Browsing by Subject "PHOSPHORUS"

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  • Huttunen, Inese; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Huttunen, Markus; Sihvonen, Matti; Veijalainen, Noora; Korppoo, Marie; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina (2021)
    This paper introduces a framework for extending global climate and socioeconomic scenarios in order to study agricultural nutrient pollution on an individual catchment scale. Our framework builds on and extends Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) at the spatial and temporal scales that are relevant for the drivers of animal husbandry, manure recycling and the application of inorganic fertilisers in crop production. Our case study area is the Aura river catchment in South-West Finland, which discharges into the heavily eutrophic Baltic Sea. The Aura river catchment has intensive agriculture - both livestock and crop production. Locally adjusted and interpreted climate and socioeconomic scenarios were used as inputs to a field-level economic optimisation in order to study how farmers might react to the changing markets and climate conditions under different SSPs. The results on economically optimal fertilisation levels were then used as inputs to the spatially and temporally explicit nutrient loading model (VEMALA). Alternative manure recycling strategies that matched with SSP narratives were studied as means to reduce the phosphorus (P) overfertilisation in areas with high livestock density. According to our simulations, on average the P loads increased by 18% during 2071-2100 from the current level and the variation in P loads between scenarios was large (from & minus;14% to +50%). By contrast, the nitrogen (N) loads had decreased on average by & minus;9% (with variation from & minus;20% to +3%) by the end of the current century. Phosphorus loading was most sensitive to manure recycling strategies and the speed of climate change. Nitrogen loading was less sensitive to changes in climate and socioeconomic drivers. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Kokocinski, Mikolaj; Dziga, Dariusz; Antosiak, Adam; Soininen, Janne (2021)
    Bacterioplankton community composition has become the center of research attention inrecent years. Bacteria associated with toxic cyanobacteria blooms have attracted considerable interest.However, little is known about the environmental factors driving the bacteria community, includingthe impact of invasive cyanobacteria. Therefore, our aim has been to determine the relationships be-tween heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton community composition across 24 Polish lakes withdifferent contributions of cyanobacteria including the invasive speciesRaphidiopsis raciborskii.Thisanalysis revealed that cyanobacteria were present in 16 lakes, whileR. raciborskiioccurred in 14 lakes.Our results show that bacteria communities differed between lakes dominated by cyanobacteria andlakes with minor contributions of cyanobacteria but did not differ between lakes withR. raciborskiiand other lakes. Physical factors, including water and Secchi depth, were the major drivers of bacteriaand phytoplankton community composition. However, in lakes dominated by cyanobacteria, bacte-rial community composition was also influenced by biotic factors such as the amount ofR. raciborskii,chlorophyll-a and total phytoplankton biomass. Thus, our study provides novel evidence on theinfluence of environmental factors andR. raciborskiion lake bacteria communities.
  • Angove, Charlotte; Norkko, Alf; Gustafsson, Camilla (2018)
    Aquatic plant meadows are valuable components to the 'coastal filter' and it is important to understand the processes that drive their ability to cycle nutrients. However, at present, the field-based evidence for understanding the drivers of nutrient uptake by plants is lacking. This study aimed to investigate how well individual shoots of aquatic plants could meet their nitrogen demands using the sediment nutrient pool (porewater ammonium) and to explore which traits helped to facilitate such uptake. Several species were investigated in shallow, submerged (2-4 m) mixed-species communities in the northern Baltic Sea using incubation experiments with enriched ammonium. After a 3.5 h incubation time, individuals were collected and analysed for nitrogen (% DW) and N-15 (at-%) concentrations. Uptake by plants was calculated per unit nitrogen in response to the N-15 labelled source and to overall nitrogen availability. Background porewater ammonium availability was highly variable between individual plants. Species identity did not significantly affect uptake metrics and the effect of ambient porewater availability was weak. As biomass increased there were significant logarithmic declines in the 95th quantiles of nutrient uptake rates, ambient porewater nutrient availability and aboveground nitrogen tissue concentrations (% DW). Such findings suggested that uptake rates of plants were significantly demand driven and the nutrient conditions of the porewater were significantly driven by the demands of the plant. Findings parameterised the unfulfilled potential for some aquatic plants to cycle nutrients more efficiently and highlighted the potential importance of access to new nutrient sources as a way of enhancing nutrient cycling by aquatic plants. Plant traits and community properties such as the activity of infauna could facilitate such an access and are likely important for nutrient uptake.
