Browsing by Subject "PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES"

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  • Smolcic, V.; Miettinen, O.; Tomicic, N.; Zamorani, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Lemaux, B. C.; Aravena, M.; Capak, P.; Chiang, Y. -K.; Civano, F.; Delvecchio, I.; Ilbert, O.; Jurlin, N.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; Le Fevre, O.; Marchesi, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Tasca, L.; Toft, S. (2017)
    We investigate the environment of 23 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) drawn from a signal-to-noise (S/N)-limited sample of SMGs originally discovered in the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)/AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum survey of a Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) subfield and then followed up with the Submillimetre Array and Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 890 mu m and 1.3 mm, respectively. These SMGs already have well-defined multiwavelength counterparts and redshifts. We also analyse the environments of four COSMOS SMGs spectroscopically confirmed to lie at redshifts z(spec) > 4 : 5, and one at z(spec) = 2 : 49 resulting in a total SMG sample size of 28. We search for overdensities using the COSMOS photometric redshifts based on over 30 UV-NIR photometric measurements including the new UltraVISTA data release 2 and Spitzer/SPLASH data, and reaching an accuracy of sigma(Delta z/(1+z)) = (1 + z) = 0 : 0067 (0 : 0155) at z <3 : 5 (> 3.5). To identify overdensities we apply the Voronoi tessellation analysis, and estimate the redshift-space overdensity estimator delta(g) as a function of distance from the SMG and/or overdensity centre. We test and validate our approach via simulations, X-ray detected groups or clusters, and spectroscopic verifications using VUDS and zCOSMOS catalogues which show that even with photometric redshifts in the COSMOS field we can e ffi ciently retrieve overdensities out to z approximate to 5. Our results yield that 11 out of 23 (48%) JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm SMGs occupy overdense environments. Considering the entire JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm S = N >= 4 sample and taking the expected fraction of spurious detections into account, this means that 35-61% of the SMGs in the S/N-limited sample occupy overdense environments. We perform an X-ray stacking analysis in the 0.5-2 keV band using a 32 '' aperture and our SMG positions, and find statistically significant detections. For our z <2 subsample we find an average flux of (4.0 +/- 0.8) x 10(-16) erg s(-1) cm(-2) and a corresponding total mass of M-200 = 2.8 x 10(13) M-circle dot. The z > 2 subsample yields an average flux of (1.3 +/- 0.5) x 10(-16) erg s(-1) cm(-2) and a corresponding total mass of M-200 = 2 x 10(13) M-circle dot. Our results suggest a higher occurrence of SMGs occupying overdense environments at z >= 3 than at z <3. This may be understood if highly star-forming galaxies can only be formed in the highest peaks of the density field tracing the most massive dark matter haloes at early cosmic epochs, while at later times cosmic structure may have matured su ffi ciently that more modest overdensities correspond to su ffi ciently massive haloes to form SMGs.
  • Tison, J. -L.; Schwegmann, S.; Dieckmann, G.; Rintala, J. -M.; Meyer, H.; Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Nomura, D.; Engberg, S.; Blomster, L. J.; Hendrickx, S.; Uhlig, C.; Luhtanen, A. -M.; de Jong, J.; Janssens, J.; Carnat, G.; Zhou, J.; Delille, B. (2017)
    Sea ice is a dynamic biogeochemical reactor and a double interface actively interacting with both the atmosphere and the ocean. However, proper understanding of its annual impact on exchanges, and therefore potentially on the climate, notably suffer from the paucity of autumnal and winter data sets. Here we present the results of physical and biogeochemical investigations on winter Antarctic pack ice in the Weddell Sea (R. V. Polarstern AWECS cruise, June-August 2013) which are compared with those from two similar studies conducted in the area in 1986 and 1992. The winter 2013 was characterized by a warm sea ice cover due to the combined effects of deep snow and frequent warm cyclones events penetrating southward from the open Southern Ocean. These conditions were favorable to high ice permeability and cyclic events of brine movements within the sea ice cover (brine tubes), favoring relatively high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations. We discuss the timing of this algal activity showing that arguments can be presented in favor of continued activity during the winter due to the specific physical conditions. Large-scale sea ice model simulations also suggest a context of increasingly deep snow, warm ice, and large brine fractions across the three observational years, despite the fact that the model is forced with a snowfall climatology. This lends support to the claim that more severe Antarctic sea ice conditions, characterized by a longer ice season, thicker, and more concentrated ice are sufficient to increase the snow depth and, somehow counterintuitively, to warm the ice.
