Browsing by Subject "PHYSIOLOGY"

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  • Voutilainen, Liisa; Henttonen, Pentti; Kahri, Mikko; Kivioja, Maari; Ravaja, Niklas; Sams, Mikko; Perakyla, Anssi (2014)
  • van der Lugt, Benthe; van Beek, Adriaan A.; Aalvink, Steven; Meijer, Ben; Sovran, Bruno; Vermeij, Wilbert P.; Brandt, Renata M. C.; de Vos, Willem M.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Steegenga, Wilma T.; Belzer, Clara (2019)
    BackgroundThe use of Akkermansia muciniphila as potential therapeutic intervention is receiving increasing attention. Health benefits attributed to this bacterium include an improvement of metabolic disorders and exerting anti-inflammatory effects. The abundance of A. muciniphila is associated with a healthy gut in early mid- and later life. However, the effects of A. muciniphila on a decline in intestinal health during the aging process are not investigated yet. We supplemented accelerated aging Ercc1(-/7) mice with A. muciniphila for 10weeks and investigated histological, transcriptional and immunological aspects of intestinal health.ResultsThe thickness of the colonic mucus layer increased about 3-fold after long-term A. muciniphila supplementation and was even significantly thicker compared to mice supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Colonic gene expression profiles pointed towards a decreased expression of genes and pathways related to inflammation and immune function, and suggested a decreased presence of B cells in colon. Total B cell frequencies in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were not altered after A. muciniphila supplementation. Mature and immature B cell frequencies in bone marrow were increased, whereas B cell precursors were unaffected. These findings implicate that B cell migration rather than production was affected by A. muciniphila supplementation. Gene expression profiles in ileum pointed toward a decrease in metabolic- and immune-related processes and antimicrobial peptide production after A. muciniphila supplementation. Besides, A. muciniphila decreased the frequency of activated CD80(+)CD273(-) B cells in Peyer's patches. Additionally, the increased numbers of peritoneal resident macrophages and a decrease in Ly6C(int) monocyte frequencies in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes add evidence for the potentially anti-inflammatory properties of A. muciniphila.ConclusionsAltogether, we show that supplementation with A. muciniphila prevented the age-related decline in thickness of the colonic mucus layer and attenuated inflammation and immune-related processes at old age. This study implies that A. muciniphila supplementation can contribute to a promotion of healthy aging.
  • Plunkett, Jevon; Doniger, Scott; Orabona, Guilherme; Morgan, Thomas; Haataja, Ritva; Hallman, Mikko; Puttonen, Hilkka; Menon, Ramkumar; Kuczynski, Edward; Norwitz, Errol; Snegovskikh, Victoria; Palotie, Aarno; Palotie, Leena; Fellman, Vineta; DeFranco, Emily A.; Chaudhari, Bimal P.; McGregor, Tracy L.; McElroy, Jude J.; Oetjens, Matthew T.; Teramo, Kari; Borecki, Ingrid; Fay, Justin; Muglia, Louis (2011)
  • Hlushchuk, Irena; Barut, Justyna; Airavaara, Mikko; Luk, Kelvin; Domanskyi, Andrii; Chmielarz, Piotr (2022)
    There are several links between insulin resistance and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. However, the direct influence of insulin signaling on abnormal alpha-synuclein accumulation-a hallmark of Parkinson's disease-remains poorly explored. To our best knowledge, this work is the first attempt to investigate the direct effects of insulin signaling on pathological alpha-synuclein accumulation induced by the addition of oc-synuclein preformed fibrils in primary dopaminergic neurons. We found that modifying insulin signaling through (1) insulin receptor inhibitor GSK1904529A, (2) SHIP2 inhibitor AS1949490 or (3) PTEN inhibitor VO-OHpic failed to significantly affect alpha-synuclein aggregation in dopaminergic neurons, in contrast to the aggregation-reducing effects observed after the addition of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Subsequently, we tested different media formulations, with and without insulin. Again, removal of insulin from cell culturing media showed no effect on alpha-synuclein accumulation. We observed, however, a reduced alpha-synuclein aggregation in neurons cultured in neurobasal medium with a B27 supplement, regardless of the presence of insulin, in contrast to DMEM/F12 medium with an N2 supplement. The effects of culture conditions were present only in dopaminergic but not in primary cortical or hippocampal cells, indicating the unique sensitivity of the former. Altogether, our data contravene the direct involvement of insulin signaling in the modulation of alpha-synuclein aggregation in dopamine neurons. Moreover, we show that the choice of culturing media can significantly affect preformed fibril-induced oc-synuclein phosphorylation in a primary dopaminergic cell culture.