  • Chen, Qiuzhen; Sipiläinen, Timo Antti Ilmari; Sumelius, John Holger (2014)
    This study used a synthetic evaluation method to assess agri-environmental externalities at the regional level in Finland. The article developed a relative measure that made it possible to rank the 15 regions studied for seven agri-environmental indicators, which were based on the preferences of the evaluators. The results indicated significant differences in the provision of public goods between the regions. The provision of public goods tended to increase over the 10-year study period. The results were robust with respect to changes in preferences.
  • Rehman, Sidra; Mansoora, Nida; Al-Dhumri, Sami A.; Amjad, Syeda F.; Al-Shammari, Wasimah B.; Almutari, Mohammad M.; Alhusayni, Fatimah S.; Al Bakre, Dhafer A.; Lalarukh, Irfana; Alshahri, Abdullah H.; Poczai, Peter; Galal, Tarek M.; Abdelhafez, Ahmed A. (2022)
    Heavy metal stress and less nutrient availability are some of the major concerns in agriculture. Both abiotic stresses have potential to decrease the crops productivity. On the other hand, organic fertilizers i.e., activated carbon biochar (ACB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase nutritional and heavy metal like Nickel (Ni) stress tolerance and provide immunity to plants for their survival in unfavorable environments. Previous studies have only looked at single applications of either ACB or AMF thus far. There is limited evidence of their synergistic effects, especially in plants growing in soil contaminated with nickel (Ni). To cover the knowledge gap of combined use of AMF inoculation (Glomus intraradices) and/or wheat straw biochar amendments on wheat growth, antioxidant activities and osmolytes concentration, present study is conducted. The use of either the AMF inoculant or the ACB alone resulted in improved wheat growth and decreased Ni uptake. Furthermore, sole AMF or ACB also reduced Ni stress effectively, allowing wheat to grow faster and reducing soil Ni transfer into plant tissue. In comparison to a control, adding ACB with AMF inoculant considerably increased fungal populations. The most significant increase in wheat growth and decrease in tissue Ni contents came from amending soil with AMF inoculant and biochar. Inducing soil alkalinization and causing Ni immobilization, as well as decreasing Ni phyto-availability, the combination treatment had a synergistic impact. These findings imply that AMF inoculation in ACB treatment could be used not only for wheat production but also for Ni-contaminated soil phyto-stabilization. (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Vesala, Risto; Kiheri, Heikki; Hobbie, Erik A.; van Dijk, Netty; Dise, Nancy; Larmola, Tuula (2021)
    Peatlands store one third of global soil carbon (C) and up to 15% of global soil nitrogen (N) but often have low plant nutrient availability owing to slow organic matter decomposition under acidic and waterlogged conditions. In rainwater-fed ombrotrophic peatlands, elevated atmospheric N deposition has increased N availability with potential consequences to ecosystem nutrient cycling. Here, we studied how 14 years of continuous N addition with either nitrate or ammonium had affected ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) shrubs at Whim Bog, Scotland. We examined whether enrichment has influenced foliar nutrient stoichiometry and assessed using N stable isotopes whether potential changes in plant nutrient constraints are linked with plant N uptake through ERM fungi versus direct plant uptake. High doses of ammonium alleviated N deficiency in Calluna vulgaris and Erica tetralix, whereas low doses of ammonium and nitrate improved plant phosphorus (P) nutrition, indicated by the lowered foliar N:P ratios. Root acid phosphatase activities correlated positively with foliar N:P ratios, suggesting enhanced P uptake as a result of improved N nutrition. Elevated foliar delta N-15 of fertilized shrubs suggested that ERM fungi were less important for N supply with N fertilization. Increases in N availability in peat porewater and in direct nonmycorrhizal N uptake likely have reduced plant nitrogen uptake via mycorrhizal pathways. As the mycorrhizal N uptake correlates with the reciprocal C supply from host plants to the soil, such reduction in ERM activity may affect peat microbial communities and even accelerate C loss via decreased ERM activity and enhanced saprotrophic activity. Our results thus introduce a previously unrecognized mechanism for how anthropogenic N pollution may affect nutrient and carbon cycling within peatland ecosystems. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Isenberg, Stefan; Weller, Stefan; Kargin, Denis; Valic, Srecko; Schwederski, Brigitte; Kelemen, Zsolt; Bruhn, Clemens; Krekic, Kristijan; Maurer, Martin; Feil, Christoph M.; Nieger, Martin; Gudat, Dietrich; Nyulaszi, Laszlo; Pietschnig, Rudolf (2019)
