Browsing by Subject "PHYLOGENY"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 44
  • Murillo-Ramos, Leidys; Sihvonen, Pasi; Brehm, Gunnar; Rios-Malaver, Indiana C.; Wahlberg, Niklas (2021)
    Background Molecular DNA sequence data allow unprecedented advances in biodiversity assessments, monitoring schemes and taxonomic works, particularly in poorly-explored areas. They allow, for instance, the sorting of material rapidly into operational taxonomic units (such as BINs -Barcode Index Numbers), sequences can be subject to diverse analyses and, with linked metadata and physical vouchers, they can be examined further by experts. However, a prerequisite for their exploitation is the construction of reference libraries of DNA sequences that represent the existing biodiversity. To achieve these goals for Geometridae (Lepidoptera) moths in Colombia, expeditions were carried out to 26 localities in the northern part of the country in 2015-2019. The aim was to collect specimens and sequence their DNA barcodes and to record a fraction of the species richness and occurrences in one of the most biodiversity-rich countries. These data are the beginning of an identification guide to Colombian geometrid moths, whose identities are currently often provisional only, being morpho species or operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Prior to the current dataset, 99 Geometridae sequences forming 44 BINs from Colombia were publicly available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), covering 20 species only. New information We enrich the Colombian Geometridae database significantly by including DNA barcodes, two nuclear markers, photos of vouchers and georeferenced occurrences of 281 specimens of geometrid moths from different localities. These specimens are classified into 80 genera. Analytical tools on BOLD clustered 157 of the mentioned sequences to existing BINs identified to species level, identified earlier by experts. Another 115 were assigned to BINs that were identified to genus or tribe level only. Eleven specimens did not match any existing BIN on BOLD and are, therefore, new additions to the database. It is likely that many BINs represent undescribed species. Nine short sequences (< 500bp) were not assigned to BINs, but identified to the lowest taxonomic category by expert taxonomists and with comparisons of type material photos. The released new genetic information will help to further progress the systematics of Geometridae. An illustrated catalogue of all new records allows validation of our identifications; it is also the first document of this kind for Colombian Geometridae. All specimens are deposited at the Museo de Zoologia of Universidad de Sucre (MZUS), North Colombia. DNA BINs are reported in this study through dx.doi.org/10.5883/DS-GEOCO, the species occurrences are available on SIB Colombia https://sibcolombia.net/ and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) https://www.gbif.org/ through https://doi.org/10.15472/ucfmkh.
  • Panciroli, Elsa; Walsh, Stig; Fraser, Nicholas C.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Corfe, Ian (2017)
    Tritylodontidae was a successful advanced cynodont clade with a close relationship to mammals, but falling outside the clade Mammaliaformes. Stereognathus ooliticus was the first tritylodontid to be named and described in 1854, but since then no comprehensive description for this species has been produced. A second species, S. hebridicus, was named in 1972 and diagnosed based solely on size difference, being larger than the S. ooliticus holotype. We reexamined all postcanine tooth material attributed to the genus Stereognathus to test the species diagnosis and identify diagnostic morphological characters for this genus. We find no statistical difference in size distribution between S. ooliticus and S. hebridicus postcanine specimens. Specimens previously attributed to the different species fall along an ontogenetic spectrum of size, with no clear clustering. Morphologically, we affirm many previously described features for Stereognathus and identify new morphological features in upper and lower postcanines. We find no morphological features to distinguish these two species, and therefore we synonymize S. hebridicus under S. ooliticus. We reevaluate the scoring of S. ooliticus in previous phylogenetic analyses, generating a new tree using rescored Stereognathus characters. Finally, we suggest that similar reevaluations and redescriptions of other poorly described tritylodontid material are necessary to further clarify relationships among Tritylodontidae and the evolution of characters in derived genera such as Stereognathus.