  • Tarvonen, Mikko J.; Lear, Christopher A.; Andersson, Sture; Gunn, Alistair J.; Teramo, Kari A. (2022)
    Increased fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) in intrapartum cardiotocographic recording has been variably defined and poorly understood, limiting its clinical utility. Both preclinical (animal) and clinical (human) evidence support that increased FHRV is observed in the early stage of intrapartum fetal hypoxaemia but can also be observed in a subset of fetuses during the preterminal stage of repeated hypoxaemia. This review of available evidence provides data and expert opinion on the pathophysiology of increased FHRV, its clinical significance and a stepwise approach regarding the management of this pattern, and propose recommendations for standardisation of related terminology.
  • Zhou, Guo-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Rønn, Regin; Su, Jian-Qiang; Cui, Li; Zheng, Bang-Xiao; Zhu, Yong-Guan (2019)
    Microorganisms capable of anaerobic nitrate-dependent Fe(II) (ferrous iron) oxidation (ANDFO) contribute significantly to iron and nitrogen cycling in various environments. However, lab efforts in continuous cultivation of ANDFO strains suffer from loss of activity when ferrous iron is used as sole electron donor. Here we used a novel strain of nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium Bacillus ferroxidians as a model and focused on physiological activity of cells during ANDFO. It was shown that B. ferroxidans entered a metabolically inactive state during ANDFO. B. ferrooxidans exhibited nitrate reduction coupled with Fe(II) oxidation, and the activity gradually declined and was hardly detected after 48-h incubation. Propidium monoazide (PMA) assisted 16S rRNA gene real-time PCR suggested that large number of B. ferrooxidans cells were alive during incubation. However, 2H(D)-isotope based Raman analysis indicated that the cells were metabolically inactive after 120-h of ANDFO. These inactive cells re-awakened in R2A medium and were capable of growth and reproduction, which was consistent with results in Raman analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and x-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the formation of Fe minerals in close proximity of cells in the Fe(II)-oxidizing medium after Fe(II) oxidation. Overall, our results demonstrated that continued ANDFO can induce a metabolically inactive state in B. ferrooxidans, which was responsible for the loss of activity during ANDFO. This study provides insight into the ANDFO process and its contribution to iron and nitrogen cycling in the environments.
  • Spilling, Kristian; Paul, Allanah J.; Virkkala, Niklas; Hastings, Tom; Lischka, Silke; Stuhr, Annegret; Bermudez, Rafael; Czerny, Jan; Boxhammer, Tim; Schulz, Kai G.; Ludwig, Andrea; Riebesell, Ulf (2016)
    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are reducing the pH in the world's oceans. The plankton community is a key component driving biogeochemical fluxes, and the effect of increased CO2 on plankton is critical for understanding the ramifications of ocean acidification on global carbon fluxes. We determined the plankton community composition and measured primary production, respiration rates and carbon export (defined here as carbon sinking out of a shallow, coastal area) during an ocean acidification experiment. Mesocosms (similar to 55 m(3)) were set up in the Baltic Sea with a gradient of CO2 levels initially ranging from ambient (similar to 240 mu atm), used as control, to high CO2 (up to similar to 1330 mu atm). The phytoplankton community was dominated by dinoflagellates, diatoms, cyanobacteria and chlorophytes, and the zooplankton community by protozoans, heterotrophic dinoflagellates and cladocerans. The plankton community composition was relatively homogenous between treatments. Community respiration rates were lower at high CO2 levels. The carbon-normalized respiration was approximately 40% lower in the high-CO2 environment compared with the controls during the latter phase of the experiment. We did not, however, detect any effect of increased CO2 on primary production. This could be due to measurement uncertainty, as the measured total particular carbon (TPC) and combined results presented in this special issue suggest that the reduced respiration rate translated into higher net carbon fixation. The percent carbon derived from microscopy counts (both phyto- and zooplankton), of the measured total particular carbon (TPC), decreased from similar to 26% at t0 to similar to 8% at t31, probably driven by a shift towards smaller plankton (<4 mu m) not enumerated by microscopy. Our results suggest that reduced respiration leads to increased net carbon fixation at high CO2. However, the increased primary production did not translate into increased carbon export, and consequently did not work as a negative feedback mechanism for increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration.
