Browsing by Subject "PIGS"

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  • Elina, Felin; Outi, Hälli; Mari, Heinonen; Jukola, Elias; Maria, Fredriksson-Ahomaa (2019)
    Current macroscopic meat inspection cannot detect the most common pork-borne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Toxoplasma gondii). Furthermore, food chain information (FCI) may not provide sufficient data for visual-only inspection, which is supposed to be the common way of inspection of pigs in the European Union. Our observational study aimed to evaluate the serological monitoring and the clinical evaluation of on-farm health status of pigs and assess the feasibility of these data as part of the FCI in meat inspection. We studied the serological status of Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp. and T. gondii in pigs during the fattening period. Additionally, we evaluated the association between on-farm health status and meat inspection findings. On 57 indoor fattening pig farms in Finland, we collected blood samples (mean of 20 pigs/farm) and assessed the on-farm health (coughing, tail biting, lameness) at the end of the fattening period. We visited 34 of these farms also at the beginning of the fattening for sampling and on-farm health evaluation of the same pigs. Meat inspection results were obtained after slaughter for all 57 farms. Salmonella seroprevalence was low at the end of the fattening period: it was 17.6%, 10.6% or 1.9%, with the cut-off values of OD15% (recommended by the test manufacturer), OD20% (used by Danish monitoring programme) and OD40% (used by German monitoring programme), respectively. The overall seroprevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. increased significantly (P 
  • Ala-Kurikka, Eve; Heinonen, Mari; Mustonen, Katja; Peltoniemi, Olli; Raekallio, Marja; Vainio, Outi; Valros, Anna (2017)
    Lameness is a common health and welfare problem in sows. Little has been published about behavioral changes in lame sows. Ketoprofen is an effective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat non-infectious locomotor disorders in pigs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lameness and lameness-related pain on the behavior of sows. To evaluate this effect, we studied whether pain alleviation with ketoprofen and clinical relief of lameness were associated with changes in behavior. We allocated randomly 13 lame, early pregnancy sows in three treatment groups receiving either ketoprofen 4 mg/kg, ketoprofen 2 mg/kg (these two groups were pooled for statistical analyses) or placebo. The animals were treated orally for 5 days and lameness scored before and on the last day of the treatment. Lameness was assessed with a 5-grade scoring system and behavior by scan sampling method. A clinically healthy, non-lame control sow was paired with each lame sow and they were examined the same way as lame sows but received no treatment. Lame sows were more passive, they lay more and stood and explored pen fixtures less than the control sows before treatment. After 5-days treatment, placebo-treated sows were in contact with the wall and lying more often when compared to control sows. Ketoprofen-treated sows were more seldom in contact with the wall and exploring bedding more often than placebo-treated sows. Placebo sows tended also to move and explore bedding less than control sows. Lameness had been relieved in altogether 7 out of 13 sows on day 5: six out of nine ketoprofen-medicated sows and one out of four placebo-treated sows. The behaviour of sows with relieved lameness did not differ from that of control sows on day 5. Sows with non-relieved lameness were in contact with the wall and lying more and moving and standing less than control sows. When compared to control sows, sows with non-relieved lameness tended to be more passive. When compared to sows with relieved lameness, sows with non-relieved lameness showed a tendency to be in contact with the wall more often. Our study showed that lameness reduces the activity of sows and affects their position in the pen. Passive behavior seemed at least partly be due to pain and lameness relief was associated with normalization of the behavior.
  • Yun, Jinhyeon; Ollila, Anna; Valros, Anna; Larenza Menzies, Maria Paula; Heinonen, Mari; Oliviero, Claudio; Peltoniemi, Olli (2019)
    The present study aimed to use behavioural measures to assess pain induced by surgical castration of piglets, and evaluate the efficacy of pain-relief medications. In total, 143 male piglets from 29 sows were used. The treatments included: 1) non-castration (NC; n = 28), 2) castration without medication (SC; n = 29), 3) castration with meloxicam injection 0.4 mg/kg i.m. (ME; n = 28), 4) castration with 0.5 ml of 2% lidocaine in each testicle (LA; n = 29), and 5) castration with general inhalation anaesthesia using isoflurane (1.5%) and meloxicam injection (GA; n = 29). Behaviour was monitored continuously for a ten minute period one hour prior to castration (−1 h), as well as immediately (0 h), one hour (1 h), and two hours (2 h) after castration. Behaviour was also monitored twice (08:00 and 20:00) during the following day. Compared to −1 h, castration induced changes in several behavioural measures in SC piglets at 0 h, suggesting that castration was painful. Furthermore, inactive standing or sitting, tail wagging and aggressive behaviour differed between SC and NC piglets at 0 h. ME and LA piglets spent less time standing or sitting inactively, and LA and GA piglets showed more tail wagging than SC piglets at 0 h (P < 0.05 for all). No other behavioural measures differed among the various groups of castrated piglets. In conclusion, the results indicate that surgical castration is indeed painful. However, the efficacy of various pain-relief protocols in piglets shortly after castration was not verified.
  • Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna Elisabet; Bergman, Paula Susanna; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy; Heinonen, Mari Leena (2019)
    Group housing of gestating sows benefits their welfare by allowing them freedom of movement and the opportunity for social interaction. However, social life could also bring disadvantages for individuals who receive direct aggression or are displaced from the feeder. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between social behaviour, body condition and live weight. Gestating sows (n=298) were investigated on a commercial farm. Sows were housed in mixed parity groups where two single space, ad libitum trough feeders served 12 animals. Sows were weighed, body condition scored and had their back fat layer measured at mixing, 4 weeks after insemination and again before farrowing. Social status was estimated based on the numbers of won and lost agonistic interactions at mixing and at the end of gestation. In addition, tear staining was scored before the farrowing and reproductive performance data were collected. With the aid of video recordings, 100 to 150 interactions per group were observed. Winning percentage at mixing and at the end of gestation were associated (P
  • Jaakkola, Kaisa; Somervuo, Panu; Korkeala, Hannu (2015)
    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are both etiological agents for intestinal infection known as yersiniosis, but their epidemiology and ecology bearmany differences. Swine are the only known reservoir for Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains, which are the most common cause of human disease, while Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a variety of sources, including vegetables and wild animals. Infections caused by Y. enterocolitica mainly originate froms wine, but fresh produce has been the source for widespread Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreaks within recent decades. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis with a DNA microarray based on three Yersinia enterocolitica and four Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genomes was conducted to shed light on the genomic differences between enteropathogenic Yersinia. The hybridization results identified Y. pseudotuberculosis strains to carry operons linked with the uptake and utilization of substances not found in living animal tissues but present in soil, plants, and rotting flesh. Y. pseudotuberculosis also harbors a selection of type VI secretion systems targeting other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. These genetic traits are not found in Y. enterocolitica, and it appears that while Y. pseudotuberculosis has many tools beneficial for survival in varied environments, the Y. enterocolitica genome is more streamlined and adapted to their preferred animal reservoir.
  • Tirkkonen, Taneli; Pakarinen, Jaakko; Rintala, Elina; Ali-Vehmas, Terhi; Marttila, Harri; Peltoniemi, Olli A. T.; Makinen, Johanna (2010)
  • Luukkanen, Jenni; Nevas, Mari; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Lundén, Janne (2018)
    In the European Union, competent authorities are obligated to arrange audits to ensure that the official control (comprising meat and food safety inspections) in slaughterhouses is performed according to legislation. Previous information on the functionality of these audits and on non-conformities observed in the official control of slaughterhouses is limited. In this study, non-conformities of the official control of slaughterhouses and their correction were analysed from the internal audit reports of the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira. To further assess the benefits and needs for improvement of the audits, we conducted interviews with the chief official veterinarians (OVs) responsible for the controls in slaughterhouses and the auditors of Evira. According to our results, non-conformities, especially in the inspection of intestines of bovines and swine, were common. Regarding food safety inspections, OVs should develop their documentation, perform the follow-up of the correction of non-compliances more systematically, and improve the enforcement, especially in smaller red meat slaughterhouses. Based on our results, internal audits appeared to be beneficial, as non-conformities in the official control were noticed, most non-conformities were corrected or corrective measures had been taken, and the audits were assessed as necessary by both the auditors and auditees. Our results can be utilized in improving the official control and audit procedures in slaughterhouses. In the future, the uniformity of meat inspection could be improved by auditing also differences in the rejections and their reasons between official auxiliaries in post-mortem inspection.
  • Grahofer, Alexander; Björkman, Stefan; Peltoniemi, Olli (2020)
  • Valros, Anna; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Pöytäkangas, Merja; Jensen, Margit Bak (2017)
    There are very few studies on the need to perform exploratory behaviour of sows around farrowing and during lactation, except for during the nest-building period. Exploratory behaviour in pigs may reflect appetitive foraging motivated by hunger, or appetitive behaviour related to other motivations, such as nest building. However, exploration may also be motivated by curiosity, stimulated by novelty or search for novelty. The aim of this study was to test novel methods of evaluating exploratory motivation in sows around farrowing and during lactation. We used ten second or third parity sows, housed in conventional crates from day 8 before expected farrowing until weaning, on day 28 after farrowing. Motivation to perform exploratory behaviour was evaluated by measuring the use of a manipulable and chewable object (a wooden device, MCO) and responses during a novel object test (NO). In addition, we studied if exploratory motivation is related to the energy status of the sow, measured as sow weight change during lactation, piglet weight gain, and leptin level in saliva. The exploratory motivation of sows appeared to change during the period of study. Although all sows used the MCO, the use was very low throughout the study (below 3 g per day on average), and almost non-existent during the first weeks after farrowing. The latency to touch the object in the NO test was correlated between test days before and after farrowing, while the sow showed more interest in the object before than after farrowing. MCO use during the last week of lactation was higher in sows with a lower weight after weaning, suggesting a link between explorative motivation and energy status in the sow. These results indicate a need for further studies on how to best meet the possible exploratory need of sows during their time in the farrowing room.