  • Ribas, Talita Fernanda Augusto; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Griffin, Darren K.; Kiazim, Lucas G.; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; O' Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Yang, Fengtang; Aleixo, Alexandre; O'Connor, Rebecca E. (2021)
    Background Thamnophilidae birds are the result of a monophyletic radiation of insectivorous Passeriformes. They are a diverse group of 225 species and 45 genera and occur in lowlands and lower montane forests of Neotropics. Despite the large degree of diversity seen in this family, just four species of Thamnophilidae have been karyotyped with a diploid number ranging from 76 to 82 chromosomes. The karyotypic relationships within and between Thamnophilidae and another Passeriformes therefore remain poorly understood. Recent studies have identified the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in Passeriformes using in silico data and molecular cytogenetic tools. These results demonstrate that intrachromosomal rearrangements are more common in birds than previously thought and are likely to contribute to speciation events. With this in mind, we investigate the apparently conserved karyotype of Willisornis vidua, the Xingu Scale-backed Antbird, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques including chromosome painting with probes derived from Gallus gallus (chicken) and Burhinus oedicnemus (stone curlew), combined with Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) probes derived from the same species. The goal was to investigate the occurrence of rearrangements in an apparently conserved karyotype in order to understand the evolutionary history and taxonomy of this species. In total, 78 BAC probes from the Gallus gallus and Taeniopygia guttata (the Zebra Finch) BAC libraries were tested, of which 40 were derived from Gallus gallus macrochromosomes 1-8, and 38 from microchromosomes 9-28. Results The karyotype is similar to typical Passeriformes karyotypes, with a diploid number of 2n = 80. Our chromosome painting results show that most of the Gallus gallus chromosomes are conserved, except GGA-1, 2 and 4, with some rearrangements identified among macro- and microchromosomes. BAC mapping revealed many intrachromosomal rearrangements, mainly inversions, when comparing Willisornis vidua karyotype with Gallus gallus, and corroborates the fissions revealed by chromosome painting. Conclusions Willisornis vidua presents multiple chromosomal rearrangements despite having a supposed conservative karyotype, demonstrating that our approach using a combination of FISH tools provides a higher resolution than previously obtained by chromosome painting alone. We also show that populations of Willisornis vidua appear conserved from a cytogenetic perspective, despite significant phylogeographic structure.
  • Rikkinen, Jouko; Meinke, Kristin; Grabenhorst, Heinrich; Gröhn, Carsten; Kobbert, Max; Wunderlich, Jörg; Schmidt, Alexander (2018)
    Calicioid lichens and fungi are a polyphyletic grouping of tiny ascomycetes that accumulate a persistent spore mass (mazaedium) on top of their usually well-stalked ascomata ('mazaediate fungi'). In addition to extant forms, six fossils of the group were previously known from European Paleogene amber. Here we report nine new fossils and analyze the preserved features of all fossils to assess their applicability for dating molecular phylogenies. Many fossils are extremely well preserved, allowing detailed comparisons with modern taxa. SEM investigation reveals that even fine details of ascospore wall ultrastructure correspond to those seen in extant specimens. All fossils can confidently be assigned to modern genera: three to Calicium (Caliciaceae, Lecanoromycetes), five to Chaenotheca (Coniocybaceae, Coniocybomycetes), six to Chaenothecopsis (Mycocaliciaceae, Eurotiales), and one to Phaeocalicium (Mycocaliciaceae, Eurotiales). Several Calicium and Chaenotheca fossils are assignable to specific lineages within their genera, while the Chaenothecopsis fossils demonstrate the extent of intraspecific variation within one such lineage. Some features in the morphology of Chaenotheca succina nov. sp. seem to be ancestral as they have not been reported from modern species of the genus. (C) 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Beimforde, Christina; Tuovila, Hanna; Schmidt, Alexander R.; Lee, William; Gube, Matthias; Rikkinen, Jouko (2017)
    Ascomycetes specialised to live on hardened plant exudates occur worldwide, but the number of species so far described is relatively small (c.30). Particularly within the genus Chaenothecopsis (Ascomycota:Mycocaliciales), many species produce their ascomata on hardened but still relatively fresh outpourings of conifer resin or angiosperm exudate. Temperate rainforests of New Zealand provide habitat for several endemic Chaenothecopsis species, including Chaenothecopsis schefflerae, which was previously known from a single sample collected from the exudate of Schefflera digitata (Araliaceae) in the early 1980s. Here we show that C.schefflerae is neither lost nor very rare, but occurs sporadically throughout New Zealand. The fungus does not primarily grow on Schefflera but on exudate of several species of Pseudopanax (Araliaceae),also endemic to the region. We compare the morphology of the new specimens to the type specimen of C. schefflerae and provide a detailed description of the new material. Phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and LSU rDNA place C.schefflerae together with other morphologically similar Chaenothecopsis species growing on angiosperm exudates.
  • Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Sihvonen, Pasi; Tyllinen, Juha; Tabell, Jukka (2019)
    Morphological traits characterizing and delimiting Pleurotinae (Oecophoridae) are provided and discussed. The evidence supports the validity of the subfamily as suggested by recent molecular studies. The Pleurota aristella (Linnaeus, 1767) species group is characterized, and six new species belonging to the group from Morocco are described: Pleurota tricolor Tabell, sp. nov., P. pellicolor Tabell, sp. nov., P. lacteella Tabell, sp. nov., P. moroccoensis Tabell, sp. nov., P. ochreopalpella Tabell, sp. nov., and P. atlasensis Tabell, sp. nov. Habitus images and label data are provided for the types of P. goundafella Zerny, 1935; P. insignella Zerny, 1935; P. ochreostrigella Baker, 1885; P. macrosella Rebel, 1900; P. staintoniella Baker, 1888; P. mauretanica Baker, 1888; and P. algeriella Baker, 1885. DNA barcodes of the new species are compared with all available Pleurotinae sequences (BIN n = 117) in BOLD.
  • Saura, Anssi; Von Schoultz, Barbara; Saura, Anja O.; Brown, JR., Keith S. (2013)
  • Abdullah,; Henriquez, Claudia L.; Mehmood, Furrukh; Carlsen, Monica M.; Islam, Madiha; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Poczai, Peter; Croat, Thomas B.; Ahmed, Ibrar (2020)
    The subfamily Pothoideae belongs to the ecologically important plant family Araceae. Here, we report the chloroplast genomes of two species of the subfamily Pothoideae:Anthurium huixtlense(size: 163,116 bp) andPothos scandens(size: 164,719 bp). The chloroplast genome ofP. scandensshowed unique contraction and expansion of inverted repeats (IRs), thereby increasing the size of the large single-copy region (LSC: 102,956 bp) and decreasing the size of the small single-copy region (SSC: 6779 bp). This led to duplication of many single-copy genes due to transfer to IR regions from the small single-copy (SSC) region, whereas some duplicate genes became single copy due to transfer to large single-copy regions. The rate of evolution of protein-coding genes was affected by the contraction and expansion of IRs; we found higher mutation rates for genes that exist in single-copy regions as compared to those in IRs. We found a 2.3-fold increase of oligonucleotide repeats inP. scandenswhen compared withA. huixtlense, whereas amino acid frequency and codon usage revealed similarities. The ratio of transition to transversion mutations was 2.26 inP. scandensand 2.12 inA. huixtlense. Transversion mutations mostly translated in non-synonymous substitutions. The phylogenetic inference of the limited species showed the monophyly of the Araceae subfamilies. Our study provides insight into the molecular evolution of chloroplast genomes in the subfamily Pothoideae and family Araceae.
  • Kaasalainen, Ulla; Kukwa, Martin; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander R. (2019)
    Lichens, symbiotic consortia of lichen-forming fungi and their photosynthetic partners have long had an extremely poor fossil record. However, recently over 150 new lichens were identified from European Paleogene amber and here we analyse crustose lichens from the new material. Three fossil lichens belong to the extant genus Ochrolechia (Ochrolechiaceae, Lecanoromycetes) and one fossil has conidiomata similar to those produced by modern fungi of the order Arthoniales (Arthoniomycetes). Intriguingly, two fossil Ochrolechia specimens host lichenicolous fungi of the genus Lichenostigma (Lichenostigmatales, Arthoniomycetes). This confirms that both Ochrolechia and Lichenostigma already diversified in the Paleogene and demonstrates that also the specific association between the fungi had evolved by then. The new fossils provide a minimum age constraint for both genera at 34 million years (uppermost Eocene).