  • Mannfors, E.; Juvela, M.; Bronfman, L.; Eden, D. J.; He, J.; Kim, G.; Kim, K-T; Kirppu, H.; Liu, T.; Montillaud, J.; Parsons, H.; Sanhueza, P.; Shang, H.; Soam, A.; Tatematsu, K.; Traficante, A.; Vaisala, M. S.; Lee, C. W. (2021)
    Context. Although the basic processes of star formation (SF) are known, more research is needed on SF across multiple scales and environments. The Planck all-sky survey provided a large catalog of Galactic cold clouds and clumps that have been the target of several follow-up surveys. Aims. We aim to characterize a diverse selection of dense, potentially star-forming cores, clumps, and clouds within the Milky Way in terms of their dust emission and SF activity. Methods. We studied 53 fields that have been observed in the JCMT SCUBA-2 continuum survey SCOPE and have been mapped with Herschel. We estimated dust properties by fitting Herschel observations with modified blackbody functions, studied the relationship between dust temperature and dust opacity spectral index beta, and estimated column densities. We extracted clumps from the SCUBA-2 850 mu m maps with the FellWalker algorithm and examined their masses and sizes. Clumps are associated with young stellar objects found in several catalogs. We estimated the gravitational stability of the clumps with virial analysis. The clumps are categorized as unbound starless, prestellar, or protostellar. Results. We find 529 dense clumps, typically with high column densities from (0.3-4.8) x 10(22) cm(-2), with a mean of (1.5 +/- 0.04) x10(22) cm(-2), low temperatures (T similar to 10-20 K), and estimated submillimeter beta = 1.7 +/- 0.1. We detect a slight increase in opacity spectral index toward millimeter wavelengths. Masses of the sources range from 0.04 M-circle dot to 4259 M-circle dot. Mass, linear size, and temperature are correlated with distance. Furthermore, the estimated gravitational stability is dependent on distance, and more distant clumps appear more virially bound. Finally, we present a catalog of properties of the clumps. Conclusions. Our sources present a large array of SF regions, from high-latitude, nearby diffuse clouds to large SF complexes near the Galactic center. Analysis of these regions will continue with the addition of molecular line data, which will allow us to study the densest regions of the clumps in more detail.
  • Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Uctasli, Merve; Cibelik, Hatice Sümeyye; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu (2021)
    Objective. To determine whether the effect of dentin moisture on the etch-and-rinse bond -ing may be minimized by dry-bonding protocols utilizing aqueous or ethanolic dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) pretreatments. Methods. H3PO4-etched mid-coronal dentin surfaces from human molars were randomly blot-or air-dried for 30 s and pretreated with DMSO/H2O or DMSO/EtOH solutions. Untreated samples served as control. Moisture control was performed by either blot-or air-drying. Samples were bonded with a multistep etch-and-rinse adhesive. Restored crown segments (n = 8/group) were stored in distilled water for 24 h and sectioned for microtensile bond strength testing. Resin-dentin beams (0.8 mm(2)) were tested under tension until fracture (0.5 mm/min) after 24 h and two years of storage in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. SEM nanoleakage evaluation was performed on aged samples. Collagen wettability was also measured by sessile drops of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic bonding resins (n = 8/group). Data were examined by factorial ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (alpha = 0.05). Results. Dry bonding to untreated collagen produced inferior immediate and long-term bond strengths than wet bonding (p < 0.05). Regardless of initial hydration and moisture control, DMSO-dry bonding produced initially higher and stable bond strengths after aging (p < 0.05). DMSO-pretreated groups presented improved collagen wettability with lower silver uptake (p < 0.05). Significance. Despite the common belief that etch-and-rinse adhesives must be applied onto moist collagen, DMSO-dry bonding protocols not only improved bonding performance and hybrid layer integrity, but also brought more versatility to collagen hybridization by reducing overdrying-related issues. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Academy of Dental Materials.
