Browsing by Subject "PHOTOPRODUCTION"

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  • Mäntysaari, Heikki; Mueller, Niklas; Schenke, Björn (2019)
    Experimental processes that are sensitive to partonWigner distributions provide a powerful tool to advance our understanding of proton structure. In this work, we compute gluon Wigner and Husimi distributions of protons within the color glass condensate framework, which includes a spatially dependent McLerran-Venugopalan initial configuration and the explicit numerical solution of the Jalilian-Marian-IancuMcLerran-Weigert-Leonidov-Kovner equations. We determine the leading anisotropy of the Wigner and Husimi distributions as a function of the angle between the impact parameter and transverse momentum. We study experimental signatures of these angular correlations at a proposed electron-ion collider by computing coherent diffractive dijet production cross sections in e + p collisions within the same framework. Specifically, we predict the elliptic modulation of the cross section as a function of the relative angle between the nucleon recoil and dijet transversemomentumfor a wide kinematical range. We further predict its dependence on the collision energy, which is dominated by the growth of the proton with decreasing x.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    This Letter presents the first experimental evidence of the attractive strong interaction between a proton and a phi meson. The result is obtained from two-particle correlations of combined p-phi circle plus (p) over bar-phi pairs measured in high-multiplicity pp collisions at root s = 13 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The spin-averaged scattering length and effective range of the p-phi interaction are extracted from the fully corrected correlation function employing the Lednicky-Lyuboshits approach. In particular, the imaginary part of the scattering length vanishes within uncertainties, indicating that inelastic processes do not play a prominent role for the p-phi interaction. These data demonstrate that the interaction is dominated by elastic p-phi scattering. Furthermore, an analysis employing phenomenological Gaussian-and Yukawa-type potentials is conducted. Under the assumption of the latter, the N-phi coupling constant is found to be g(N-phi) = 0.14 +/- 0.03(stat) +/- 0.02(syst). This work provides valuable experimental input to accomplish a self-consistent description of the N-phi interaction, which is particularly relevant for the more fundamental studies on partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear medium.
  • Goharipour, Muhammad; Khanpour, Hamzeh; Guzey, Vadim (2018)
    We present GKG18-DPDFs, a next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD analysis of diffractive parton distribution functions (diffractive PDFs) and their uncertainties. This is the first global set of diffractive PDFs determined within the xFitter framework. This analysis is motivated by all available and most up-to-date data on inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering (diffractive DIS). Heavy quark contributions are considered within the framework of the Thorne-Roberts (TR) general mass variable flavor number scheme (GM-VFNS). We form a mutually consistent set of diffractive PDFs due to the inclusion of high-precision data from H1/ZEUS combined inclusive diffractive cross sections measurements. We study the impact of the H1/ZEUS combined data by producing a variety of determinations based on reduced data sets. We find that these data sets have a significant impact on the diffractive PDFs with some substantial reductions in uncertainties. The predictions based on the extracted diffractive PDFs are compared to the analyzed diffractive DIS data and with other determinations of the diffractive PDFs.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    The first measurement of the cross section for coherent J/Psi photoproduction as a function of vertical bar t vertical bar, the square of the momentum transferred between the incoming and outgoing target nucleus, is presented. The data were measured with the ALICE detector in ultra-peripheral Pb-Pbcollisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV with the J/Psi produced in the central rapidity region vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.8, which corresponds to the small Bjorken-xrange (0.3 - 1.4) x 10(-3). The measured vertical bar t vertical bar-dependence is not described by computations based only on the Pb nuclear form factor, while the photonuclear cross section is better reproduced by models including shadowing according to the leading-twist approximation, or gluon-saturation effects from the impact-parameter dependent Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. These new results are therefore a valid tool to constrain the relevant model parameters and to investigate the transverse gluonic structure at very low Bjorken- x. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Mäntysaari, Heikki; Roy, Kaushik; Salazar, Farid; Schenke, Björn (2021)