  • Choi, Jaeyoung; Kim, Ki-Tae; Huh, Aram; Kwon, Seomun; Hong, Changyoung; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Jeon, Junhyun; Lee, Yong-Hwan (2015)
    Over the past two decades, epigenetics has evolved into a key concept for understanding regulation of gene expression. Among many epigenetic mechanisms, covalent modifications such as acetylation and methylation of lysine residues on core histones emerged as a major mechanism in epigenetic regulation. Here, we present the database for histone-modifying enzymes (dbHiMo; http://hme.riceblast.snu.ac.kr/) aimed at facilitating functional and comparative analysis of histone-modifying enzymes (HMEs). HMEs were identified by applying a search pipeline built upon profile hidden Markov model (HMM) to proteomes. The database incorporates 11 576 HMEs identified from 603 proteomes including 483 fungal, 32 plants and 51 metazoan species. The dbHiMo provides users with web-based personalized data browsing and analysis tools, supporting comparative and evolutionary genomics. With comprehensive data entries and associated web-based tools, our database will be a valuable resource for future epigenetics/epigenomics studies.
  • Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla (2013)
    A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI ‘barcode’ region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central-Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbor-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular ‘barcode’. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics
  • Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Whitman, William B.; Lindström, Kristina (2017)
    Rhizobium aethiopicum sp. nov. is a newly proposed species within the genus Rhizobium. This species includes six rhizobial strains; which were isolated from root nodules of the legume plant Phaseolus vulgaris growing in soils of Ethiopia. The species fixes nitrogen effectively in symbiosis with the host plant P. vulgaris, and is composed of aerobic, Gram-negative staining, rod-shaped bacteria. The genome of type strain HBR26(T) of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was one of the rhizobial genomes sequenced as a part of the DOE JGI 2014 Genomic Encyclopedia project designed for soil and plant-associated and newly described type strains. The genome sequence is arranged in 62 scaffolds and consists of 6,557,588 bp length, with a 61% G + C content and 6221 protein-coding and 86 RNAs genes. The genome of HBR26(T) contains repABC genes (plasmid replication genes) homologous to the genes found in five different Rhizobium etli CFN42(T) plasmids, suggesting that HBR26(T) may have five additional replicons other than the chromosome. In the genome of HBR26(T), the nodulation genes nodB, nodC, nodS, nodI, nodJ and nodD are located in the same module, and organized in a similar way as nod genes found in the genome of other known common bean-nodulating rhizobial species. nodA gene is found in a different scaffold, but it is also very similar to nodA genes of other bean-nodulating rhizobial strains. Though HBR26(T) is distinct on the phylogenetic tree and based on ANI analysis (the highest value 90.2% ANI with CFN42(T)) from other bean-nodulating species, these nod genes and most nitrogen-fixing genes found in the genome of HBR26(T) share high identity with the corresponding genes of known bean-nodulating rhizobial species (96-100% identity). This suggests that symbiotic genes might be shared between bean-nodulating rhizobia through horizontal gene transfer. R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was grouped into the genus Rhizobium but was distinct from all recognized species of that genus by phylogenetic analyses of combined sequences of the housekeeping genes recA and glnII. The closest reference type strains for HBR26(T) were R. etli CFN42(T) (94% similarity of the combined recA and glnII sequences) and Rhizobium bangladeshense BLR175(T) (93%). Genomic ANI calculation based on protein-coding genes also revealed that the closest reference strains were R. bangladeshense BLR175(T) and R. etli CFN42(T) with ANI values 91.8 and 90.2%, respectively. Nevertheless, the ANI values between HBR26(T) and BLR175(T) or CFN42(T) are far lower than the cutoff value of ANI (> = 96%) between strains in the same species, confirming that HBR26(T) belongs to a novel species. Thus, on the basis of phylogenetic, comparative genomic analyses and ANI results, we formally propose the creation of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. with strain HBR26(T) (= HAMBI 3550(T)= LMG 29711(T)) as the type strain. The genome assembly and annotation data is deposited in the DOE JGI portal and also available at European Nucleotide Archive under accession numbers FMAJ01000001-FMAJ01000062.