  • Zanatta, Marco; Laj, Paolo; Gysel, Martin; Baltensperger, Urs; Vratolis, Stergios; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kondo, Yutaka; Dubuisson, Philippe; Winiarek, Victor; Kazadzis, Stelios; Tunved, Peter; Jacobi, Hans-Werner (2018)
    Atmospheric aging promotes internal mixing of black carbon (BC), leading to an enhancement of light absorption and radiative forcing. The relationship between BC mixing state and consequent absorption enhancement was never estimated for BC found in the Arctic region. In the present work, we aim to quantify the absorption enhancement and its impact on radiative forcing as a function of microphysical properties and mixing state of BC observed in situ at the Zeppelin Arctic station (78 degrees N) in the spring of 2012 during the CLIMSLIP (Climate impacts of short-lived pollutants in the polar region) project. Single-particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements showed a mean mass concentration of refractory black carbon (rBC) of 39 ngm(-3), while the rBC mass size distribution was of lognormal shape, peaking at an rBC mass-equivalent diameter (D-rBC) of around 240 nm. On average, the number fraction of particles containing a BC core with D-rBC > 80 nm was less than 5% in the size range (overall optical particle diameter) from 150 to 500 nm. The BC cores were internally mixed with other particulate matter. The median coating thickness of BC cores with 220 nm <D-rBC <260 nm was 52 nm, resulting in a core-shell diameter ratio of 1.4, assuming a coated sphere morphology. Combining the aerosol absorption coefficient observed with an Aethalometer and the rBC mass concentration from the SP2, a mass absorption cross section (MAC) of 9.8 m(2) g(-1) was inferred at a wavelength of 550 nm. Consistent with direct observation, a similar MAC value (8.4m(2) g(-1) at 550 nm) was obtained indirectly by using Mie theory and assuming a coated-sphere morphology with the BC mixing state constrained from the SP2 measurements. According to these calculations, the lensing effect is estimated to cause a 54% enhancement of the MAC compared to that of bare BC particles with equal BC core size distribution. Finally, the ARTDECO radiative transfer model was used to estimate the sensitivity of the radiative balance to changes in light absorption by BC as a result of a varying degree of internal mixing at constant total BC mass. The clear-sky noontime aerosol radiative forcing over a surface with an assumed wavelength-dependent albedo of 0.76-0.89 decreased, when ignoring the absorption enhancement, by -0.12 Wm(-2) compared to the base case scenario, which was constrained with mean observed aerosol properties for the Zeppelin site in Arctic spring. The exact magnitude of this forcing difference scales with environmental conditions such as the aerosol optical depth, solar zenith angle and surface albedo. Nevertheless, our investigation suggests that the absorption enhancement due to internal mixing of BC, which is a systematic effect, should be considered for quantifying the aerosol radiative forcing in the Arctic region.
  • Wiedenmann, Verena; Oehlke, Kathleen; van der Schaaf, Ulrike; Koivula, Hanna; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Karbstein, Heike P. (2019)
    Protein films can be applied to improve food quality and to reduce packaging waste. To overcome their poor water barrier properties, lipids are often incorporated. The function of incorporated lipid depends on the interface between filler and matrix. This study aimed to tailor the properties of a protein–lipid film by designing the oil/water interface to see if the concept of inactive/active filler is valid. Therefore, we varied the emulsifier stabilizing solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) to promote (viaβ-lactoglobulin) or to minimize (via Tween 20) interactions between particle surface and protein. SLN were incorporated into protein films and film properties were determined. Addition of SLN led to significantly decreased water vapor permeability (WVP) of protein films. However, WVP was mainly affected by the emulsifiers and not by the lipid. Protein-stabilized SLN (BS) replaced a lacking protein in the protein network and therefore did not influence the mechanical properties of the films at ambient temperature. BS-composite films were temperature sensitive, as lipid and sucrose palmitate melted at temperatures above 40°C. Tween 20-stabilized SLN(TS) led to reduced tensile strengths, probably due to perturbative effects of TS and plasticizing effects of Tween 20. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that TS and Tween 20 increased film mobility. Melting of lipid and emulsifiers, and temperature-dependent behavior of Tween 20 led to a strong temperature dependence of the film stiffness. By designing the interface, particles can be used to tailor mechanical properties of protein films. Tuned edible films could be used to control mass transfers between foods.
