Browsing by Subject "PHOTOCHEMICAL DATA"

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  • Lambe, Andrew T.; Krechmer, Jordan E.; Peng, Zhe; Casar, Jason R.; Carrasquillo, Anthony J.; Raff, Jonathan D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Worsnop, Douglas R. (2019)
    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) are an emerging technique for studying the formation and oxidative aging of organic aerosols and other applications. In these flow reactors, hydroxyl radicals (OH), hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2), and nitric oxide (NO) are typically produced in the following ways: photolysis of ozone (O-3) at), = 254 nm, photolysis of H2O at), = 185 nm, and via reactions of O(D-1) with H2O and nitrous oxide (N2O); O(D-1) is formed via photolysis of O-3 at = 254 nm and/or N2O at = 185 nm. Here, we adapt a complementary method that uses alkyl nitrite photolysis as a source of OH via its production of HO2 and NO followed by the reaction NO + HO2 -> NO2 + OH. We present experimental and model characterization of the OH exposure and NO, levels generated via photolysis of C3 alkyl nitrites (isopropyl nitrite, perdeuterated isopropyl nitrite, 1,3-propyl dinitrite) in the Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) OFR as a function of photolysis wavelength (7, = 254 to 369 nm) and organic nitrite concentration (0.5 to 20 ppm). We also apply this technique in conjunction with chemical ionization mass spectrometer measurements of multifunctional oxidation products generated following the exposure of a-Pinene to HO, and NO, obtained using both isopropyl nitrite and O-3 + H2O + N2O as the radical precursors.
  • Kontkanen, Jenni; Paasonen, Pauli; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Rantala, Pekka; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku (2016)
    The oxidation products of monoterpenes likely have a crucial role in the formation and growth of aerosol particles in boreal forests. However, the continuous measurements of monoterpene concentrations are usually not available on decadal timescales, and the direct measurements of the concentrations of monoterpene oxidation product have so far been scarce. In this study we developed proxies for the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site in Hyytiala, southern Finland. For deriving the proxies we used the monoterpene concentration measured with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) during 2006-2013. Our proxies for the monoterpene concentration take into account the temperature-controlled emissions from the forest ecosystem, the dilution caused by the mixing within the boundary layer and different oxidation processes. All the versions of our proxies captured the seasonal variation of the monoterpene concentration, the typical proxy-to-measurements ratios being between 0.8 and 1.3 in summer and between 0.6 and 2.6 in winter. In addition, the proxies were able to describe the diurnal variation of the monoterpene concentration rather well, especially in summer months. By utilizing one of the proxies, we calculated the concentration of oxidation products of monoterpenes by considering their production in the oxidation and their loss due to condensation on aerosol particles. The concentration of oxidation products was found to have a clear seasonal cycle, with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. The concentration of oxidation products was lowest in the morning or around noon and highest in the evening. In the future, our proxies for the monoterpene concentration and their oxidation products can be used, for example, in the analysis of new particle formation and growth in boreal environments.
  • Mogensen, D.; Gierens, R.; Crowley, J. N.; Keronen, P.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, A.; Noelscher, A. C.; Zhou, L.; Kulmala, Markku; Tang, M. J.; Williams, J.; Boy, M. (2015)
    Using the 1-D atmospheric chemistry transport model SOSAA, we have investigated the atmospheric reactivity of a boreal forest ecosystem during the HUMPPA-COPEC-10 campaign (summer 2010, at SMEAR II in southern Finland). For the very first time, we present vertically resolved model simulations of the NO3 and O-3 reactivity (R) together with the modelled and measured reactivity of OH. We find that OH is the most reactive oxidant (R similar to 3 s(-1)) followed by NO3 (R similar to 0.07 s(-1)) and O-3 (R similar to 2 x 10 5 s(-1)). The missing OH reactivity was found to be large in accordance with measurements (similar to 65 %) as would be expected from the chemical subset described in the model. The accounted OH radical sinks were inorganic compounds (similar to 41 %, mainly due to reaction with CO), emitted monoterpenes (similar to 14 %) and oxidised biogenic volatile organic compounds (similar to 44 %). The missing reactivity is expected to be due to unknown biogenic volatile organic compounds and their photoproducts, indicating that the true main sink of OH is not expected to be inorganic compounds. The NO3 radical was found to react mainly with primary emitted monoterpenes (similar to 60 %) and inorganic compounds (similar to 37 %, including NO2). NO2 is, however, only a temporary sink of NO3 under the conditions of the campaign (with typical temperatures of 20-25 degrees C) and does not affect the NO3 concentration. We discuss the difference between instantaneous and steady-state reactivity and present the first boreal forest steady-state lifetime of NO3 (113 s). O-3 almost exclusively reacts with inorganic compounds (similar to 91 %, mainly NO, but also NO2 during night) and less with primary emitted sesquiterpenes (similar to 6 %) and monoterpenes (similar to 3 %). When considering the concentration of the oxidants investigated, we find that OH is the oxidant that is capable of removing organic compounds at a faster rate during daytime, whereas NO3 can remove organic molecules at a faster rate during night-time. O-3 competes with OH and NO3 during a short period of time in the early morning (around 5 a.m. local time) and in the evening (around 7-8 p.m.). As part of this study, we developed a simple empirical parameterisation for conversion of measured spectral irradiance into actinic flux. Further, the meteorological conditions were evaluated using radiosonde observations and ground-based measurements. The overall vertical structure of the boundary layer is discussed, together with validation of the surface energy balance and turbulent fluxes. The sensible heat and momentum fluxes above the canopy were on average overestimated, while the latent heat flux was un-derestimated.
  • Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Yusheng; Lian, Chaofan; Yan, Chao; Feng, Zeming; Zheng, Feixue; Fan, Xiaolong; Chen, Yan; Wang, Weigang; Chu, Biwu; Wang, Yonghong; Cai, Jing; Du, Wei; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Kangasluoma, Juha; Bianchi, Federico; Kujansuu, Joni; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wang, Xuefei; Hu, Bo; Wang, Yuesi; Ge, Maofa; He, Hong; Kulmala, Markku (2020)
    Secondary aerosols are a major component of PM2.5, yet their formation mechanisms in the ambient atmosphere are still unclear. Based on field measurements in downtown Beijing, we show that the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) may promote the formation of organic and nitrate aerosols in winter in Beijing, which is supported by the fact that the mass concentrations of organic and nitrate aerosols linearly increase as a function of HONO consumed from early morning to noon. The increased nitrate content also leads to the formation of ammonium particulate matter through enhancing the neutralization of nitrate and sulfate by ammonia. We further illustrate that during pollution events in winter in Beijing, over 50% of the ambient HONO may be related to traffic-related emissions, including direct emissions and formation via the reaction between OH and vehicle-emitted NO. Overall, our results indicate that trafficrelated HONO may play an important role in the oxidative capacity and in turn contribute to haze formation in winter in Beijing. The mitigation of HONO and NOx emissions from vehicles may be an effective way to reduce the formation of secondary aerosols and severe haze events in winter in Beijing.