    We study coherent diffractive photon and vector meson production in electron-proton and electron-nucleus collisions within the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory. We show that electron-photon and electron-vector meson azimuthal angle correlations are sensitive to nontrivial spatial correlations in the gluon distribution of the target, and perform explicit calculations using spatially dependent McLerran-Venugopalan initial color charge configurations coupled to the numerical solution of small x JIMWLK evolution equations. We compute the cross-section differentially in Q(2) and vertical bar t vertical bar and find sizeable anisotropies in the electron-photon and electron-J/psi azimuthal correlations (v(1,2) approximate to 2-10%) in electron-proton collisions for the kinematics of the future Electron-Ion Collider. In electron-gold collisions these modulations are found to be significantly smaller (v(1,2) < 0.1%). We also compute incoherent diffractive production where we find that the azimuthal correlations are sensitive to fluctuations of the gluon distribution in the target.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, Laurent; Kirschenmann, H.; Saarikko, Heimo; Voutilainen, M.; Österberg, K.; Berretti, Mirko; Brücken, Erik; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, Jaana; Karimäki, V.; Kim, Minsuk; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Naaranoja, Tiina; Oljemark, Fredrik Robert; Pekkanen, Juska; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Welti, Jan Sebastian; Viinikainen, Jussi; Tuuva, T. (2021)
    Events where the two leading jets are separated by a pseudorapidity interval devoid of particle activity, known as jet-gap-jet events, are studied in proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV. The signature is expected from hard color-singlet exchange. Each of the highest transverse momentum (p(T)) jets must have p(T)(jet) > 40 GeV and pseudorapidity 1.4 < vertical bar eta(jet)vertical bar < 4.7, with eta(jet1)eta(jet2) < 0, where jet1 and jet2 are the leading and subleading jets in p(T), respectively. The analysis is based on data collected by the CMS and TOTEM experiments during a low luminosity, high-beta* run at the CERN LHC in 2015, with an integrated luminosity of 0.66 pb(-1). Events with a low number of charged particles with p(T) > 0.2 GeV in the interval vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1 between the jets are observed in excess of calculations that assume only color-exchange. The fraction of events produced via color-singlet exchange, f(CSE), is measured as a function of p(T)(jet2), the pseudorapidity difference between the two leading jets, and the azimuthal angular separation between the two leading jets. The fraction f(CSE) has values of 0.4-1.0%. The results are compared with previous measurements and with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics. In addition, the first study of jet-gap-jet events detected in association with an intact proton using a subsample of events with an integrated luminosity of 0.40 pb(-1) is presented. The intact protons are detected with the Roman pot detectors of the TOTEM experiment. The f(CSE) in this sample is 2.91 +/- 0.70(stat)(-1.01)(+1.08)(syst) times larger than that for inclusive dijet production in dijets with similar kinematics.
  • Abelev, B.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Kral, J.; Pohjoisaho, E. H. O.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Trzaska, W. H.; The ALICE collaboration (2015)
    The multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions of inclusive photons have been measured at forward rapidities (2.3 <eta <3.9) in proton-proton collisions at three center-of-mass energies, root s = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV using the ALICE detector. It is observed that the increase in the average photon multiplicity as a function of beam energy is compatible with both a logarithmic and a power-law dependence. The relative increase in average photon multiplicity produced in inelastic pp collisions at 2.76 and 7 TeV center-of-mass energies with respect to 0.9 TeV are 37.2 +/- 0.3% (stat) +/- 8.8% (sys) and 61.2 +/- 0.3% (stat) +/- 7.6% (sys), respectively. The photon multiplicity distributions for all center-of-mass energies are well described by negative binomial distributions. The multiplicity distributions are also presented in terms of KNO variables. The results are compared to model predictions, which are found in general to underestimate the data at large photon multiplicities, in particular at the highest center-of-mass energy. Limiting fragmentation behavior of photons has been explored with the data, but is not observed in the measured pseudorapidity range.