  • Mäkelä, Noora; Maina, Ndegwa H.; Vikgren, Päivi; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula (2017)
    Viscosity of cereal beta-glucan during digestion is considered to be a vital factor for its health effects. Thus, studies on solution properties and gelation are essential for understanding the mechanisms of the beta-glucan functionality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the dissolution temperature on gelation of cereal beta-glucan at low concentrations that are relevant for food products. The rheological properties of oat and barley beta-glucans (OBG and BBG) using three dissolution temperatures (37 degrees C, 57 degrees C and 85 degrees C) at low concentration (1.5% and 1%, respectively) were studied for 7 days. Additionally, the beta-glucans were oxidised with 70 mM H2O2 and 1 mM FeSO4 x 7H(2)O as a catalyst, to evaluate the consequence of oxidative degradation on the gelation properties. The study showed that dissolution at 85 degrees C did not result in gelation. The optimal dissolution temperature for gelation of OBG was 37 degrees C and for gelation of BBG 57 degrees C. At these temperatures, also the oxidised OBG and BBG gelled, although the gel strength was somewhat lower than in the non-oxidised ones. Gelation was suggested to require partial dissolution of beta-glucan, which depended on the molar mass and aggregation state of the beta-glucan molecule. Therefore, the state of beta-glucan in solution and its thermal treatment history may affect its technological and physiological functionality. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Rantamäki, Antti; Chen, Wen; Hyväri, Paulus; Helminen, Jussi; Partl, Gabriel; King, Alistair W. T.; Wiedmer, Susanne (2019)
    Understanding the toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) is crucial in the search of greener chemicals. By comparing in vivo toxicity and in vitro interactions determined between compounds and biomimetic lipid membranes, more detailed toxicity vs. structure relation can be obtained. However, determining the interactions between non-surface-active compounds and liposomes has been a challenging task. Organisational changes induced by ILs and IL-like spirocyclic compounds within 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene-doped biomimetic liposomes was studied by steady-state fluorescence anisotropy technique. The extent of organisational changes detected within the liposome bilayers were compared to the toxicity of the compounds determined using Vibrio Fischeri bacteria. Four liposome compositions made of pure 1-palmitoyl-2-oleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (POPC) and mixtures of POPC, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (POPS), and cholesterol (Chol) were tested as biomimetic models. Changes observed within the POPC/POPS/Chol 55:20:25 bilayers correlated the best with the toxicity results: ten out of twelve compounds followed the trend of increasing bilayer disorder - increasing toxicity. The study suggests that the toxicity of non-surface-active compounds is dependent on their ability to diffuse into the bilayers. The extent of bilayer's organisational changes correlates rather well with the toxicity of the compounds. Highly sensitive technique, such as fluorescence anisotropy measurements, is needed for detecting subtle changes within the bilayer structures.
