of clinical complications of sickle cell disease. In this study we found activation of the alternative complement pathway with microvascular deposition of C5b-9 on skin biopsies from patients with sickle cell disease. There was also deposition of C3b on sickle red cell membranes, which is promoted locally by the exposure of phosphatidylserine. In addition, we showed for the first time a peculiar "stop-and-go" motion of sickle cell red blood cells on tumor factor-alpha-activated vascular endothelial surfaces. Using the C3b/iC3b binding plasma protein factor H as an inhibitor of C3b cell-cell interactions, we found that factor H and its domains 19-20 prevent the adhesion of sickle red cells to the endothelium, normalizing speed transition times of red cells. We documented that factor H acts by preventing the adhesion of sickle red cells to P-selectin and/or the Mac-1 receptor (CD11b/CD18), supporting the activation of the alternative pathway of complement as an additional mechanism in the pathogenesis of acute sickle cell related vaso-occlusive crises. Our data provide a rationale for further investigation of the potential contribution of factor H and other modulators of the alternative complement pathway with potential implications for the treatment of sickle cell disease.
  • Venditti, Rossella; Rega, Laura Rita; Masone, Maria Chiara; Santoro, Michele; Polishchuk, Elena; Sarnataro, Daniela; Paladino, Simona; D'Auria, Sabato; Varriale, Antonio; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Polishchuk, Roman; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta (2019)
    ER-TGN contact sites (ERTGoCS) have been visualized by electron microscopy, but their location in the crowded perinuclear area has hampered their analysis via optical microscopy as well as their mechanistic study. To overcome these limits we developed a FRET-based approach and screened several candidates to search for molecular determinants of the ERTGoCS. These included the ER membrane proteins VAPA and VAPB and lipid transfer proteins possessing dual (ER and TGN) targeting motifs that have been hypothesized to contribute to the maintenance of ERTGoCS, such as the ceramide transfer protein CERT and several members of the oxysterol binding proteins. We found that VAP proteins, OSBP1, ORP9, and ORP10 are required, with OSBP1 playing a redundant role with ORP9, which does not involve its lipid transfer activity, and ORP10 being required due to its ability to transfer phosphatidylserine to the TGN. Our results indicate that both structural tethers and a proper lipid composition are needed for ERTGoCS integrity.