  • Alvarez, M. M. P.; Moura, G. E.; Machado, M. F. M.; Viana, G. M.; de Souza Costa, C. A.; Tjaderhane, L.; Nader, H. B.; Tersariol, I. L. S.; Nascimento, F. D. (2017)
    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are G protein-coupled receptors, which are activated by proteolytical cleavage of the amino-terminus and act as sensors for extracellular proteases. We hypothesized that PAR-1 and PAR-2 can be modulated by inflammatory stimulus in human dental pulp cells. PAR-1 and PAR-2 gene expression in human pulp tissue and MDPC-23 cells were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Monoclonal PAR-1 and PAR-2 antibodies were used to investigate the cellular expression of these receptors using Western blot, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy in MDPC-23 cells. Immunofluorescence assays of human intact and carious teeth were performed to assess the presence of PAR-1 and PAR-2 in the dentin-pulp complex. The results show for the first time that human odontoblasts and MDPC-23 cells constitutively express PAR-1 and PAR-2. PAR-2 activation increased significantly the messenger RNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-14 in MDPC-23 cells (P <0.05), while the expression of these enzymes decreased significantly in the PAR-1 agonist group (P <0.05). The high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of MMP-13 activity cleaving PAR-1 at specific, noncanonical site TLDPRS42 down arrow(FLL)-L-43 in human dental pulp tissues. Also, we detected a presence of a trypsin-like activity cleaving PAR-2 at canonical site SKGR(20)down arrow S(21)LIGRL in pulp tissues. Confocal microscopy analysis of human dentin-pulp complex showed intense positive staining of PAR-1 and PAR-2 in the odontoblast processes in dentinal tubules of carious teeth compared to intact ones. The present results support the hypothesis of activation of the upregulated PAR-1 and PAR-2 by endogenous proteases abundant during the inflammatory response in dentin-pulp complex.
  • Asheim, Eirik R.; Andreassen, Anna H.; Morgan, Rachael; Jutfelt, Fredrik (2020)
    Global warming is predicted to increase both acute and prolonged thermal challenges for aquatic ectotherms. Severe short- and medium-term thermal stress over hours to days may cause mortality, while longer sub-lethal thermal challenges may cause performance declines. The inter-relationship between the responses to short, medium and longer thermal challenges is unresolved. We asked if the same individuals are tolerant to both rapid and slow warming challenges, a question that has so far received little attention. Additionally, we investigated the possibility of a thermal syndrome where individuals in a population are distributed along a warm-type to cold-type axis. We tested whether different thermal traits correlate across individuals by acclimating 200 juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) to sub- or supra-optimal temperatures for growth (22 and 34 degrees C) for 40 days and measuring growth and thermal tolerance at two different warming rates. We found that tolerance to rapid warming correlated with tolerance to slow warming in the 22 degrees C treatment. However, individual tolerance to neither rapid nor slow warming correlated with growth at the supra-optimal temperature. We thus find some support for a syndrome-like organisation of thermal traits, but the lack of connection between tolerance and growth performance indicates a restricted generality of a thermal syndrome. The results suggest that tolerance to rapid warming may share underlying physiological mechanisms with tolerance to slower heating, and indicate that the relevance of acute critical thermal tolerance extends beyond the rapid ramping rates used to measure them.
  • Bruneaux, Matthieu; Ashrafi, Roghaieh; Kronholm, Ilkka; Laanto, Elina; Örmälä-Odegrip, Anni-Maria; Galarza, Juan A.; Chen, Zihan; Kubendran Sumathi, Mruthyunjay; Ketola, Tarmo (2022)
    Viruses are key actors of ecosystems and have major impacts on global biogeochemical cycles. Prophages deserve particular attention as they are ubiquitous in bacterial genomes and can enter a lytic cycle when triggered by environmental conditions. We explored how temperature affects the interactions between prophages and other biological levels using an opportunistic pathogen, the bacterium Serratia marcescens, which harbours several prophages and that had undergone an evolution experiment under several temperature regimes. We found that the release of one of the prophages was temperature-sensitive and malleable to evolutionary changes. We further discovered that the virulence of the bacterium in an insect model also evolved and was positively correlated with phage release rates. We determined through analysis of genetic and epigenetic data that changes in the bacterial outer cell wall structure possibly explain this phenomenon. We hypothezise that the temperature-dependent phage release rate acted as a selection pressure on S. marcescens and that it resulted in modified bacterial virulence in the insect host. Our study system illustrates how viruses can mediate the influence of abiotic environmental changes to other biological levels and thus be involved in ecosystem feedback loops.
  • Minard, Guillaume; Tikhonov, Gleb; Ovaskainen, Otso; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2019)
    Understanding of the ecological factors that shape intraspecific variation of insect microbiota in natural populations is relatively poor. In Lepidopteran caterpillars, microbiota is assumed to be mainly composed of transient bacterial symbionts acquired from the host plant. We sampled Glanville fritillary (Melitaea cinxia) caterpillars from natural populations to describe their gut microbiome and to identify potential ecological factors that determine its structure. Our results demonstrate high variability of microbiota composition even among caterpillars that shared the same host plant individual and most likely the same genetic background. We observed that the caterpillars harboured microbial classes that varied among individuals and alternated between two distinct communities (one composed of mainly Enterobacteriaceae and another with more variable microbiota community). Even though the general structure of the microbiota was not attributed to the measured ecological factors, we found that phylogenetically similar microbiota showed corresponding responses to the sex and the parasitoid infection of the caterpillar and to those of the host plant's microbial and chemical composition. Our results indicate high among-individual variability in the microbiota of the M. cinxia caterpillar and contradict previous findings that the host plant is the major driver of the microbiota communities of insect herbivores.