Browsing by Subject "PHYTOPLANKTON"

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  • Poikane, Sandra; Birk, Sebastian; Boehmer, Juergen; Carvalho, Laurence; de Hoyos, Caridad; Gassner, Hubert; Hellsten, Seppo; Kelly, Martyn; Solheim, Anne Lyche; Olin, Mikko; Pall, Karin; Phillips, Geoff; Portielje, Rob; Ritterbusch, David; Sandin, Leonard; Schartau, Ann-Kristin; Solimini, Angelo G.; van den Berg, Marcel; Wolfram, Georg; van de Bund, Wouter (2015)
    The Water Framework Directive is the first international legislation to require European countries to establish comparable ecological assessment schemes for their freshwaters. A key element in harmonising quality classification within and between Europe's river basins is an "Intercalibration" exercise, stipulated by the WFD, to ensure that the good status boundaries in all of the biological assessment methods correspond to similar levels of anthropogenic pressure. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of this international comparison, focusing on the assessment schemes developed for freshwater lakes. Out of 82 lake ecological assessment methods reported for the comparison, 62 were successfully intercalibrated and included in the EC Decision on intercalibration, with a high proportion of phytoplankton (18), macrophyte (17) and benthic fauna (13) assessment methods. All the lake assessment methods are reviewed in this article, including the results of intercalibration. Furthermore, the current gaps and way forward to reach consistent management objectives for European lakes are discussed. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Figueroa, D.; Rowe, O. F.; Paczkowska, J.; Legrand, C.; Andersson, A. (2016)
    Heterotrophic bacteria are, in many aquatic systems, reliant on autochthonous organic carbon as their energy source. One exception is low-productive humic lakes, where allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) is the major driver. We hypothesized that bacterial production (BP) is similarly regulated in subarctic estuaries that receive large amounts of riverine material. BP and potential explanatory factors were measured during May-August 2011 in the subarctic RAyenne Estuary, northern Sweden. The highest BP was observed in spring, concomitant with the spring river-flush and the lowest rates occurred during summer when primary production (PP) peaked. PLS correlations showed that similar to 60 % of the BP variation was explained by different ADOM components, measured as humic substances, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). On average, BP was threefold higher than PP. The bioavailability of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (ADOC) exhibited large spatial and temporal variation; however, the average value was low, similar to 2 %. Bioassay analysis showed that BP in the near-shore area was potentially carbon limited early in the season, while BP at seaward stations was more commonly limited by nitrogen-phosphorus. Nevertheless, the bioassay indicated that ADOC could contribute significantly to the in situ BP, similar to 60 %. We conclude that ADOM is a regulator of BP in the studied estuary. Thus, projected climate-induced increases in river discharge suggest that BP will increase in subarctic coastal areas during the coming century.
  • Korkonen, Sanna; Weckström, Jan; Korhola, Atte (2020)
    The occurrence of various chrysophyte cyst morphotypes is unknown in Finland, with the exception of a few isolated lake studies. We set out to chart which cyst types are found in Finland and what their ecological preferences are, focusing on cyst-air temperature relationships that could be further utilized in reconstructing past winter/spring air temperatures and ice-free periods from sedimentary cyst assemblages. Surface sediment samples from lakes across Finland were analysed for their chrysophyte stomatocyst assemblages. Multivariate ecological techniques (e.g. canonical correspondence analysis, principal component analysis) were used to identify the environmental variables that most strongly affected the distribution of the cysts. This survey expanded the known geographical range for several cyst types. Lake water pH and ice-free periods (surrogate for air temperature) explained the statistically significant distribution and composition of the cyst assemblages studied. The results broaden our knowledge of cyst biogeography and strengthen the findings of previous studies of the environmental factors contributing to the occurrence of cysts. Highly variable and rich chrysophyte cyst assemblages in Finland are clearly associated with temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total phosphorus, with good potential in contemporary and retrospective environmental assessment.