  • Marques, Maria Jose; Schwilch, Gudrun; Lauterburg, Nina; Crittenden, Stephen; Tesfai, Mehreteab; Stolte, Jannes; Zdruli, Pandi; Zucca, Claudio; Petursdottir, Thorunn; Evelpidou, Niki; Karkani, Anna; AsliYilmazgil, Yasemen; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Yirdaw, Eshetu; Kanninen, Markku; Luis Rubio, Jose; Schmiedel, Ute; Doko, Adrian (2016)
  • Viitaja, Tuomo; Raitanen, Jan-Erik; Hynynen, Antti; Moilanen, Jukka; Svedström, Kirsi; Paananen, Riku O.; Ekholm, Filip S. (2022)
    The tear film lipid layer (TFLL) is important to the maintenance of ocular surface health. Surprisingly, information on the individual roles of the myriad of unique lipids found therein is limited. The most abundant lipid species are the wax esters (WE) and cholesteryl esters (CE), and, especially their branched analogs. The isolation of these lipid species from the TFLL has proved to be tedious, and as a result, insights on their biophysical profiles and role in the TFLL is currently lacking. Herein, we circumvent these issues by a total synthesis of the most abundant iso-methyl branched WEs and CEs found in the TFLL. Through a detailed characterization of the biophysical properties, by the use of Langmuir monolayer and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques, we demonstrate that chain branching alters the behavior of these lipid species on multiple levels. Taken together, our results fill an important knowledge gap concerning the structure and function of the TFLL on the whole.
  • Lassila, Petri Joonas; Valoppi, Fabio; Tommiska, Oskari Mikael; Hyvönen, Jere Tapio Johannes; Holmström, Axi; Hietala, Sami; Salmi, Ari; Haeggström, Edward (2022)
    Lipid-based materials, such as substitutes for saturated fats (oleogels) structurally modified with ultrasonic standing waves (USW), have been developed by our group. To enable their potential application in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics, practical and economical production methods are needed. Here, we report scale-up of our procedure of structurally modifying oleogels via the use of USW by a factor of 200 compared to our previous microfluidic chamber. To this end, we compared three different USW chamber prototypes through finite element simulations (FEM) and experimental work. Imaging of the internal structure of USW-treated oleogels was used as feedback for successful development of chambers, i.e., the formation of band-like structures was the guiding factor in chamber development. We then studied the bulk mechanical properties by a uniaxial compression test of the sonicated oleogels obtained with the most promising USW chamber, and sampled local mechanical properties using scanning acoustic microscopy. The results were interpreted using a hyperelastic foam model. The stability of the sonicated oleogels was compared to control samples using automated image analysis oil-release tests. This work enabled the effective mechanical-structural manipulation of oleogels in volumes of 10-100 mL, thus paving the way for USW treatments of large-scale lipid-based materials.
  • Uusitalo, Jori; Ala-Ilomaki, Jari; Lindeman, Harri; Toivio, Jenny; Siren, Matti (2020)
    Key message Rut depth in fine-grained boreal soils induced by an 8-wheeled forwarder is best predicted with soil moisture content, cumulative mass of machine passes, bulk density and thickness of the humus layer. Context Forest machines are today very heavy and will cause serious damage to soil and prevent future growth if forest operations are carried out at the wrong time of the year. Forest operations performed during the wettest season should therefore be directed at coarse-grained soils that are not as prone to soil damage. Aims The study aimed at investigating the significance of the most important soil characteristics on rutting and developing models that can be utilized in predicting rutting prior to forest operations. Methods A set of wheeling tests on two fine-grained mineral soil stands in Southern Finland were performed. The wheeling experiments were conducted in three different periods of autumn in order to get the largest possible variation in moisture content. The test drives were carried out with an 8-wheeled forwarder. Results Soil moisture content is the most important factor affecting rut depth. Rut depth of an 8-wheeled forwarder in fine-grained boreal soil is best predicted with soil moisture content, cumulative mass of machine passes, bulk density and thickness of the humus layer. Conclusion The results emphasize the importance of moisture content on the risk of rutting in fine-grained mineral soils, especially with high moisture content values when soil saturation reaches 80%. The results indicate that it is of high importance that soil type and soil wetness can be predicted prior to forest operations.
