Browsing by Subject "PINE"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-6 of 6
  • Mäki, Mari; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bäck, Jaana (2019)
    Vegetation emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are intensively studied world-wide, because oxidation products of VOCs contribute to atmospheric processes. The overall aim of this study was to identify and quantify the VOCs that originate from boreal podzolized forest soil at different depths, in addition to studying the association of VOC concentrations with VOC and CO2 fluxes from the boreal forest floor.
  • Greiser, Caroline; Hylander, Kristoffer; Meineri, Eric; Luoto, Miska; Ehrlen, Johan (2020)
    The role of climate in determining range margins is often studied using species distribution models (SDMs), which are easily applied but have well-known limitations, e.g. due to their correlative nature and colonization and extinction time lags. Transplant experiments can give more direct information on environmental effects, but often cover small spatial and temporal scales. We simultaneously applied a SDM using high-resolution spatial predictors and an integral projection (demographic) model based on a transplant experiment at 58 sites to examine the effects of microclimate, light and soil conditions on the distribution and performance of a forest herb, Lathyrus vernus, at its cold range margin in central Sweden. In the SDM, occurrences were strongly associated with warmer climates. In contrast, only weak effects of climate were detected in the transplant experiment, whereas effects of soil conditions and light dominated. The higher contribution of climate in the SDM is likely a result from its correlation with soil quality, forest type and potentially historic land use, which were unaccounted for in the model. Predicted habitat suitability and population growth rate, yielded by the two approaches, were not correlated across the transplant sites. We argue that the ranking of site habitat suitability is probably more reliable in the transplant experiment than in the SDM because predictors in the former better describe understory conditions, but that ranking might vary among years, e.g. due to differences in climate. Our results suggest that L. vernus is limited by soil and light rather than directly by climate at its northern range edge, where conifers dominate forests and create suboptimal conditions of soil and canopy-penetrating light. A general implication of our study is that to better understand how climate change influences range dynamics, we should not only strive to improve existing approaches but also to use multiple approaches in concert.
  • Xue, Hailian; Mäkelä, Aino Annikki; Valsta, Lauri Tapani; Vanclay, Jerome; Cao, Tianjian (2019)
    Stand management optimization has long been computationally demanding as increasingly detailed growth and yield models have been developed. Process-based growth models are useful tools for predicting forest dynamics. However, the difficulty of classic optimization algorithms limited its applications in forest planning. This study assessed alternative approaches to optimizing thinning regimes and rotation length using a process-based growth model. We considered (1) population-based algorithms proposed for stand management optimization, including differential evolution (DE), particle swarm optimization (PSO), evolution strategy (ES), and (2) derivative-free search algorithms, including the Nelder–Mead method (NM) and Osyczka’s direct and random search algorithm (DRS). We incorporated population-based algorithms into the simulation-optimization system OptiFor in which the process-based model PipeQual was the simulator. The results showed that DE was the most reliable algorithm among those tested. Meanwhile, DRS was also an effective algorithm for sparse stands with fewer decision variables. PSO resulted in some higher objective function values, however, the computational time of PSO was the longest. In general, of the population-based algorithms, DE is superior to the competing ones. The effectiveness of DE for stand management optimization is promising and manifested.
  • Luoma, Ville; Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Tanhuanpaa, Topi; Kaartinen, Harri; Kukko, Antero; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppa, Juha; Vastaranta, Mikko (2019)
    Exact knowledge over tree growth is valuable information for decision makers when considering the purposes of sustainable forest management and planning or optimizing the use of timber, for example. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) can be used for measuring tree and forest attributes in very high detail. The study aims at characterizing changes in individual tree attributes (e.g., stem volume growth and taper) during a nine year-long study period in boreal forest conditions. TLS-based three-dimensional (3D) point cloud data were used for identifying and quantifying these changes. The results showed that observing changes in stem volume was possible from TLS point cloud data collected at two different time points. The average volume growth of sample trees was 0.226 m(3) during the study period, and the mean relative change in stem volume was 65.0%. In addition, the results of a pairwise Student's t-test gave strong support (p-value 0.0001) that the used method was able to detect tree growth within the nine-year period between 2008-2017. The findings of this study allow the further development of enhanced methods for TLS-based single tree and forest growth modeling and estimation, which can thus improve the accuracy of forest inventories and offer better tools for future decision-making processes.
  • Paljakka, Teemu; Rissanen, Kaisa; Vanhatalo, Anni; Salmon, Yann; Jyske, Tuula; Prisle, Nonne L.; Linnakoski, Riikka; Lin, Jack J.; Laakso, Tapio; Kasanen, Risto; Back, Jaana; Holtta, Teemu (2020)
    Increased abiotic stress along with increasing temperatures, dry periods and forest disturbances may favor biotic stressors such as simultaneous invasion of bark beetle and ophiostomatoid fungi. It is not fully understood how tree desiccation is associated with colonization of sapwood by fungi. A decrease in xylem sap surface tension (sigma(xylem)) as a result of infection has been hypothesized to cause xylem embolism by lowering the threshold for air-seeding at the pits between conduits and disruptions in tree water transport. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested. We investigated tree water relations by measuring the stem xylem hydraulic conductivity (K-stem), sigma(xylem), stem relative water content (RWCstem), and water potential (psi(stem)), and canopy conductance (g(canopy)), as well as the compound composition in xylem sap in Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings. We conducted our measurements at the later stage ofEndoconidiophora polonicainfection when visible symptoms had occurred in xylem. Saplings of two clones (44 trees altogether) were allocated to treatments of inoculated, wounded control and intact control trees in a greenhouse. The saplings were destructively sampled every second week during summer 2016. sigma(xylem), K(stem)and RWC(stem)decreased following the inoculation, which may indicate that decreased sigma(xylem)resulted in increased embolism. g(canopy)did not differ between treatments indicating that stomata responded to psi(stem)rather than to embolism formation. Concentrations of quinic acid, myo-inositol, sucrose and alkylphenol increased in the xylem sap of inoculated trees. Myo-inositol concentrations also correlated negatively with sigma(xylem)and K-stem. Our study is a preliminary investigation of the role of sigma(xylem)inE. polonicainfected trees based on previous hypotheses. The results suggest thatE. polonicainfection can lead to a simultaneous decrease in xylem sap surface tension and a decline in tree hydraulic conductivity, thus hampering tree water transport.
  • Lahtinen, Maarit; Mikkilä, Joona Aleksi; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka (2021)
    The complex chemical structure and the fact that many areas in pulping and lignin chemistry still remain unresolved are challenges associated with exploiting lignin. In this study, we address questions regarding the formation and chemical nature of the insoluble residual lignin, the presence of fatty acids in kraft lignin, and the origin of secoisolariciresinol structures. A mild thermal treatment of lignin at maximum kraft-cooking temperatures (similar to 170 degrees C) with tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) or in an inert solvent (decane) produced highly insoluble products. However, acetylation of these samples enabled detailed chemical characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results show that the secoisolariciresinol (beta-beta) structure in kraft lignin is formed by rearrangement of the beta-aryl ether structure. Furthermore, fatty acids bind covalently to kraft lignin by reacting with the stilbene structures present. It is highly probable that these reactions also occur during kraft pulping, and this phenomenon has an impact on controlling the present kraft pulping process along with the development of new products from kraft lignin.