  • Broman, Elias; Asmala, Eero; Carstensen, Jacob; Pinhassi, Jarone; Dopson, Mark (2019)
    Coastal zones are important transitional areas between the land and sea, where both terrestrial and phytoplankton supplied dissolved organic matter (DOM) are respired or transformed. As climate change is expected to increase river discharge and water temperatures, DOM from both allochthonous and autochthonous sources is projected to increase. As these transformations are largely regulated by bacteria, we analyzed microbial community structure data in relation to a 6-month long time-series dataset of DOM characteristics from Roskilde Fjord and adjacent streams, Denmark. The results showed that the microbial community composition in the outer estuary (closer to the sea) was largely associated with salinity and nutrients, while the inner estuary formed two clusters linked to either nutrients plus allochthonous DOM or autochthonous DOM characteristics. In contrast, the microbial community composition in the streams was found to be mainly associated with allochthonous DOM characteristics. A general pattern across the land-to-sea interface was that Betaproteobacteria were strongly associated with humic-like DOM [operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to family Comamonadaceae], while distinct populations were instead associated with nutrients or abiotic variables such as temperature (Cyanobacteria genus Synechococcus) and salinity (Actinobacteria family Microbacteriaceae). Furthermore, there was a stark shift in the relative abundance of OTUs between stream and marine stations. This indicates that as DOM travels through the land-to-sea interface, different bacterial guilds continuously degrade it.
  • Brandão, L. P. M.; Brighenti, L. S.; Staehr, P. A.; Asmala, E.; Massicotte, P.; Tonetta, D.; Barbosa, F. A. R.; Pujoni, D.; Bezerra-Neto, J. F. (2018)
    Despite the increasing understanding about differences in carbon cycling between temperate and tropical freshwater systems, our knowledge on the importance of organic matter (OM) pools on light absorption properties in tropical lakes is very scarce. We performed a factorial mesocosm experiment in a tropical lake (Minas Gerais, Brazil) to evaluate the effects of increased concentrations of al-lochthonous and autochthonous OM, and differences in light availability on the light absorption characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Autochthonous OM deriving from phytoplankton (similar to Chl a) was stimulated by addition of nutrients, while OM from degradation of terrestrial leaves increased allochthonous OM, and neutral shading was used to manipulate light availability. Effects of the additions and shading on DOC, Chl a, nutrients, total suspended solid concentrations (TSM) and spectral CDOM absorption were monitored every 3 days. CDOM quality was characterized by spectral indices (S250-450, S275-295, S350-450, S-R and SUVA(254)). Effects of carbon sources and shading on the spectral CDOM absorption was investigated through principal component (PCA) and redundancy (RDA) analyses. The two different OM sources affected CDOM quality very differently and shading had minor effects on OM levels, but significant effects on OM quality, especially in combination with nutrient additions. Spectral indices (S250-450 and S-R) were mostly affected by allochthonous OM addition. The PCA showed that enrichment by allochthonous carbon had a strong effect on the CDOM spectra in the range between 300 and 400 nm, while the increase in autochthonous carbon increased absorption at wavelengths below 350 nm. Our study shows that small inputs of allochthonous OM can have large effects on the spectral light absorption compared to large production of autochthonous OM, with important implications for carbon cycling in tropical lakes.