  • Vakkari, Ville; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Beukes, Johan Paul; Tiitta, Petri; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Josipovic, Miroslav; Venter, Andrew D.; Jaars, Kerneels; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, Markku; Laakso, Lauri (2014)
  • Paradis, D.; Meny, C.; Juvela, M.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Ristorcelli, I. (2019)
    Context. Some Galactic molecular clouds show signs of dust evolution as compared to the diffuse interstellar medium, most of the time through indirect evidence such as color ratios, increased dust emissivity, or scattering (coreshine). These signs are not a feature of all Galactic clouds. Moreover, molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have been analyzed in a previous study based on Spitzer and IRIS data, at 4' angular resolution, with the use of one single dust model, and did not show any signs of dust evolution. Aims. In this present analysis we investigate the dust properties associated with the different gas phases (including the ionized phase this time) of the LMC molecular clouds at 1' angular resolution (four times greater than the previous analysis) and with a larger spectral coverage range thanks to Herschel data. We also ensure the robustness of our results in the framework of various dust models. Methods. We performed a decomposition of the dust emission in the infrared (from 3.6 to 500 mu m) associated with the atomic, molecular, and ionized gas phases in the molecular clouds of the LMC. The resulting spectral energy distributions were fitted with four distinct dust models. We then analyzed the model parameters such as the intensity of the radiation field and the relative dust abundances, as well as the slope of the emission spectra at long wavelengths. Results. This work allows dust models to be compared with infrared data in various environments for the first time, which reveals important differences between the models at short wavelengths in terms of data fitting (mainly in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bands). In addition, this analysis points out distinct results according to the gas phases, such as dust composition directly affecting the dust temperature and the dust emissivity in the submillimeter and different dust emission in the near-infrared (NIR). Conclusions. We observe direct evidence of dust property evolution from the diffuse to the dense medium in a large sample of molecular clouds in the LMC. In addition, the differences in the dust component abundances between the gas phases could indicate different origins of grain formation. We also point out the presence of a NIR-continuum in all gas phases, with an enhancement in the ionized gas. We favor the hypothesis of an additional dust component as the carrier of this continuum.
  • Bhattarai, Mamata; Penttilä, Paavo; Barba, Luisa; Macias-Rodriguez, Braulio; Hietala, Sami; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Valoppi, Fabio (2022)
    Oleogels are a class of solid-fat mimetics that contain a large fraction of oil. Most of these materials have low stiffness and poor oil-binding capacity at commercially viable concentrations, which limits their application in the food and cosmetic industries. To improve their mechanical behavior, we exploited the concepts of particulate-filled materials by developing oil-continuous monoglyceride composites reinforced with crystalline cellulose of various sizes. Cellulose was used as the reinforcing filler material due to its strength, biodegradability, and abundance. The composites gradually stiffened and became more brittle with a progressive increase of the cellulose weight fraction as the maximum packing fraction of fillers approached. This was manifested as an increase in the viscoelastic moduli and yield stress, consistent with the size of the filler. Based on differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray scattering analyses, and microscopic analyses, the inert surface of crystalline celluloses provided a solid substrate for the crystallization of monoglycerides, favoring the lamellar stacking of monoglyceride molecules during the composite oleogel formation regardless of the cellulose size. The present study suggests that cellulose is a suitable bio-based filler material to obtain mechanically strong oleogels suitable for high-shear applications e.g., in food and pharmaceutical industries.
