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  • Omidi, Azam; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Pflugmacher, Stephan (2019)
    Although microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly studied cyanotoxins, their significance to the producing organisms remains unclear. MCs are known as endotoxins, but they can be found in the surrounding environment due to cell lysis, designated as extracellular MCs. In the present study, the interactions between MC producing and the non-producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa, PCC 7806 and PCC 7005, respectively, and a green alga, Desmodesmus subspicatus, were studied to better understand the probable ecological importance of MCs at the collapse phase of cyanobacterial blooms. We applied a dialysis co-cultivation system where M. aeruginosa was grown inside dialysis tubing for one month. Then, D. subspicatus was added to the culture system on the outside of the membrane. Consequently, the growth of D. subspicatus and MC contents were measured over a 14-day co-exposure period. The results showed that Microcystis negatively affected the green alga as the growth of D. subspicatus was significantly inhibited in co-cultivation with both the MC-producing and -deficient strains. However, the inhibitory effect of the MC-producing strain was greater and observed earlier compared to the MC-deficient strain. Thus, MCs might be considered as an assistant factor that, in combination with other secondary metabolites of Microcystis, reinforce the ability to outcompete co-existing species.
  • Omidi, Azam; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Pflugmacher, Stephan (2019)
    In lakes, cyanobacterial blooms are frequently associated with green algae and dominate the phytoplankton community in successive waves. In the present study, the interactions between Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 and Desmodesmus subspicatus were studied to clarify the probable ecological significance of algal secondary metabolites; focusing on the role of cyanotoxin ‘microcystin-LR’(MC-LR). A dialysis co-cultivation technique was applied where M. aeruginosa was grown inside and D. subspicatus was cultured outside of the dialysis tubing. The concentration of the intra- and extracellular MC-LR and the growth of two species were measured at different time points over a period of one month. Additionally, the growth of the two species in the culture filtrate of one another and the effect of the purified MC-LR on the growth of the green alga were studied. The results indicated that the co-existing species could affect each other depending on the growth phases. Despite the early dominance of D. subspicatus during the logarithmic phase,M. aeruginosa suppressed the growth of the green alga at the stationary phase, which coincided with increased MC production and release. However, the inhibitory effects of Microcystis might be related to its other extracellular metabolites rather than, or possibly in addition to, MC
  • Mantzouki, Evanthia; Lurling, Miquel; Fastner, Jutta; Domis, Lisette de Senerpont; Wilk-Wozniak, Elzbieta; Koreiviene, Judita; Seelen, Laura; Teurlincx, Sven; Verstijnen, Yvon; Krzton, Wojciech; Walusiak, Edward; Karosiene, Jurate; Kasperoviciene, Jurate; Savadova, Ksenija; Vitonyte, Irma; Cillero-Castro, Carmen; Budzynska, Agnieszka; Goldyn, Ryszard; Kozak, Anna; Rosinska, Joanna; Szelag-Wasielewska, Elzbieta; Domek, Piotr; Jakubowska-Krepska, Natalia; Kwasizur, Kinga; Messyasz, Beata; Pelechata, Aleksandra; Pelechaty, Mariusz; Kokocinski, Mikolaj; Garcia-Murcia, Ana; Real, Monserrat; Romans, Elvira; Noguero-Ribes, Jordi; Parreno Duque, David; Fernandez-Moran, Elisabeth; Karakaya, Nusret; Haggqvist, Kerstin; Demir, Nilsun; Beklioglu, Meryem; Filiz, Nur; Levi, Eti E.; Iskin, Ugur; Bezirci, Gizem; Tavsanoglu, Ulku Nihan; Ozhan, Koray; Gkelis, Spyros; Panou, Manthos; Fakioglu, Ozden; Yang, Yang; Salmi, Pauliina; Arvola, Lauri (2018)
    Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins). Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a) and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin) due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale. Direct and indirect effects of temperature were the main drivers of the spatial distribution in the toxins produced by the cyanobacterial community, the toxin concentrations and toxin quota. Generalized linear models showed that a Toxin Diversity Index (TDI) increased with latitude, while it decreased with water stability. Increases in TDI were explained through a significant increase in toxin variants such as MC-YR, anatoxin and cylindrospermopsin, accompanied by a decreasing presence of MC-LR. While global warming continues, the direct and indirect effects of increased lake temperatures will drive changes in the distribution of cyanobacterial toxins in Europe, potentially promoting selection of a few highly toxic species or strains.