  • Hrustic, Enis; Lignell, Risto; Riebesell, Ulf; Thingstad, Tron Frede (2017)
    The balance in microbial net consumption of nitrogen and phosphorus was investigated in samples collected in two mesotrophic coastal environments: the Baltic Sea (Tvarminne field station) and the North Sea (Espegrend field station). For this, we have refined a bioassay based on the response in alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) over a matrix of combinations in nitrogen and phosphorus additions. This assay not only provides information on which element (N or P) is the primary limiting nutrient, but also gives a quantitative estimate for the excess of the secondary limiting element (P+ or N+, respectively), as well as the ratio of balanced net consumption of added N and P over short timescales (days). As expected for a Baltic Sea late springearly summer situation, the Tvarminne assays (n = 5) indicated N limitation with an average P+ = 0.30 +/- 0.10 mu M-P, when incubated for 4 days. For short incubations (1-2 days), the Espegrend assays indicated P limitation, but the shape of the response surface changed with incubation time, resulting in a drift in parameter estimates toward N limitation. Extrapolating back to zero incubation time gave P limitation with N+ approximate to 0.9 mu M-N. The N : P ratio (molar) of nutrient net consumption varied considerably between investigated locations: from 2.3 +/- 0.4 in the Tvarminne samples to 13 +/- 5 and 32 +/- 3 in two samples from Espegrend. Our assays included samples from mesocosm acidification experiments, but statistically significant effects of ocean acidification were not found by this method.
  • Provenzale, Maria; Ojala, Anne; Heiskanen, Jouni; Erkkila, Kukka-Maaria; Mammarella, Ivan; Hari, Pertti; Vesala, Timo (2018)
    Lakes are important actors in biogeochemical cycles and a powerful natural source of CO2. However, they are not yet fully integrated in carbon global budgets, and the carbon cycle in the water is still poorly understood. In freshwater ecosystems, productivity studies have usually been carried out with traditional methods (bottle incubations, C-14 technique), which are imprecise and have a poor temporal resolution. Consequently, our ability to quantify and predict the net ecosystem productivity (NEP) is limited: the estimates are prone to errors and the NEP cannot be parameterised from environmental variables. Here we expand the testing of a free-water method based on the direct measurement of the CO2 concentration in the water. The approach was first proposed in 2008, but was tested on a very short data set (3 days) under specific conditions (autumn turnover); despite showing promising results, this method has been neglected by the scientific community. We tested the method under different conditions (summer stratification, typical summer conditions for boreal dark-water lakes) and on a much longer data set (40 days), and quantitatively validated it comparing our data and productivity models. We were able to evaluate the NEP with a high temporal resolution (minutes) and found a very good agreement (R-2 >= 0.71) with the models. We also estimated the parameters of the productivity-irradiance (PI) curves that allow the calculation of the NEP from irradiance and water temperature. Overall, our work shows that the approach is suitable for productivity studies under a wider range of conditions, and is an important step towards developing this method so that it becomes more widely used.
  • Chernikova, Tatyana; Bargiela, Rafael; Toshchakov, Stepan V.; Shivaraman, Vignesh; Lunev, Evgenii A.; Yakimov, Michail M.; Thomas, David Neville; Golyshin, Peter N. (2020)
    Marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria play an important role in natural petroleum biodegradation processes and were initially associated with man-made oil spills or natural seeps. There is no full clarity though on what, in the absence of petroleum, their natural niches are. Few studies pointed at some marine microalgae that produce oleophilic compounds (alkanes, long-chain fatty acids, and alcohols) as potential natural hosts of these bacteria. We established Dansk crude oil-based enrichment cultures with photobioreactor-grown marine microalgae cultures Pavlova lutheri and Nannochloropsis oculata and analyzed the microbial succession using cultivation and SSU (16S) rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that petroleum enforced a strong selection for members of Alpha- and Gamma-proteobacteria in both enrichment cultures with the prevalence of Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp., well-known hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. In total, 48 non-redundant bacterial strains were isolated and identified to represent genera Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Hyphomonas, Halomonas, Marinovum, Roseovarius, and Oleibacter, which were abundant in sequencing reads in both crude oil enrichments. Our assessment of public databases demonstrated some overlaps of geographical sites of isolation of Nannochloropsis and Pavlova with places of molecular detection and isolation of Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp. Our study suggests that these globally important hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are associated with P. lutheri and N. oculata.