  • Vihma, T.; Mattila, Olli-Pekka; Pirazzini, R.; Johansson, M. M. (2011)
  • Palonen, Pauliina; Pinomaa, Anni; Tommila, Tero Kalervo (2017)
    Growing raspberries in polyethylene tunnels is becoming more and more common. We wanted to examine the effect of high tunnel growing conditions on yield and berry quality in three floricane raspberry cultivars, 'Glen Ample', 'Glen Dee', and 'Maurin Makea', under Northern high-latitude conditions. Compared to the open field, fruit yield per cane was doubled in the tunnel. Fruit bioactive properties, including phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, were not affected by the tunnel growing conditions. Of the cultivars investigated, 'Glen Dee' fruit had the lowest concentration of total phenolics. In the open field, the total phenolics content in 'Glen Ample' berries was 48% higher than 'Glen Dee'. Berries grown in the open field had higher contents of soluble solids (degrees Brix) and higher titratable acidity than those grown in the tunnel. Additionally, 'Glen Ample' and 'Maurin Makea' berries were sweeter than 'Glen Dee' berrieg. In conclusion, raspberry production in polyethylene tunnels may provide major benefits through increased fruit yield. While fruit bioactive properties were not affected, sensory taste may be different, however, as berry sweetness and acidity were decreased in the high tunnel. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Nevalainen, J.; Tempel, E.; Ahoranta, J.; Liivamägi, L. J.; Bonamente, M.; Tilton, E.; Kaastra, J.; Fang, T.; Heinämäki, P.; Saar, E.; Finoguenov, A. (2019)
    The cosmological missing baryons at z <1 most likely hide in the hot (T greater than or similar to 10(5.5) K) phase of the warm hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). While the hot WHIM is hard to detect due to its high ionisation level, the warm (T less than or similar to 10(5.5) K) phase of the WHIM has been very robustly detected in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) band. We adopted the assumption that the hot and warm WHIM phases are co-located and therefore used the FUV-detected warm WHIM as a tracer for the cosmologically interesting hot WHIM. We performed an X-ray follow-up in the sight line of the blazar PKS 2155-304 at the redshifts where previous FUV measurements of O VI, Si IV, and broad Lyman-alpha (BLA) absorption have indicated the existence of the warm WHIM. We looked for the O VII Hc alpha and O VIII Ly alpha absorption lines, the most likely hot WHIM tracers. Despite the very large exposure time (approximate to 1 Ms), the Reflection Grating Spectrometer unit 1 (RGS1) on-board XMM-Newton data yielded no significant detection which corresponds to upper limits of log N(O VII (cm(-2)))
  • Salminen, Linda; Karjalainen, Erno; Aseyev, Vladimir; Tenhu, Heikki (2021)
    This article introduces butyl acrylate-based materials that are toughened with dynamic crosslinkers. These dynamic crosslinkers are salts where both the anion and cation polymerize. The ion pairs between the polymerized anions and cations form dynamic crosslinks that break and reform under deformation. Chemical crosslinker was used to bring shape stability. The extent of dynamic and chemical crosslinking was related to the mechanical and thermal properties of the materials. Furthermore, the dependence of the material properties on different dynamic crosslinkers-tributyl-(4-vinylbenzyl)ammonium sulfopropyl acrylate (C4ASA) and trihexyl-(4-vinylbenzyl)ammonium sulfopropyl acrylate (C6ASA)-was studied. The materials' mechanical and thermal properties were characterized by means of tensile tests, dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The dynamic crosslinks strengthened the materials considerably. Chemical crosslinks decreased the elasticity of the materials but did not significantly affect their strength. Comparison of the two ionic crosslinkers revealed that changing the crosslinker from C4ASA to C6ASA results in more elastic, but slightly weaker materials. In conclusion, dynamic crosslinks provide substantial enhancement of mechanical properties of the materials. This is a unique approach that is utilizable for a wide variety of polymer materials.
  • Plappert, Sven F.; Quraishi, Sakeena; Pircher, Nicole; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Veigel, Stefan; Klinger, Karl Michael; Potthast, Antje; Rosenau, Thomas; Liebner, Falk W. (2018)
    2,3-Dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) of a high degree of oxidation (92% relative to AGU units) prepared by oxidation of microcrystalline cellulose with sodium periodate (48 degrees C, 19 h) is soluble in hot water. Solution casting, slow air drying, hot pressing, and reinforcement by cellulose nanocrystals afforded films (similar to 100 mu m thickness) that feature intriguing properties: they have very smooth surfaces (SEM), are highly flexible, and have good light transmittance for both the visible and near-infrared range (89-91%), high tensile strength (81-122 MPa), and modulus of elasticity (3.4-4.0 GPa) depending on hydration state and respective water content. The extraordinarily low oxygen permeation of