  • Versluis, Dennis; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; Garcia, Javier Ramiro; Leimena, Milkha M.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Zhang, Jing; Ozturk, Basak; Nylund, Lotta; Sipkema, Detmer; van Schaik, Willem; de Vos, Willem M.; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Smidt, Hauke; van Passel, Mark W. J. (2015)
    Antibiotic resistance genes are found in a broad range of ecological niches associated with complex microbiota. Here we investigated if resistance genes are not only present, but also transcribed under natural conditions. Furthermore, we examined the potential for antibiotic production by assessing the expression of associated secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters. Metatranscriptome datasets from intestinal microbiota of four human adults, one human infant, 15 mice and six pigs, of which only the latter have received antibiotics prior to the study, as well as from sea bacterioplankton, a marine sponge, forest soil and sub-seafloor sediment, were investigated. We found that resistance genes are expressed in all studied ecological niches, albeit with niche-specific differences in relative expression levels and diversity of transcripts. For example, in mice and human infant microbiota predominantly tetracycline resistance genes were expressed while in human adult microbiota the spectrum of expressed genes was more diverse, and also included beta-lactam, aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance genes. Resistance gene expression could result from the presence of natural antibiotics in the environment, although we could not link it to expression of corresponding secondary metabolites biosynthesis clusters. Alternatively, resistance gene expression could be constitutive, or these genes serve alternative roles besides antibiotic resistance.
  • Munsterhjelm, Camilla Marianne; Nordgreen, Janicke; Aae, F.; Heinonen, Mari Leena; Valros, Anna Elisabet; Janczak, A. M. (2019)
    Poor health is associated with an increased risk of tail biting outbreaks in pigs. We propose that this is because illness changes social dynamics either by changing the behaviour of the sick pig towards its penmates, the behaviour of the healthy penmates towards the sick pig, or both. We tested the effect of immune stimulation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection: O111:B4; 1.5 mu g kg(-1) IV) on social behaviour in gilts housed in triplets in a cross-over experiment. Each pen was subjected to the control treatment (all three pigs injected with saline) and then LPS treatment (one pig injected with LPS, two injected with saline), or vice versa. LPS injected pigs had a shift in social motivation and performed more tail- and ear- directed behaviour than saline pigs two days after injection. They seemed to fit the description of 'sick and grumpy'. This change was seen about 40 h after the signs of acute illness dissipated and was not accompanied by a similar increase in activity. We discuss possible mechanisms for this behavioural change in light of changes in neurotransmitter levels at three days after LPS injection described in a previous experiment.