  • Spilling, Kristian; Camarena-Gómez, Maria-Teresa; Lipsewers, Tobias; Martinez-Varela, Alícia; Díaz-Rosas, Francisco; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Silva, Nelson; von Dassow, Peter; Montecino, Vivian (2019)
    The ratio of inorganic nitrogen to phosphorus (NP) is projected to decrease in the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) due to warming of the surface waters. In an enclosure experiment, we employed two levels of inorganic NP ratios (10 and 5) for three distinct plankton communities collected along the coast of central Chile (33°S). The primary effect of the NP treatment was related to different concentrations of NO3, which directly influenced the biomass of phytoplankton. In addition, low inorganic NP ratio reduced the seston NP and Chl a-C ratios, and there were some effects on the plankton community composition, e.g., benefitting Synechococcus spp. in some communities. One of the communities was clearly top-down controlled and trophic transfer to grazers was up to 5.8% during the 12 day experiment. Overall, the initial, natural plankton community composition was more important for seston stoichiometry and trophic transfer than the manipulation of the inorganic NP ratio, highlighting the importance of plankton community structure for marine ecosystem functioning.
  • Andersson, A.; Brugel, S.; Paczkowska, J.; Rowe, O.F.; Figueroa, D.; Kratzer, S.; Legrand, C. (2018)
    Phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria are key groups at the base of aquatic food webs. In estuaries receiving riverine water with a high content of coloured allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM), phytoplankton primary production may be reduced, while bacterial production is favoured. We tested this hypothesis by performing a field study in a northerly estuary receiving nutrient-poor, ADOM-rich riverine water, and analyzing results using multivariate statistics. Throughout the productive season, and especially during the spring river flush, the production and growth rate of heterotrophic bacteria were stimulated by the riverine inflow of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, primary production and photosynthetic efficiency (i.e. phytoplankton growth rate) were negatively affected by DOC. Primary production related positively to phosphorus, which is the limiting nutrient in the area. In the upper estuary where DOC concentrations were the highest, the heterotrophic bacterial production constituted almost 100% of the basal production (sum of primary and bacterial production) during spring, while during summer the primary and bacterial production were approximately equal. Our study shows that riverine DOC had a strong negative influence on coastal phytoplankton production, likely due to light attenuation. On the other hand DOC showed a positive influence on bacterial production since it represents a supplementary food source. Thus, in boreal regions where climate change will cause increased river inflow to coastal waters, the balance between phytoplankton and bacterial production is likely to be changed, favouring bacteria. The pelagic food web structure and overall productivity will in turn be altered. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Taipale, S. J.; Kuoppamaki, K.; Strandberg, U.; Peltomaa, E.; Vuorio, K. (2020)
    Food quality is one of the key factors influencing zooplankton population dynamics. Eutrophication drives phytoplankton communities toward the dominance of cyanobacteria, which means a decrease in the availability of sterols and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA). The effects of different restoration measures on the nutritional quality of the phytoplankton community and subsequent impacts on zooplankton biomass have rarely been considered. We analyzed the nutritional quality of phytoplankton in the eutrophic Lake Vesijarvi in southern Finland over a 37-year period, and studied the impacts of two restoration measures, biomanipulation and hypolimnetic aeration, on the abundance of high-quality phytoplankton. We found that biomanipulation had a positive impact on the abundance of taxa synthesizing sterols, EPA, and DHA and, concurrently, on the biomass of the keystone speciesDaphnia. In contrast, hypolimnetic aeration did not result in such a beneficial outcome, manifested as a decrease in the abundance ofDaphniaand frequent phytoplankton blooms dominated by cyanobacteria suggesting reduction in the nutritional quality of food forDaphnia. Our analysis shows that the determination of the nutritional value of algae and the contribution of essential fatty acids and sterols is an effective method to evaluate the success of various restoration measures.
