Browsing by Subject "PISA"

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  • Miettinen, Reijo (2019)
    Useat kansainväliset hankkeet ovat 2000-luvulla määritelleet 21. vuosisadan taitoja ja kompetensseja. Niistä on kehittymässä uusi tapa puhua kasvatuksesta ja koulutuksesta. Edelläkävijä on ollut Taloudellisen yhteistyön ja kehityksen järjestö OECD. Sen vertailevan mittaamisen viitekehys edellyttää määrittelemään eri maiden kulttuureista ja opetussuunnitelmista sekä tiedonaloista riippumattomat geneeriset kompetenssit. Niitä mittaamalla järjestö katsoo voivansa vertailla eri maiden koulutusjärjestelmien tehokkuutta ja laatua ja luoda perustan niiden kehittämiselle. Artikkeli analysoi kriittisesti tämän kehitysstrategian perusteluja ja seurauksia. Kompetenssien kieli suuntaa kasvatusta valmiuksiin, jotka ovat mitattavissa ja joita pidetään työllistymisen ja talouden kehityksen kannalta tärkeinä. Näin se kaventaa käsityksiämme kasvatuksen ja sivistyksen tarkoituksesta ja sisällöstä.
  • Wang, Yan; Lavonen, Jari; Tirri, Kirsi (2019)
    This research compared how the scientific literacy-related goals of the current Chinese and Finnish national science curricula at primary school level are actualised using a revised Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) scientific literacy framework in the content analysis of the curricula. The content of the curricula focuses principally on knowledge, followed by competencies and attitudes, respectively. The learning context was seen to be thoroughly integrated with the content in both countries. However, the curricula are written in different ways. Generally, the literacy objectives for both curricula are based on scientific knowledge (Vision I) and the application of knowledge-based skills in situations (Vision II). However, they are characterised by implicit views that derive from the pursuit of the value-driven transformation of individuals and society achieved through science education (Vision III). The Chinese curriculum appears to favour the Anglo-American curriculum tradition, whereas the Finnish curriculum appears to be more attached to the Bildung-Didaktik tradition in terms of core tasks and the specification of objectives. The recommendation is that Vision III should be included in the science curricula, and should explicitly relate to social and scientific topics with a view to furthering a scientifically literate public.
  • Kosunen, Sonja; Hansen, Petteri (2018)
    In recent years Finnish comprehensive education has often been discussed in both, academic and public forums, in terms of its relatively high learning outcomes and perceived efficiency. Yet what has often been lacking in cross-country comparisons is a critical socio-historical analysis of contingent nation-specific events and features as well as an in-depth analysis of Finnish education politics as constantly changing dynamic system. We analyze and reconstruct the discursive narrative of Finnish comprehensive education within a socio-historical framework. The material consists of interviews with the establishment of Finnish education: politicians, leading policy-makers and stakeholders, and established scholars (n=9). Three periods were recognized and reconstructed in the analysis: 1) The pre-comprehensive school period, 2) a steady development culminating in the crisis of the 1990s, and 3) the PISA results, which in the narrative led to international success and national gridlock. The crucial changes relate to changes in audiences (performing game). Two key findings emerge from this discursive narrative analyses: the role of the PISA reports as a turning point for the basic education politics in Finland and how this turn led to a discussion of comprehensive school as a kind of success story.
  • Hansen, Petteri; Wallenius, Tommi; Juvonen, Sara; Varjo, Janne (2020)
    Throughout history educational leaders have looked to other countries and have attempted to learn by borrowing useful examples to implement in their own educational systems. As recent comparative policy research shows, processes of policy lending and borrowing have their own socio-historically defined dynamics. In this paper, the authors approach the use of reference countries through narratives of educational experts in Finland, Norway and Sweden. By comparing how international influences are used in stories about basic education, this research constructs a core narrative of a moving Nordic landscape. This landscape indicates both recognised and acknowledged policy borrowing relations in the past, as well as a changing orientation to preferred and avoided reference countries in the present. While new country-specific performance indicators such as PISA have widened the landscape of reference countries at an official level, culturally mediated images seem to redefine how reference countries are observed in everyday semantics.