  • PHENIX Collaboration; Aidala, C.; Kim, D. J. (2018)
    During 2015, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of transversely polarized protons with Au and Al nuclei for the first time, enabling the exploration of transverse-single-spin asymmetries with heavy nuclei. Large single-spin asymmetries in very forward neutron production have been previously observed in transversely polarized p+p collisions at RHIC, and the existing theoretical framework that was successful in describing the single-spin asymmetry in p+p collisions predicts only a moderate atomic-mass-number (A) dependence. In contrast, the asymmetries observed at RHIC in p+A collisions showed a surprisingly strong A dependence in inclusive forward neutron production. The observed asymmetry in p+Al collisions is much smaller, while the asymmetry in p+Au collisions is a factor of 3 larger in absolute value and of opposite sign. The interplay of different neutron production mechanisms is discussed as a possible explanation of the observed A dependence.
  • Lynch, Fiona; Santana-Sanchez, Anita; Jämsä, Mikael; Sivonen, Anna Kaarina; Aro, Eva-Mari; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut (2015)
    The value and efficiency of microalgal biofuel production can be improved in an integrated system using waste streams as feed-stock, with fuel-rich biomass and treated wastewater being key end-products. We have evaluated seven native cyanobacterial isolates and one native green alga for their nutrient removal, biomass accumulation and lipid production capacities. All native isolates were successfully grown on synthetic wastewater mimicking secondary treated municipal wastewater (without organic carbon). Complete phosphate removal was achieved by the native green alga, isolated from Tvarminne (SW Finland). Optimisation of the C:N ratio available to this strain was achieved by addition of 3% CO2 and resulted in complete ammonium removal in synthetic wastewater. The native green alga demonstrated similar nutrient removal rates and even stronger growth in screened municipal wastewater, which had double the ammonium concentration of the synthetic media and also contained organic carbon. Sequencing of the genes coding for 18S small rRNA subunit and the ITS1 spacer region of this alga placed it in the Scenedesmaceae family. The lipid content of native isolates was evaluated using BODIPY (505/515) staining combined with high-throughput flow cytometry, where the native green alga demonstrated significantly greater neutral lipid accumulation than the cyanobacteria under the conditions studied. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    Events with no charged particles produced between the two leading jets are studied in proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV. The jets were required to have transverse momentum p(T)(jet) > 40 GeV and pseudorapidity 1.5 <vertical bar eta(jet)vertical bar <4.7, and to have values of eta(jet) with opposite signs. The data used for this study were collected with the CMSdetector during low-luminosity running at the LHC, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 8 pb(-1). Events with no charged particles with p(T) > 0.2GeV in the interval -1 <eta <1 between the jets are observed in excess of calculations that assume no color-singlet exchange. The fraction of events with such a rapidity gap, amounting to 0.5-1% of the selected dijet sample, is measured as a function of the pT of the second-leading jet and of the rapidity separation between the jets. The data are compared to previous measurements at the Tevatron, and to perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations based on the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov evolution equations, including different models of the non-perturbative gap survival probability.
  • Pohjoisaho, Esko (2015)
    In the standard pQCD picture particles are produced via the parton jet fragmentation process. However, there are also other production mechanisms like higher twist (HT) processes. A usual example of a HT process is a direct production of an outgoing hadron, where the hadron is produced in the hard subprocess without fragmentation. We study the HT phenomena using a shape analysis (x(T) scaling) of the inclusive invariant cross sections of charged hadrons, measured by the ALICE collaboration at center-of-mass energies root s = 2.76 TeV and 7 TeV. The data is compared to PYTHIA8 event generator and to a phenomenological model for HT. Using PYTHIA8, we explore a possible enhancement of HT phenomena for isolated particles, by comparing the shapes of the isolated distributions to inclusive distributions. The results from the standard PYTHIA8, without HT, is compared to a PYTHIA8 where we had included a HT process. Finally, we found out that the effects observed in the x(T) spectra originate from kinematic biases posed by the isolation cuts, rather than from an enrichment of the HT hadrons at the observed cross sections. A more detailed data analysis is ongoing.