  • Leppänen, Jaakko; Weckström, Jan; Korhola, Atte (2018)
    Mining is one of the key industries in the world and mine water pollution is a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. Historical monitoring data on the pollution history and impacts in aquatic ecosystems, however, are rarely available, so paleolimnological methods are required to explore the consequences of past pollution. We studied the history of cladoceran community dynamics in Lake Kirkkojarvi, southern Finland, including the periods before, during and after mining. We analyzed the geochemical composition and cladoceran subfossil remains in a Pb-210-dated sediment core to evaluate the magnitude, rate, and direction of cladoceran community changes through time. The cladoceran community was altered significantly by mining activity that occurred during the mid-twentieth century. During more recent times, however, eutrophication effects have overridden the impacts of mining. After mining ceased, the cladoceran community underwent an abrupt regime shift towards taxa that reflect more eutrophic conditions. This change was caused by intensive farming activity and fertilizer use over the past few decades. The recent history of Lake Kirkkojarvi is a textbook example of a regime shift triggered by multiple human-caused stressors. Our findings also highlight the utility of cladocerans as bio-indicators in pollution research and illustrate the sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to anthropogenic modification.
  • Peltomaa, Elina T.; Taipale, Sami (2020)
    The uptake of dissolved organic compounds, that is, osmotrophy, has been shown to be an efficient nutritional strategy for algae. However, this mode of nutrition may affect the biochemical composition, for example, the fatty acid (FA) contents, of algal cells. This study focused on the osmotrophic assimilation of glucose and leucine by selected seven algal strains belonging to chlorophytes, chrysophytes, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and euglenoids. Our laboratory experiments with stable isotope labeling showed that osmotrophy occurred in four of the selected seven strains. However, only three of these produced long chain omega-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 omega 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 omega 3). High glucose content (5 mg L-1) affected negatively on the total FAs of Mallomonas kalinae and the total omega-3 FAs of Cryptomonas sp. Further, glucose assimilation explained 35% (negative effect) and leucine assimilation 48% (positive effect) of the variation of EPA, DHA and the FAs related to their synthesis in Cryptomonas sp. Moderate glucose concentration (2 mg L-1) was found to enhance the growth of Cryptomonas ozolinii, whereas low leucine (20 mu g L-1) enhanced the growth of M. kalinae. However, no systematic effect of osmotrophy on growth rates was detected. Our study shows that osmotrophic assimilation of algae is species and compound specific, and that the effects of the assimilated compounds on algal metabolism also varies depending on the species.
  • Spilling, Kristian; Fuentes-Lema, Antonio; Quemalinos, Daniel; Klais, Riina; Sobrino, Cristina (2019)
    We determined the gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP) for the total community and the <10 mu m size fraction, the net release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and the microbial respiration in the Baltic Sea during the spring bloom. Samples (n = 126) were taken from the surface (3 m depth) covering most subbasins and different phases of the bloom, defined by the inorganic nutrient and Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations. During the course of the bloom, the NPP rate (i.e., growth rate) decreased from 0.34 d(-1) +/- 0.03 (SE) to 0.15 d(-1) +/- 0.02 (SE), the contribution of the <10 mu m fraction increased from 14% +/- 2.5 (SE) to 47% +/- 4.0 (SE) and the percent extracellular release (PER) increased from 3.8% +/- 0.7 (SE) to 8.9% +/- 1.5 (SE). The assimilation number, was on average 0.13 mol C (g Chl a)(-1) h(-1) +/- 0.01 (SE), and the average GPP:NPP rate was 1.25. The respiration increased with growth rate and was 21% of the GPP rate. The net release of DOC was relatively constant over the bloom phases, with increasing PER compensating for the reduction in biomass, and estimated to 24-36 mu mol DOC L-1 during the whole spring bloom period in all subbasins except in the Bay of Bothnia where it was 75% lower. The assimilation number was surprisingly stable, suggesting it is uncoupled from the inorganic nutrient concentration, likely a reflection of physiological acclimation and changing phytoplankton community.