    Invited for this month's cover picture are the groups of Professors Rudolf Pietschnig at the University of Kassel, Professor Dietrich Gudat at the University of Stuttgart and Professor Laszlo Nyulaszi at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The cover picture shows the thermally induced homolytic cleavage of the central P-P bond in a phosphorus-rich bis-ferrocenophane furnishing P-centered radicals (as evidenced by the computed spin-density highlighted in blue). The central P-6 unit in the title compound is a structural analog of the connecting unit in Hittorf's violet phosphorus, which links the orthogonally arranged tubular entities. A portrait of the German physicist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf is included. Read the full text of their Full Paper at 10.1002/open.201900182.
  • Miettinen, Jenni; Ollikainen, Markku; Aroviita, Jukka; Haikarainen, Soili; Nieminen, Mika; Turunen, Jarno; Valsta, Lauri (2020)
    Ditch network maintenance promotes forest growth in drained peatland forests but increases nutrient and sediment loads, which are detrimental to water quality. Society needs to balance the harvest revenue from improved forest growth against deteriorating water quality. We examine socially optimal even-aged forest management in drained peatlands when harvesting and ditch network maintenance cause nutrient and sediment loading. The means to reduce loading include establishing overland flow fields and abstaining from ditch network maintenance. We characterize this choice analytically in a rotation framework and examine, in a numerical model, the key factors affecting the choice of forest management and water protection measures. We choose a drained peatland forest site located in northeastern Finland in the vicinity of ecologically vulnerable forest headwater streams. On the given drained forest site, we find a set of parameters under which implementing ditch network maintenance is privately but not socially optimal.
  • Aaltonen, Heidi; Tuukkanen, Tapio; Palviainen, Marjo; Laurén, Annamari (Ari); Tattari, Sirkka; Piirainen, Sirpa; Mattsson, Tuija; Ojala, Anne; Launiainen, Samuli; Finér, Leena (2021)
    Understanding the anthropogenic and natural factors that affect runoff water quality is essential for proper planning of water protection and forest management, particularly in the changing climate. We measured water quality and runoff from 10 unmanaged and 20 managed forested headwater catchments (7-12,149 ha) located in Finland. We used linear mixed effect models to test whether the differences in total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) export and concentrations observed can be explained by catchment characteristics, land use, forest management, soil fertility, tree volume and hydrometeorological variables. Results show that much of variation in TOC, TN and TP concentrations and export was explained by drainage, temperature sum, peatland percentage and the proportion of arable area in the catchment. These models explained 45-63% of variation in concentrations and exports. Mean annual TOC export in unmanaged catchments was 56.4 +/- 9.6 kg ha(-1) a(-1), while in managed it was 79.3 +/- 3.3 kg ha(-1) a(-1). Same values for TN export were 1.43 +/- 0.2 kg ha(-1) a(-1) and 2.31 +/- 0.2 kg ha(-1) a(-1), while TP export was 0.053 +/- 0.009 kg ha(-1) a(-1) and 0.095 +/- 0.008 kg ha(-1) a(-1) for unmanaged and managed, respectively. Corresponding values for concentrations were: TOC 17.7 +/- 2.1 mg L-1 and 28.7 +/- 1.6 mg L-1, for TN 420 +/- 45 mu g L-1 and 825 +/- 51 mu g L-1 and TP 15.3 +/- 2.3 mu g L-1 and 35.6 +/- 3.3 mu g L-1. Overall concentrations and exports were significantly higher in managed than in unmanaged catchments. Long term temperature sum had an increasing effect on all concentrations and exports, indicating that climate warming may set new challenges to controlling nutrient loads from catchment areas.