  • Nystén, Maria; Orro, Toomas; Peltoniemi, Olli (2018)
    Shoulder lesions are common in lactating sows and can affect their welfare. We assessed the systemic inflammatory response to shoulder ulcers and monitored the preventive effect of postpartum administration with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (ketoprofen) on their prevalence. In a double-blind placebo-controlled field trial, 144 YxL hybrid sows farrowing in crates with a cast-iron floor received either ketoprofen (3 mg/kg) or placebo as an intramuscular injection on days 0-1 after parturition. During the lactation period (weeks 1–4) all sows were assessed weekly for the presence of shoulder ulcers (0 = no ulcer, 1 = unilateral ulcer, 2 = bilateral ulcers; in all cases at least epithelial damage). From a subset of 37 sows, haptoglobin (Hp), albumin (ALB) and cortisol (COR) were measured from blood samples taken 10 to 12 days after farrowing. Results were analyzed according to a linear regression model for associations between Hp, ALB, COR and shoulder ulcers. A random ordered logistic model was used to assess risk factors (body condition score (BCS), back and shoulder fat, decrease in BCS or fat layer thickness during lactation, parity, number of live born and stillborn piglets, piglets weaned, shoulder ulcer scar) and the effect of ketoprofen treatment. Total prevalence of shoulder ulcers at lactation weeks 1–4 was 26.4%, 33.3%, 38.2% and 38.9%, respectively. Prevalences of unilateral shoulder ulcers at lactation weeks 1–4 were 16.7%, 19.4%, 20.8% and 18.8%, and prevalences of bilateral shoulder ulcers were 9.7%, 13.9%, 17.4%, and 20.1%. There was a decrease in albumin and an increase in Hp levels in sows with bilateral shoulder ulcers compared with sows without shoulder ulcers (P 
  • Nelskylä, Annika; Nurmi, Jouni; Jousi, Milla; Schramko, Alexey; Mervaala, Eero; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Skrifvars, Markus (2017)
    Background and aim: We hypothesised that the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen maintains cerebral oxygenation and ameliorates the disturbance of cardiac mitochondrial respiration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced electrically in anaesthetised healthy adult pigs and left untreated for seven minutes followed by randomisation to manual ventilation with 50% or 100% oxygen and mechanical chest compressions (LUCAS (R)). Defibrillation was performed at thirteen minutes and repeated if necessary every two minutes with 1 mg intravenous adrenaline. Cerebral oxygenation was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (rSO(2), INVOS (TM) 5100C Cerebral Oximeter) and with a probe (NEUROVENT-PTO, RAUMEDIC) in the frontal brain cortex (PbO2). Heart biopsies were obtained 20 min after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with an analysis of mitochondrial respiration (OROBOROS Instruments Corp., Innsbruck, Austria), and compared to four control animals without VF and CPR. Brain rSO(2) and PbO2 were log transformed and analysed with a mixed linear model and mitochondrial respiration with an analysis of variance. Results: Of the twenty pigs, one had a breach of protocol and was excluded, leaving nine pigs in the 50% group and ten in the 100% group. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in six pigs in the 50% group and eight in the 100% group. The rSO(2) (p = 0.007) was lower with FiO(2) 50%, but the PbO2 was not (p = 0.93). After ROSC there were significant interactions between time and FiO(2) regarding both rSO(2) (p = 0.001) and PbO2 (p = 0.004). Compared to the controls, mitochondrial respiration was decreased, with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) levels of 57 (17) pmol s(-1) mg(-1) compared to 92 (23) pmol s(-1) mg(-1) (p = 0.008), but there was no difference between different oxygen fractions (p = 0.79). Conclusions: The use of 50% oxygen during CPR results in lower cerebral oximetry values compared to 100% oxygen but there is no difference in brain tissue oxygen. Cardiac arrest disturbs cardiac mitochondrial respiration, but it is not alleviated with the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen (Ethical and hospital approvals ESAVI/1077/04.10.07/2016 and HUS/215/2016, 7 30.3.2016, Funding Helsinki University and others). (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Koivunen, Erja; Talvio, Eija; Valkonen, Eija; Tupasela, Tuomo; Tuunainen, Petra; Valaja, Jarmo (2016)
    The aim was to study the effects of dietary pea inclusion and the addition of Avizyme 1200 -enzyme cocktail on broiler performance, intestinal viscosity and organoleptic quality of meat. The experimental design was a 4 x 2 factorial, the factors being dietary pea inclusion (0, 150, 300 and 450 g kg(-1)) in the diets fed from day 9 to day 38 and the addition of Avizyme 1200 enzyme cocktail including amylase, protease and xylanase during the entire experiment. The growth of birds improved (p 0.05). In conclusion, 450 g kg(-1) peas can be used in the broiler grower diets without negative effects on the bird performance. The use of enzyme cocktail improves bird performance.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Herman, Zelek S (American College of Nutrition, 1995)
    In 1975 Thomas Chalmers analyzed the possible effect of vitamin C on the common cold by calculating the average difference in the duration of cold episodes in vitamin C and control groups in seven placebo-controlled studies. He found that episodes were 0.11 +/- 0.24 (SE) days shorter in the vitamin C groups and concluded that there was no valid evidence to indicate that vitamin C is beneficial in the treatment of the common cold. Chalmers' review has been extensively cited in scientific articles and monographs. However, other reviewers have concluded that vitamin C significantly alleviates the symptoms of the common cold. A careful analysis of Chalmers' review reveals serious shortcomings. For example, Chalmers did not consider the amount of vitamin C used in the studies and included in his meta-analysis was a study in which only 0.025-0.05 g/day of vitamin C was administered to the test subjects. For some studies Chalmers used values that are inconsistent with the original published results. Using data from the same studies, we calculated that vitamin C (1-6 g/day) decreased the duration of the cold episodes by 0.93 +/- 0.22 (SE) days; the relative decrease in the episode duration was 21%. The current notion that vitamin C has no effect on the common cold seems to be based in large part on a faulty review written two decades ago.