  • Sukhorukov, Alexander P.; Sennikov, Alexander; Veranso-Libalah, Marie Claire; Kushunina, Maria; Nilova, Maya; Heath, Roger; Heath, Alison; Mazei, Yuri; Zaika, Maxim A. (2021)
    Glinus is a small genus of Molluginaceae with 8-10 species mostly distributed in the tropics of the World. Its composition and evolutionary relationships were poorly studied. A new molecular phylogeny constructed here using nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (rbcL, trnK-matK) markers confirmed the monophyly of the as sister to the remainder of the genus followed by G. oppositifolius. Three other clades are: G. hirtus with G. orygioides; G. radiatus and G. lotoides; the latter is represented by asample from North America, and G. zambesiacus as sister to G. setiflorus + G. lotoides + G. dictamnoides.On the plastid gene tree, G. bainesii + G. oppositifolius form a sister clade to all other Glinus species. The next clade is formed by G. hirtus and G. orygioides followed by G. radiatus plus an American sample of G. lotoides. The next branch comprises G. setiflorus as sister to G. zambesiacus + G. lotoides + G. dictamnoides. Glinus seems to have originated from Africa around the Late Eocene or Early Miocene, with further radiations to Australia and the Americas during the Late Miocene or Late Pliocene. Compared with the previous limited character set used for the diagnostics, we have found ten new morphological and carpological traits distinguishing Glinus members. In both trees based on nuclear and plastid datasets, the major phylogenetic clades cannot be characterized by the peculiar morphological characters. Many shared character states leading to their contrasting pattern in the multivariate analysis model are interpreted as a high homoplasy in the phylogenetically distant species. We paid special attention to the composition of the genus in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region with the greatest species diversity. Our results provide new insight into the taxonomy of Glinus in this region. Glinus lotoides var. virens accepted in many previous works is a synonym of G. dictamnoides that is closely related to G. lotoides based on molecular analysis and morphological characters. The status of the American populations of G. lotoides needs further investigation due to different characters of the specimens from the Old and the New World. Many specimens previously identified as G. lotoides var. virens and as the intermediates G. lotoides x G. oppositifolius belong to G. zambesiacus sp. nov. and G. hirtus comb. nov. (= Mollugo hirta); the latter species is resurrected from synonymy after 200 years of unacceptance. In some African treatments, G. hirtus was known under the invalidly published name G. dahomensis. Glinus zambesiacus is distributed in the southern and eastern parts of tropical Africa, and G. hirtus previously assumed to be endemic to West Africa is indeed a species with a wide distribution across the tropical part of the continent. Glinus microphyllus previously accepted as endemic to West Tropical Africa together with other new synonyms (G. oppositifolius var. lanatus, G. herniarioides, Wycliffea rotundifolia) is considered here as G. oppositifolius var. keenanii comb. nov. (= Mollugo hirta var. keenanii), a variety found across the entire distribution of G. oppositifolius (Australia, Asia, and Africa). The presence of the American G. radiatus in Africa is not confirmed, and all records of this species belong to G. hirtus. M. setiflora, Pharnaceum pentagynum, Wycliffea) as well as a neotype of G. trianthemoides are designated. A new key to the identification of all Glinus species in Sub-Saharan Africa is provided. A checklist is given of all accepted species in this region (G. bainesii, G. hirtus, G. lotoides, G. oppositifolius s.l., G. setiflorus, and G. zambesiacus) with their nomenclature, morphological description and geographical distribution.
  • Chen, Yuan X.; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Qiang; Li, Qi Q.; Wang, Chang Q.; Xu, Kai W. (2018)
    We isolated 65 rhizobial strains from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) from Panxi, China, studied their plant growth promoting ability with nitrogen free hydroponics, genetic diversity with clustered analysis of combined ARDRA and IGS-RFLP, and phylogeny by sequence analyses of 16S rRNA gene, three housekeeping genes and symbiosis related genes. Eleven strains improved the plant shoot dry mass significantly comparing to that of not inoculated plants. According to the clustered analysis of combined ARDRA and IGS-RFLP the isolates were genetically diverse. Forty-one of 65 isolates represented Rhizobium anhuiense, and the others belonged to R. fabae, Rhizobium vallis, Rhizobium sophorae, Agrobacterium radiobacter, and four species related to Rhizobium and Agrobacterium. The isolates carried four and five genotypes of nifH and nodC, respectively, in six different nifH-nodC combinations. When looking at the species-nifH-nodC combinations it is noteworthy that all but two of the six R. anhuiense isolates were different. Our results suggested that faba bean rhizobia in Panxi are diverse at species, plant growth promoting ability and symbiosis related gene levels.