  • Mattila, Tuomas J.; Rajala, Jukka (2022)
    Traditionally, locally calibrated soil tests were used for fertilizer and lime recommendations. Farmers and advisors are increasingly using new 'universal' soil tests without local calibration. The objective of this study was to compare five commercially available soil tests and to determine whether they would provide similar recommendations. In total, 24 fields in Western Finland were sampled for 4 years while being treated with fertilizers, lime and manure. The soil samples were analysed with Mehlich-3, ammonium acetate, H3A, hydrochloric acid and mild acetic acid (Spurway) extractants. In addition, Soil Health Tool (CO2 burst, water-soluble C and N) and tissue testing were conducted. The different tests extracted different orders of magnitude of nutrients (especially P and Mg), but the results from the different extractions were correlated. Mehlich-3 degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) presented a threshold, below which soluble phosphorus was not detected. Similar thresholds were found for P, S and Mg. Mehlich-3 and ammonium acetate provided similar results for Ca, Mg and K and can be used interchangeably for liming recommendations. Mehlich-3 identified more fields with Zn, Cu, B and S deficiencies and less fields with Mn deficiencies compared with ammonium acetate + EDTA and tissue testing. The tests had strong correlation, but the determination of nutrient deficiencies needs local calibration of deficiency limits.
  • Allen, John A.; Setälä, Heikki; Kotze, David Johan (2020)
    Urban residents and their pets utilize urban greenspaces daily. As urban dog ownership rates increase globally, urban greenspaces are under mounting pressure even as the benefits and services they provide become more important. The urine of dogs is high in nitrogen (N) and may represent a significant portion of the annual urban N load. We examined the spatial distribution and impact of N deposition from dog urine on soils in three urban greenspace typologies in Finland: Parks, Tree Alleys, and Remnant Forests. We analyzed soil from around trees, lampposts and lawn areas near walking paths, and compared these to soils from lawn areas 8 m away from pathways. Soil nitrate, ammonium, total N concentrations, and electrical conductivity were significantly higher and soil pH significantly lower near path-side trees and poles relative to the 8 m lawn plots. Also, stable isotope analysis indicates that the primary source of path-side N are distinct from those of the 8 m lawn plots, supporting our hypothesis that dogs are a significant source of N in urban greenspaces, but that this deposition occurs in a restricted zone associated with walking paths. Additionally, we found that Remnant Forests were the least impacted of the three typologies analyzed. We recommend that landscape planners acknowledge this impact, and design parks to reduce or isolate this source of N from the wider environment.
  • Holmroos, Heidi; Horppila, Jukka; Niemistö, Juha; Nurminen, Leena; Hietanen, Susanna (2015)
    Seasonally changing mechanisms affect the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus, which differ between the stands of different macrophyte life forms and open water in a eutrophic lake. Macrophytes that take nutrients up for their growth also shelter sediments from resuspension that brings nutrients back to the water and affect denitrification, which removes nitrogen from the water ecosystem. In this study the changes in nutrient concentrations were observed during the open-water period from April to November, and also denitrification rates were measured at different phases of the open-water season. The study was conducted at a shallow eutrophic lake where the effect of macrophytes on water quality is remarkable. The concentration changes of different nitrogen forms during the summer were very similar at the open-water and floating-leaved macrophyte (Nuphar lutea L.) stations. Nitrate was depleted faster among the submerged macrophytes (Myriophyllum verticillatum L.) than among floating-leaved plants or in open water. The decrease in the concentration of nitrate was so significant during the summer that it also affected the total nitrogen concentration in the water. Denitrification was highest in sediments among floating-leaved macrophytes (average 4.3 mg N m(-2) d(-1)) and lowest in sediments of submerged plants (average 1.5 mg N m(-2) d(-1)). Denitrification among submerged macrophytes was limited by low nitrate availability.