  • Poikela, Teresa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The subject for this Master’s thesis is to study how gender is produced in opinion pieces that deal with PISA results for boys and girls. The opinion pieces compared PISA results for boys and girls and from these comparisons various conclusions were drawn on differences between girls and boys in relation to schooling. In this thesis, gender is understood as socially, contextually and culturally constructive. The following research questions were set: 1) What kind of gender discourses are being produced in opinion pieces that deal with PISA results? 2) How do these discourses define gender? Social constructionism, discourse analysis and feminist theory’s critical perspective towards gender guided the analysis of the research material. The research materials used were the opinion pieces which dealt with girls’ and boys’ PISA results, school achievements and schooling, published in Aamulehti and Helsingin Sanomat between 2010-2017. From the research material nine (9) gender discourses were formed. The discourses were named as: worry discourse, boys’ impaired proficiency discourse, threatening future discourse, gender struggle in school discourse, need for gender identification opportunities discourse, the achievers and school favourites discourse, far from school discourse, permitted boyhood discourse, and gendered practises and frameworks discourse. Worry for the boys was central in discussions. Constructing and maintaining polarity and differentiation was a central way of producing gender. Gender was defined as dichotomic, hierarchic and framed by internal unity and, thus, by divergence between the girl and boy groups. In relation to schooling, boys were described as distant, uninterested and unappreciative. It was emphasised in the discussion that pedagogy should be changed to better fit boys’ needs. Girls, on the other hand, were described as successful and having a positive attitude towards their education. In addition to the gender perspective in regard to discussing school achievements and schooling of boys and girls, it would be beneficial to pay attention to other gender-related factors, such as immigrant background and social class, and their importance to school achievements and schooling.
  • Riudavets, Marc (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This Master’s Thesis studies the immigrant-native gap in terms of test performance in the PISA assessments for Finland. Data suggest that students with immigrant background perform worse than natives. I provide evidence that this unconditional gap is partially offset when some variables are introduced in the analysis. Socioeconomic status and age of arrival seem to play the biggest role in explaining the difference in performance. Some degree of heterogeneity is also found within the immigrant population in terms of performance across the socioeconomic status distribution or the language spoken at home.
  • Ekman, Veronika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The study explores the educational debate in Sweden by analysing how Finnish education and the Finnish school is discussed in the Swedish daily newspaper Dagens Nyheter. The aim is to investigate how education is discussed in Dagens Nyheter and in what way Finland is highlighted in the debate and what is said. The purpose is to clarify what Finland's function in the debate is. Is Sweden compared to Finland and if so, in what way? Is Finland seen as a role model or as something antiquated or something completely different? The dissertation is based on a general theory, Niklas Luhmann's systems theory and on the research theories, externalization, reference society and the role of the media in education policy by opening the contemporary diagnostic phenomenon, the Finnish school in Swedish media commentary. Previous studies have shown that it is common in today's globalized world to look at other countries in education policy and that large-scale international comparisons of education systems such as PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) have led to other countries' results becoming reference points and legitimizing arguments in global education policy. For the empirical study, data was collected from Dagens Nyheter's digital service and archive. The material consisted of a total of 38 articles published between 2010-2018 and the news source's own search engine was utilized by using the keywords "education", "school" and "Finland". During this period, two PISA results were published in 2012 and 2015, which also significantly "heated up" the debate. After the material collection, a thematic content analysis was performed of the identified articles. The articles that highlighted Finland and Finnish education could be categorized according to three different main themes that were recurring and central to the Dagens Nyheter debate. The articles covered in Theme 1: Swedish school policy and reform debate, Theme 2: Teachers, teacher training and teacher salaries and Theme 3: PISA, learning outcomes and assessment. In addition, the function of Finland in the debate could be categorized by subcategories in which Finland's function was seen as either 1) a role model, 2) something antiquated or 3) a reference but not an influence. The study's results suggest that when Finland is seen a role model, Finland's function is a positive reference in which various good aspects of the Finnish educational system are presented and projected against the Swedish system. In addition the results show that when Finland is seen as something antiquated, it is not about Finland's function being a negative reference but more about how Sweden makes excuses to Finland's PISA success in legitimizing its own decisions. Finally, the results show that Finland's function can also be seen as a reference but not an influence when observing Finland and comparing but neither in a positive or negative sense or that Finland is seen as one among other reference countries. One can also distinguish that the education debate was "heated up" especially when new PISA results have been published and that the debate in Dagens Nyheter has been most lively during the years 2011-2012. In summary, the study results indicate that Finland is raised in the debate and has a function as a reference but that the degree of intensity varies and that it is always linked to the ever-changing dynamic between countries and who is the one referred to at that particular moment.