  • Ahti, Teuvo; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Schultz, Matthias; Tehler, Anders; Fryday, Alan M. (2016)
  • Kaasalainen, Ulla Susanna; Rikkinen, Jouko Kalevi; Schmidt, Alexander (2020)
    Fruticose lichens of the genus Usnea Dill. ex Adans. (Parmeliaceae), generally known as beard lichens, are among the most iconic epiphytic lichens in modern forest ecosystems. Many of the c. 350 currently recognized species are widely distributed and have been used as bioindicators in air pollution studies. Here we demonstrate that usneoid lichens were present in the Palaeogene amber forests of Europe. Based on general morphology and annular cortical fragmentation, one fossil from Baltic amber can be assigned to the extant genus Usnea. The unique type of cortical cracking indirectly demonstrates the presence of a central cord that keeps the branch intact even when its cortex is split into vertebrae-like segments. This evolutionary innovation has remained unchanged since the Palaeogene, contributing to the considerable ecological flexibility that allows Usnea species to flourish in a wide variety of ecosystems and climate regimes. The fossil sets the minimum age for Usnea to 34 million years (late Eocene). While the other similar fossils from Baltic and Bitterfeld ambers cannot be definitely assigned to the same genus, they underline the diversity of pendant lichens in Palaeogene amber forests.
  • Kantelinen, Annina; Hyvärinen, Marko; Kirika, Paul; Myllys, Leena (2021)
    The genus Micarea was studied for the first time in the Taita Hills, Kenya. Based on new collections and existing data, we reconstructed a phylogeny using ITS, mtSSU and Mcm7 regions, and generated a total of 27 new sequences. Data were analyzed using maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods. Based mainly on new collections, we discovered four undescribed well-supported lineages, characterized by molecular and phenotypic features. These lineages are described here as Micarea pumila, M. stellaris, M. taitensis and M. versicolor. Micarea pumila is characterized by a minutely granular thallus, small cream-white or pale brownish apothecia, small ascospores and the production of prasinic acid. Micarea stellaris has a warted-areolate thallus, cream-white apothecia usually darker at the centre, a hymenium of light grey or brownish pigment that dissolves in K, and intense crystalline granules that appear as a belt-like continuum across the lower hymenium when studied in polarized light. Micarea taitensis is characterized by a warted-areolate thallus and cream-white or yellowish apothecia that sometimes produce the Sedifolia-grey pigment. Micarea versicolor is characterized by a warted-areolate, sometimes partly granular thallus and apothecia varying from cream-white to light grey to blackish in colour. This considerable variation in the coloration of its apothecia is caused by an occasional mixture of the Sedifolia-grey pigment in the epihymenium and another purplish brown pigment in the hymenium. Micarea stellaris, M. taitensis and M. versicolor produce methoxymicareic acid. The main distinguishing characters are presented in a species synopsis. Three of the new species are nested in the M. prasina group, and the fourth one (M. taitensis) resolves as a basal taxon to the M. prasina group. The new species inhabit montane cloud forests, which have fragmented dramatically throughout the Eastern Arc Mountains in recent decades.
  • Zou, Lan; Chen, Yuan Xue; Penttinen, Petri; Lan, Qin; Wang, Ke; Liu, Ming; Peng, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Zeng, Xiangzhong; Xu, Kai Wei (2016)
    Thirty-one nodulating rhizobium strains were collected from root nodules of spring and winter type faba bean cultivars grown in micro ecoarea, i.e. the same field in Chengdu plain, China. The symbiotic efficiency and phylogeny of these strains were studied. Effectively nitrogen fixing strains were isolated from both winter type and spring type cultivars. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and concatenated sequence of atpD, glnII and recA genes, the isolates were assigned as Rhizobium anhuiense and a potential new Rhizobium species. The isolates were diverse on symbiosis related gene level, carrying five, four and three variants of nifH, nodC and nodD, respectively. Strains carrying similar gene combinations were trapped by both winter and spring cultivars, disagreeing with the specificity of symbiotic genotypes to reported earlier faba bean ecotypes.