  • Lehtovaara, Anja; Arvola, Lauri; Keskitalo, Jorma; Olin, Mikko; Rask, Martti; Salonen, Kalevi; Sarvala, Jouko; Tulonen, Tiina; Vuorenmaa, Jussi (2014)
  • Majaneva, Markus; Blomster, Jaanika; Mueller, Susann; Autio, Riitta; Majaneva, Sanna; Hyytiainen, Kirsi; Nagai, Satoshi; Rintala, Janne-Markus (2017)
    To determine community composition and physiological status of early spring sea-ice organisms, we collected sea-ice, slush and under-ice water samples from the Baltic Sea. We combined light microscopy, HPLC pigment analysis and pyrosequencing, and related the biomass and physiological status of sea-ice algae with the protistan community composition in a new way in the area. In terms of biomass, centric diatoms including a distinct Melosira arctica bloom in the upper intermediate section of the fast ice, dinoflagellates, euglenoids and the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon sp. predominated in the sea-ice sections and unidentified flagellates in the slush. Based on pigment analyses, the ice-algal communities showed no adjusted photosynthetic pigment pools throughout the sea ice, and the bottom-ice communities were not shade-adapted. The sea ice included more characteristic phototrophic taxa (49%) than did slush (18%) and under-ice water (37%). Cercozoans and ciliates were the richest taxon groups, and the differences among the communities arose mainly from the various phagotrophic protistan taxa inhabiting the communities. The presence of pheophytin a coincided with an elevated ciliate biomass and read abundance in the drift ice and with a high Eurytemora affinis read abundance in the pack ice, indicating that ciliates and Eurytemora affinis were grazing on algae. (C) 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • Attard, Karl M.; Rodil, Iván F.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Berg, Peter; Norkko, Joanna; Norkko, Alf (2019)
    Abstract Shallow benthic habitats are hotspots for carbon cycling and energy flow, but metabolism (primary production and respiration) dynamics and habitat-specific differences remain poorly understood. We investigated daily, seasonal, and annual metabolism in six key benthic habitats in the Baltic Sea using ~?2900?h of in situ aquatic eddy covariance oxygen flux measurements. Rocky substrates had the highest metabolism rates. Habitat-specific annual primary production per m2 was in the order Fucus vesiculosus canopy?>?Mytilus trossulus reef?>?Zostera marina canopy?>?mixed macrophytes canopy?>?sands, whereas respiration was in the order M. trossulus?>?F. vesiculosus?>?Z. marina?>?mixed macrophytes?> sands?>?aphotic sediments. Winter metabolism contributed 22?31% of annual rates. Spatial upscaling revealed that benthic habitats drive >?90% of ecosystem metabolism in waters ≤5?m depth, highlighting their central role in carbon and nutrient cycling in shallow waters.
  • Lepparanta, Matti; Lewis, John E.; Heini, Anniina; Arvola, Lauri (2018)
    Spatial variability, an essential characteristic of lake ecosystems, has often been neglected in field research and monitoring. In this study, we apply spatial statistical methods for the key physics and chemistry variables and chlorophyll a over eight sampling dates in two consecutive years in a large (area 103 km(2)) eutrophic boreal lake in southern Finland. In the four summer sampling dates, the water body was vertically and horizontally heterogenic except with color and DOC, in the two winter ice-covered dates DO was vertically stratified, while in the two autumn dates, no significant spatial differences in any of the measured variables were found. Chlorophyll a concentration was one order of magnitude lower under the ice cover than in open water. The Moran statistic for spatial correlation was significant for chlorophyll a and NO2+NO3-N in all summer situations and for dissolved oxygen and pH in three cases. In summer, the mass centers of the chemicals were within 1.5 km from the geometric center of the lake, and the 2nd moment radius ranged in 3.7-4.1 km respective to 3.9 km for the homogeneous situation. The lateral length scales of the studied variables were 1.5-2.5 km, about 1 km longer in the surface layer. The detected spatial "noise" strongly suggests that besides vertical variation also the horizontal variation in eutrophic lakes, in particular, should be considered when the ecosystems are monitored.
