Browsing by Subject "PIGLETS"

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  • Väärikkälä, Sofia Susanna; Hänninen, Laura Talvikki; Nevas, Mari Anne (2019)
    Simple Summary Official on-farm inspections are carried out throughout the European Union every year to ensure farm compliance with animal welfare standards. The aim of this study was to analyze Finnish inspection data in order to find out how well cattle and pig farms comply with animal welfare standards, to reveal the most common non-compliances and to identify possible farm risk factors. About every fourth inspected Finnish cattle and pig farm did not comply with the animal welfare standards. Examples of factors that increased the risk of non-compliance were small herd size, tie-stall housing and outdoor rearing. Inadequate lying area in cattle farms and a lack of enrichment material in pig farms were the most common non-compliances. The regional differences found may indicate differences in inspectors' interpretations or ways in conducting inspections. As the official inspection reports contain valuable information about the welfare problems on farms, the reports should be better utilized in risk analysis, in targeting farmer education, and in making the inspections more uniform. Abstract The competent authorities of the Member States of the European Union are required to perform animal welfare inspections on livestock farms. The data obtained from these official inspections performed in Finnish cattle and pig farms in 2010-2015 were used with the aim of estimating the prevalence of the most common non-compliances and identifying underlying risk factors. The prevalence of non-compliant cattle and pig farms was 24.2% and 27.9%, respectively. In cattle, the most common problem was an inadequate lying area followed by deficient housing conditions for calves; in pigs, it was a lack of enrichment material. The non-compliances concerning cattle were most frequently detected in autumn and in farms with small herd size, with tie-stall housing and outdoor rearing year-round. The pig farms with a farrow-to-finish unit had a higher prevalence of non-compliances than other production types. The prevalence of the non-compliant farms differed notably between the regions. It can be concluded that the cattle welfare inspections should be performed with a focus on the cold and rainy seasons and at small farms, whereas the pig welfare inspections should mainly focus on farrow-to-finish units. The data received from official inspections should be efficiently utilized in the development of animal welfare inspection system, with the aim of risk-based, consistent and uniform inspections. In addition, the data should be utilized in targeting information for farmers.
  • Roselli, Marianna; Finamore, Alberto; Hynönen, Ulla; Palva, Airi; Mengheri, Elena (2016)
    Background: The role of Lactobacillus cell wall components in the protection against pathogen infection in the gut is still largely unexplored. We have previously shown that L. amylovorus DSM 16698(T) is able to reduce the enterotoxigenic F4(+)Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesion and prevent the pathogen-induced membrane barrier disruption through the regulation of IL-10 and IL-8 expression in intestinal cells. We have also demonstrated that L. amylovorus DSM 16698T protects host cells through the inhibition of NF-kB signaling. In the present study, we investigated the role of L. amylovorus DSM 16698(T) cell wall components in the protection against F4(+)ETEC infection using the intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Methods: Purified cell wall fragments (CWF) from L. amylovorus DSM 16698T were used either as such (uncoated, U-CWF) or coated with S-layer proteins (S-CWF). Differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells on Transwell filters were infected with F4(+)ETEC, treated with S-CWF or U-CWF, co-treated with S-CWF or U-CWF and F4(+)ETEC for 2.5 h, or pre-treated with S-CWF or U-CWF for 1 h before F4(+)ETEC addition. Tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins were analyzed by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Membrane permeability was determined by phenol red passage. Phosphorylated p65-NF-kB was measured by Western blot. Results: We showed that both the pre-treatment with S-CWF and the co- treatment of S-CWF with the pathogen protected the cells from F4(+)ETEC induced TJ and AJ injury, increased membrane permeability and activation of NF-kB expression. Moreover, the U-CWF pre-treatment, but not the co- treatment with F4(+)ETEC, inhibited membrane damage and prevented NF-kB activation. Conclusions: The results indicate that the various components of L. amylovorus DSM 16698(T) cell wall may counteract the damage caused by F4(+)ETEC through different mechanisms. S-layer proteins are essential for maintaining membrane barrier function and for mounting an anti-inflammatory response against F4(+)ETEC infection. U-CWF are not able to defend the cells when they are infected with F4(+)ETEC but may activate protective mechanisms before pathogen infection.
  • Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari; Valros, Anna; Peltoniemi, Olli (2010)
  • Valros, Anna; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Pöytäkangas, Merja; Jensen, Margit Bak (2017)
    There are very few studies on the need to perform exploratory behaviour of sows around farrowing and during lactation, except for during the nest-building period. Exploratory behaviour in pigs may reflect appetitive foraging motivated by hunger, or appetitive behaviour related to other motivations, such as nest building. However, exploration may also be motivated by curiosity, stimulated by novelty or search for novelty. The aim of this study was to test novel methods of evaluating exploratory motivation in sows around farrowing and during lactation. We used ten second or third parity sows, housed in conventional crates from day 8 before expected farrowing until weaning, on day 28 after farrowing. Motivation to perform exploratory behaviour was evaluated by measuring the use of a manipulable and chewable object (a wooden device, MCO) and responses during a novel object test (NO). In addition, we studied if exploratory motivation is related to the energy status of the sow, measured as sow weight change during lactation, piglet weight gain, and leptin level in saliva. The exploratory motivation of sows appeared to change during the period of study. Although all sows used the MCO, the use was very low throughout the study (below 3 g per day on average), and almost non-existent during the first weeks after farrowing. The latency to touch the object in the NO test was correlated between test days before and after farrowing, while the sow showed more interest in the object before than after farrowing. MCO use during the last week of lactation was higher in sows with a lower weight after weaning, suggesting a link between explorative motivation and energy status in the sow. These results indicate a need for further studies on how to best meet the possible exploratory need of sows during their time in the farrowing room.
  • Trevisi, Paolo; Priori, Davide; Jansman, Alfons J. M.; Luise, Diana; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Hynönen, Ulla; Palva, Airi; Van Der Meulen, Jan; Bosi, Paolo (2018)
    The development of an early complex gut microbiota may play an important role in the protection against intestinal dysbiosis later in life. The significance of the developed microbiota for gut barrier functionality upon interaction with pathogenic or beneficial bacteria is largely unknown. The transcriptome of differently perfused jejunal loops of 12 caesarian-derived pigs, neonatally associated with microbiota of different complexity, was studied. Piglets received pasteurized sow colostrum at birth (d0), a starter microbiota (Lactobacillus amylovorus (LAM), Clostridium glycolicum, and Parabacteroides) on d1-d3, and a placebo inoculant (simple association, SA) or an inoculant consisting of sow's diluted feces (complex association, CA) on d3-d4. On d 26-37, jejunal loops were perfused for 8 h with either enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC), purified F4 fimbriae, LAM or saline control (CTRL). Gene expression of each intestinal loop was analyzed by Affymetrix Porcine Gene 1.1_ST array strips. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was performed on expression values. Compared to CTRL, 184 and 74; 2 and 139; 2 and 48 gene sets, were up- and down-regulated by ETEC, F4 and LAM, respectively. ETEC up-regulated networks related to inflammatory and immune responses, RNA processing, and mitosis. There was a limited overlap in up-regulated gene sets between ETEC and F4 fimbriae. LAM down-regulated genes related to inflammatory and immune responses, as well as to cellular compound metabolism. In CA pigs, 57 gene sets were up-regulated by CA, while 73 were down-regulated compared to SA. CA up-regulated gene sets related to lymphocyte modulation and to cellular defense in all loop perfusions. In CA pigs, compared to SA pigs, genes for chemokine and cytokine activity and for response to external stimuli were down-regulated in ETEC-perfused loops and up-regulated in CTRL. The results highlight the importance of the nature of neonatal microbial colonization in the response to microbial stimuli later in life.
  • Yun, Jinhyeon; Björkman, Stefan; Pöytäkangas, Merja; Peltoniemi, Olli (2017)
    In reproductive physiology research, experimental animals are often subjected to stressful procedures, including blood sampling and biopsy. In this present study, presence of pain or distress induced by four different procedures was examined using a measurement of salivary cortisol levels and activity observations in sows. The treatments were: 1) PAL: The ovary was palpated through the rectum without snaring, 2) TUB: transvaginal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the ovary was conducted without snaring, 3) SNA: a soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, 4) CAT: A soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, and an intravenous catheter was inserted through the ear vein of the sows. Activities, social cohesion and other pain-related behaviour, and salivary cortisol concentrations were recorded. Salivary cortisol concentrations in CAT sows increased in response to the procedure (P < 0.05), whereas the other treatments did not trigger a significant response. The CAT sows had higher cortisol concentrations than the other groups for 10 min after initiation of the procedures (P < 0.01), and they maintained higher cortisol levels than the PAL and TUB groups 15 min post-treatment (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the CAT sows showed the highest frequency of head shaking (P < 0.001) and trembling behaviour (P < 0.05) during the 1 h post-treatment. Summarizing, the catheterization procedure might induce a short-term pain or stress response during and after the procedure in terms of pain-related behaviour and salivary cortisol status. We suggest that TUB might not cause appreciable pain or distress.