  • Norkko, Joanna; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Gammal, Johanna; Rosenberg, Rutger; Enemar, Arvid; Magnussond, Marina; Granberg, Maria E.; Lindgren, J. Fredrik; Agrenius, Stefan; Norkko, Alf (2019)
    Marine ecosystems world-wide are threatened by oxygen deficiency, with potential serious consequences for ecosystem functioning and the goods and services they provide. While the effects of hypoxia on benthic species diversity are well documented, the effects on ecosystem function have only rarely been assessed in real-world settings. To better understand the links between structural changes in macro- and meiofaunal communities, hypoxic stress and benthic ecosystem function (benthic nutrient fluxes, community metabolism), we sampled a total of 11 sites in Haystensfjord and Askerofjord (Swedish west coast) in late summer, coinciding with the largest extent and severity of seasonal hypoxia in the area. The sites spanned oxic to anoxic bottom water, and a corresponding gradient in faunal diversity. Intact sediment cores were incubated to measure fluxes of oxygen and nutrients (NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43-, SiO4) across the sediment-water interface. Sediment profile imaging (SPI) footage was obtained from all sites to assess structural elements and the bioturbadon depth, and additional samples were collected to characterise sediment properties and macro- and meiofaunal community composition. Bottom-water O-2 concentration was the main driver of macrofauna communities, with highest abundance and biomass, as well as variability, at the sites with intermediate O-2 concentration. Meiofauna on the other hand was less sensitive to bottom-water O-2 concentration. Oxygen was the main driver of nutrient fluxes too, but macrofauna as well meiofauna were also significant predictors; DistLM analyses indicated that O-2 concentration, macrofaunal abundance or biomass, and meiofaunal abundance collectively explained 63%, 30% and 28% of the variation in sediment O-2 consumption, NH4+ flux and PO43+ flux, respectively. The study provides a step towards a more realistic understanding of the link between benthic fauna and ecosystem functioning, and the influence of disturbance on this relationship, which is important for management decisions aimed at protecting the dwindling biodiversity in the coastal zones around the world.
  • Kivela, Jukka; Chen, Lin; Muurinen, Susanna; Kivijarvi, Pirjo; Hintikainen, Veikko; Helenius, Juha (2015)
    Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a by-product of the meat industry and is an important pathway for recycling of N and P. MBM contains about 8% N, 5% P, 1% K and 10% Ca. Field trials compared the effects of MBM and mineral fertilizer on yield and quality of sugar beet (2008-2009) and carrot (2010-2011) in Finland. MBM fertilisation of sugar beet grown on clay loam and sandy clay soil gave 11.4% (2008) and 19.6% (2009) lower yields than mineral fertilizers. The lower root yield in 2008 was compensated by higher extractable sugar content and lower amino-N, K and Na in root but no such compensation in root quality was detected for 2009. Mixing MBM with mineral NPK fertilizers had similar effects as MBM-alone. MBM (80 kg N ha(-1) 2010 and 60 kg N ha(-1) 2011) together with K fertilizer (Patentkali (R), 180 kg K ha(-1)) were applied for carrot to a fine sandy till soil in 2010 and sandy loam in 2011. MBM alone gave 14% lower total and marketable root yield than mineral fertilization. The lower yield was compensated by improved quality, lower NO3- content in the carrot and good storability. Adding extra fertilizer during growth or separating fertilization applications had no effect on root yield or quality. MBM performed in these cases mainly as an organic N fertilizer. The N supply from MBM is not sufficient for achieving same yields as with mineral fertilizers. The relative N efficiency of total N of MBM was 83% that of mineral fertilizers. MBM should be targeted on soils with low P status. We conclude that MBM is a reasonably competitive alternative to mineral fertilizers, and as a recycled fertilizer it is a good option for organic production.