  • Lisboa, Filipe; Brotas, Vanda; Santos, Filipe; Kuikka, Sakari; Kaikkonen, Laura; Maeda, Eduardo (2020)
    Monitoring lakes in high-latitude areas can provide a better understanding of freshwater systems sensitivity and accrete knowledge on climate change impacts. Phytoplankton are sensitive to various conditions: warmer temperatures, earlier ice-melt and changing nutrient sources. While satellite imagery can monitor phytoplankton biomass using chlorophyll a (Chl) as a proxy over large areas, detection of Chl in small lakes is hindered by the low spatial resolution of conventional ocean color satellites. The short time-series of the newest generation of space-borne sensors (e.g., Sentinel-2) is a bottleneck for assessing long-term trends. Although previous studies have evaluated the use of high-resolution sensors for assessing lakes' Chl, it is still unclear how the spatial and temporal variability of Chl concentration affect the performance of satellite estimates. We discuss the suitability of Landsat (LT) 30 m resolution imagery to assess lakes' Chl concentrations under varying trophic conditions, across extensive high-latitude areas in Finland. We use in situ data obtained from field campaigns in 19 lakes and generate remote sensing estimates of Chl, taking advantage of the long-time span of the LT-5 and LT-7 archives, from 1984 to 2017. Our results show that linear models based on LT data can explain approximately 50% of the Chl interannual variability. However, we demonstrate that the accuracy of the estimates is dependent on the lake's trophic state, with models performing in average twice as better in lakes with higher Chl concentration (>20 mu g/L) in comparison with less eutrophic lakes. Finally, we demonstrate that linear models based on LT data can achieve high accuracy (R-2= 0.9;p-value <0.05) in determining lakes' mean Chl concentration, allowing the mapping of the trophic state of lakes across large regions. Given the long time-series and high spatial resolution, LT-based estimates of Chl provide a tool for assessing the impacts of environmental change.
  • Virta, Leena; Gammal, Johanna; Järnström, Marie; Bernard, Guillaume; Soininen, Janne; Norkko, Joanna; Norkko, Alf (2019)
    Abstract The current decrease in biodiversity affects all ecosystems, and the impacts of diversity on ecosystem functioning need to be resolved. So far, marine studies about diversity?ecosystem productivity-relationships have concentrated on small-scale, controlled experiments, with often limited relevance to natural ecosystems. Here, we provide a real-world study on the effects of microorganismal diversity (measured as the diversity of benthic diatom communities) on ecosystem productivity (using chlorophyll a concentration as a surrogate) in a heterogeneous marine coastal archipelago. We collected 78 sediment cores at 17 sites in the northern Baltic Sea and found exceptionally high diatom diversity (328 observed species). We used structural equation models and quantile regression to explore relationships between diatom diversity and productivity. Previous studies have found contradictory results in the relationship between microorganismal diversity and ecosystem productivity, but we showed a linear and positive basal relationship between diatom diversity and productivity, which indicates that diatom diversity most likely forms the lowest boundary for productivity. Thus, although productivity can be high even when diatom diversity is low, high diatom diversity supports high productivity. The trait composition was more effective than taxonomical composition in showing such a relationship, which could be due to niche complementarity. Our results also indicated that environmental heterogeneity leads to substantial patchiness in the diversity of benthic diatom communities, mainly induced by the variation in sediment organic matter content. Therefore, future changes in precipitation and river runoff and associated changes in the quality and quantity of organic matter in the sea, will also affect diatom communities and, hence, ecosystem productivity. Our study suggests that benthic microorganisms are vital for ecosystem productivity, and together with the substantial heterogeneity of coastal ecosystems, they should be considered when evaluating the potential productivity of coastal areas.