  • Tyynelä, Venla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Suomalaisten nuorten lukutaidon heikentyminen on herättänyt huolta lähiaikoina niin kouluissa kuin mediassakin. Varsinkin nuorten poikien lukutaidosta on oltu jo pidemmän aikaa huolissaan. Viimeisimmät PISA-tulokset ovatkin osoittaneet, että suomalaisten poikien ja tyttöjen lukutaidoissa on suuri ero. Myös heikkojen lukijoiden määrä on tulosten perusteella kasvanut huomattavasti. Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastellaan yläkoulun opettajien näkemyksiä siitä, millaisia haasteita yläkoululaisten kirjallisuuden lukemiseen liittyy. Haasteita tarkastellaan sekä oppilaiden lukuprosessista suoriutumiseen että opettajien kirjallisuuden hyödyntämiseen liittyvien kokemusten perusteella. Opettajien näkemykset perustuvat Lukuklaani-tutkimushankkeen vuonna 2019 kerätyn alkukartoituskyselyn vastauksiin. Tutkielman tavoitteena on vastata kysymyksiin: 1) Mitä haasteita yläkoululaisten lukemiseen liittyy? 2) Mitä haasteita yläkoululaisten luettamiseen liittyy? ja 3) Millaisilla teoilla voitaisiin lisätä kirjallisuuden osuutta opetuksessa? Tutkielman aineistona käytetyt Lukuklaani-tutkimushankkeen alkukartoituskyselyt on lähetetty hankkeen alussa kaikille suomalaisille yläkouluille, tarkoituksena selvittää yläkoulujen kirjallisuuskasvatuksen tilannetta, lukumateriaalien käyttöä ja opetuskäytäntöjä. Alkukartoituskyselyt on lähetetty kahdelle eri ryhmälle: äidinkielen opettajille sekä muiden aineiden opettajille. Kyselyihin oli mahdollista vastata joko suomeksi tai ruotsiksi, mutta tutkielmassa on keskitytty suomenkielisiin vastauksiin. Koska Lukuklaani pyrkii erityisesti tukemaan lasten ja nuorten lukuharrastusta sekä kirjallisuuskasvatusta kouluissa kannustamalla pitkien tekstien sekä kokonaisten teosten lukemiseen, keskitytään tutkielmassa nimenomaan kirjallisuuden ja pidempien tekstien lukemiseen ja luettamiseen. Aineiston perusteella yleisimpiä lukemiseen liittyviä haasteita ovat yläkoululaisten heikko lukutaito, heikko lukemiseen sitoutuminen, muun vapaa-ajan tekemisen priorisointi lukemisen edelle, epäonnistuneet kirjavalinnat ja sosioekonomisen taustan tai elämäntilanteen vaikutus lukemiseen. Kirjallisuuden luettamiseen liittyviä haasteita taas ovat aineiston perusteella opettajan asenne kirjallisuutta tai luettamista kohtaan, ajanpuute, kirjojen heikko saatavuus ja sähköisten materiaalien priorisointi. Tutkielman loppuun on kerätty muiden aineiden opettajien hyväksi kokemia käytäntöjä kirjallisuuden hyödyntämiseen opetuksessa. Selvää on, että nuorten heikentyneen lukutaidon taustalla on laaja kirjo syitä. Asenteella ja motivaatiolla on iso vaikutus sekä nuorten lukuharrastukseen että siihen kuinka paljon lukuharrastusta kotona tuetaan. Opettajilla on tärkeä tehtävä toimia lukemiseen kannustajina, jos nuoren kotoa ei syystä tai toisesta kannustusta tule. Tärkeintä olisi, että positiivisia kokemuksia syntyisi ja lukemisen merkitys ymmärrettäisiin, jolloin motivaatio sitä kohtaan nousisi. Pienilläkin teoilla pystytään tekemään paljon, kunhan kaikki ymmärtävät tekojen merkityksen. Aineiston perusteella moni nuori kokee lukemisen negatiivisena, ahdistavana asiana, ja siihen tulisi saada muutos, ennen kuin on ajankohtaista miettiä keinoja lukutaidon tason nostamiseen.