  • Söderquist, Pär; Dessborn, Lisa; Djerf, Henric; Elmberg, Johan; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Holopainen, Sari (2021)
    Common practices in current game management are wetland restoration and creation, as well as releases of quarry species. We studied the impact of releases of mallard ducklings on species richness of wild waterbirds and amphibians on three types of wetlands: natural, constructed and restored. Data on species richness, macrophyte cover and water characteristics (total phosphorous and pH) were collected at 32 sites in an agricultural landscape in southern Sweden. In total, 14 species of waterbirds were recorded, ranging from zero to seven per wetland and survey. Amphibians were present in 24 of the 32 wetlands; in total five species were found, ranging from zero to three per wetland. By using generalized linear modelling we found that wetland type best predicted waterbird species richness. Constructed wetlands had significantly more waterbird species, regardless of whether they were used for mallard releases or not. There were breeding amphibians in 62% of natural, 100% of restored and 77% of constructed wetlands. Breeding amphibians were present in 84% of wetlands without, and in 62% of wetlands with releases. However, included variables did not explain amphibian species richness in the wetlands. Releasing large numbers of mallards on a wetland and providing food ad libitum is likely to affect water quality, nutrient availability and predation pressure. Indeed, phosphorous levels were significantly higher in release wetlands, but no differences were found between wetland types.This means that mallard releases may increase nutrient loads in environments that are already eutrophied. However, in our study system releases did not influence species richness of waterbirds and amphibians locally. Constructing wetlands for mallard releases can thus have positive local effects on species richness.
  • Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.; Almroth-Rosell, Elin; Asmala, Eero; Bonsdorff, Erik; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Gustafsson, Camilla; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Janas, Urzsula; Norkko, Alf; Slomp, Caroline; Villnäs, Anna; Voss, Maren; Zilius, Mindaugas (2020)
    The coastal zone of the Baltic Sea is diverse with strong regional differences in the physico-chemical setting. This diversity is also reflected in the importance of different biogeochemical processes altering nutrient and organic matter fluxes on the passage from land to sea. This review investigates the most important processes for removal of nutrients and organic matter, and the factors that regulate the efficiency of the coastal filter. Nitrogen removal through denitrification is high in lagoons receiving large inputs of nitrate and organic matter. Phosphorus burial is high in archipelagos with substantial sedimentation, but the stability of different burial forms varies across the Baltic Sea. Organic matter processes are tightly linked to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. Moreover, these processes are strongly modulated depending on composition of vegetation and fauna. Managing coastal ecosystems to improve the effectiveness of the coastal filter can reduce eutrophication in the open Baltic Sea.
  • Mäkelin, Saara Elisa Iines; Villnäs, Anna (2022)
    Benthic fauna plays an important role in mediating biogeochemical cycles in coastal areas by storing carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in their body tissues at theoretically homeostatic rates. To maintain homeostasis, the benthic consumers need to be in balance with their resource supply or alter their stoichiometric traits in response to environmental change. However, we lack an understanding regarding the potential variation in the C : N : P content ratios of benthic consumers, especially in marine coastal areas where stoichiometric shifts in macrofauna could have strong effects on sediment carbon and nutrient cycling. By monitoring two sites over a year, we quantified the magnitude and temporal stability of benthic faunal carbon and nutrient pools in coastal soft-sediment habitats. Our results show that benthic fauna is not strictly homeostatic, but instead expresses temporal variation in C : N : P content. These aquatic consumers undergo ontogenetic changes in diet and morphology, which alter their stoichiometric characteristics. In addition, the faunal C : N : P ratios showed strong seasonal variation at both species and community level, and our results suggest that the stoichiometric traits of benthic consumers shift in response to food sources and environmental conditions. The ability to adapt to varying stoichiometric conditions is essential in face of the growing C : N : P imbalance occurring in marine and coastal ecosystems as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. Therefore, it is critically important to identify the stoichiometric plasticity of different species, before environmental change causes a shift in benthic community composition that will alter functions on an ecosystem level.
  • Belinskij, Antti; Iho, Antti; Paloniitty née Korvela, Tiina; Soininen, Niko (2019)
    Animal agriculture is shifting toward larger farms and regional agglomerations in many countries. In step with this development, manure nutrients have started accumulating regionally, and are leading to increasing eutrophication problems. Nevertheless, the same trend may also prompt innovations in manure treatment. For example, Valio Ltd (the largest dairy processer in Finland) is planning a network of facilities that would remove water from manure, fraction the nutrients in it, and produce biogas from the excess methane. One of the main hurdles in developing this technology is that the current regulatory framework does not support a shift from diffuse loading, which is seen in the traditional application of manure on fields, to point-source loading; the regulations may even prevent such a change. This article analyzes a governance framework that addresses this dilemma in EU–Finland, and discusses how the governance described could curtail the nutrient loading of agriculture to waters. The approach is based on adaptive governance theory. We argue that traditional top–down regulation, which emphasizes food security, contains serious shortcomings when it comes to managing agricultural nutrient loading to waters, and that the current regulatory framework does not necessarily have the adaptive capacity to facilitate new, bottom–up solutions for manure treatment. Interestingly, the strict water quality requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) open new windows of opportunity for such solutions, and thus for improving the overall sustainability of animal agriculture.
  • Hentati-Sundberg, J.; Raymond, C.; Skoeld, M.; Svensson, O.; Gustafsson, B.; Bonaglia, S. (2020)
    Seabirds redistribute nutrients between different ecosystem compartments and over vast geographical areas. This nutrient transfer may impact both local ecosystems on seabird breeding islands and regional biogeochemical cycling, but these processes are seldom considered in local conservation plans or biogeochemical models. The island of Stora Karlso in the Baltic Sea hosts the largest concentration of piscivorous seabirds in the region, and also hosts a large colony of insectivorous House martins Delichon urbicum adjacent to the breeding seabirds. We show that a previously reported unusually high insectivore abundance was explained by large amounts of chironomids-highly enriched in delta N-15-that feed on seabird residues as larvae along rocky shores to eventually emerge as flying adults. Benthic ammonium and phosphate fluxes were up to 163% and 153% higher close to the colony (1,300 m distance) than further away (2,700 m) and the estimated nutrient release from the seabirds at were in the same order of magnitude as the loads from the largest waste-water treatment plants in the region. The trophic cascade impacting insectivorous passerines and the substantial redistribution of nutrients suggest that seabird nutrient transfer should be increasingly considered in local conservation plans and regional nutrient cycling models.
  • Kiheri, Heikki; Velmala, Sannakajsa; Pennanen, Taina; Timonen, Sari; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; Fritze, Hannu; Heinonsalo, Jussi; van Dijk, Netty; Dise, Nancy; Larmola, Tuula (2020)
    Northern peatlands are often dominated by ericaceous shrub species which rely on ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ERM) for access to organic sources of nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and host abundant dark septate endophytes (DSE). Relationships between hosts and fungal symbionts may change during deposition of anthropogenic N and P. We studied the long-term effects of N and P addition on two ericaceous shrubs, Calluna vulgaris and Erica tetralix, at Whim Bog, Scotland by analyzing fungal colonization of roots, enzymatic activity, and fungal species composition. Unexpectedly, the frequency of typical ERM intracellular colonization did not change while the occurrence of ERM hyphae tended to increase and DSE hyphae to decrease. Our findings indicate that altered nutrient limitations shift root associated fungal colonization patterns as well as affecting ericaceous root enzyme activity and thereby decomposition potential. Reduction of recalcitrant fungal biomass in melanized DSE may have implications for peatland C sequestration under nutrient addition.