Browsing by Subject "PLASMA"

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  • Surakka, Ida; Isaacs, Aaron; Karssen, Lennart C.; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka P.; Middelberg, Rita P. S.; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ried, Janina S.; Lamina, Claudia; Mangino, Massimo; Igl, Wilmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Lagou, Vasiliki; van der Harst, Pim; Leach, Irene Mateo; Esko, Tonu; Kutalik, Zoltan; Wainwright, Nicholas W.; Struchalin, Maksim V.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Kangas, Antti J.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Perola, Markus; Rantanen, Taina; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Soininen, Pasi; Johansson, Asa; Soranzo, Nicole; Heath, Andrew C.; Papamarkou, Theodore; Prokopenko, Inga; Toenjes, Anke; Kronenberg, Florian; Doering, Angela; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Freimer, Nelson B.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Palotie, Aarno; Sandhu, Manj S.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Metspalu, Andres; Stumvoll, Michael; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Jula, Antti; Navis, Gerjan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Spector, Tim D.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Salomaa, Veikko; Oostra, Ben A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Gieger, Christian; Jaervelin, Marjo-Riitta; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hofman, Albert; McCarthy, Mark I.; Palotie, Leena; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Ripatti, Samuli (2011)
  • Bogl, Leonie H.; Kaye, Sanna M.; Ramo, Joel T.; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Rissanen, Aila; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pietilainen, Kirsi H. (2016)
    Objective. To investigate how obesity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation link to circulating metabolites, and whether the connections are due to genetic or environmental factors. Subjects and methods. Circulating serum metabolites were determined by proton NMR spectroscopy. Data from 1368 (531 monozygotic (MZ) and 837 dizygotic (DZ)) twins were used for bivariate twin modeling to derive the genetic (r(g)) and environmental (re) correlations between waist circumference (WC) and serum metabolites. Detailed examination of the associations between fat distribution (DEXA) and metabolic health (HOMA-IR, CRP) was performed among 286 twins including 33 BMI-discordant MZ pairs (intrapair BMI difference >= 3 kg/m(2)). Results. Fat, especially in the abdominal area (i.e. WC, android fat % and android to gynoid fat ratio), together with HOMA-IR and CRP correlated significantly with an atherogenic lipoprotein profile, higher levels of branched-chain (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids, higher levels of glycoprotein, and a more saturated fatty acid profile. In contrast, a higher proportion of gynoid to total fat associated with a favorable metabolite profile. There was a significant genetic overlap between WC and several metabolites, most strongly with phenylalanine (r(g) = 0.40), glycoprotein (r(g) = 0.37), serum triglycerides (r(g) = 0.36), BCAAs (r(g) = 0.30-0.40), HDL particle diameter (r(g) = -0.33) and HDL cholesterol (r(g) = -0.30). The effect of acquired obesity within the discordant MZ pairs was particularly strong for atherogenic lipoproteins. Conclusions. A wide range of unfavorable alterations in the serum metabolome was associated with abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation. Twin modeling and obesity-discordant twin analysis suggest that these associations are partly explained by shared genes but also reflect mechanisms independent of genetic liability. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Seikku, Laura; Stefanovic, Vedran; Rahkonen, Petri; Teramo, Kari; Paavonen, Jorma; Tikkanen, Minna; Rahkonen, Leena (2019)
    Objective: Erythropoietin - a hormone regulating erythropoiesis - is a biomarker of chronic fetal hypoxia. High erythropoietin levels in fetal plasma and amniotic fluid are associated with increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome. Since the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality is increased in pregnancies beyond 41 gestational weeks, we evaluated erythropoietin levels in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord serum in apparently low-risk term (>= 37 gestational weeks) and prolonged pregnancies (>= 41 gestational weeks) with labor induction. Study design: This prospective cohort study comprised 93 singleton pregnancies at 37(+0)-42(+1) gestational weeks, of which prolonged pregnancies numbered 63 (67.7%). Amniotic fluid samples were collected at time of labor induction by amniotomy. Umbilical cord blood samples for evaluation of pH, base excess, and umbilical cord serum erythropoietin were collected at birth. Erythropoietin levels were measured by immunochemiluminometric assay. Normal value of amniotic fluid erythropoietin level was defined as = 27 IU/L. Normal umbilical cord serum erythropoietin was defined as <40 IU/L. Data on maternal pregnancy and delivery characteristics and short-term neonatal outcomes such as Apgar score were obtained from the hospital charts. Associations were calculated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test were utilized to determine differences in the study groups. Results: Amniotic fluid erythropoietin levels correlated with gestational age (r = 0.261, p = 0.012) and were higher among prolonged pregnancies as compared to term pregnancies (p = 0.005). There were 78 (83.9%) vaginal deliveries, and among these erythropoietin levels in amniotic fluid correlated with the levels in umbilical cord serum (r = 0.513, p <0.000). Umbilical cord serum erythropoietin levels correlated with gestational age among vaginal deliveries (r = 0.250, p = 0.027). Erythropoietin levels in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord serum did not correlate with umbilical artery pH or base excess, or other adverse pregnancy outcome. Conclusions: In vaginal deliveries erythropoietin levels in amniotic fluid correlated with the levels in umbilical cord serum. Erythropoietin levels correlated with gestational age, probably due to weakening placental function and relative hypoxemia occurring in advanced gestation. However, in this relatively low-risk study population erythropoietin was not related to adverse delivery outcome. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Plaschke, F.; Hietala, H.; Angelopoulos, V. (2013)
  • Valkonen, S.; Mallas, B.; Impola, U.; Valkeajärvi, A.; Eronen, J.; Javela, K.; Siljander, P.R.-M.; Laitinen, S. (2019)
    Novel analytical measures are needed to accurately monitor the properties of platelet concentrates (PCs). Since activated platelets produce platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), analyzing EVs of PCs may provide additional information about the condition of platelets. The prospect of using EVs as an auxiliary measure of platelet activation state was investigated by examining the effect of platelet additive solutions (PASs) on EV formation and platelet activation during PC storage. The time-dependent activation of platelets in PCs with PAS-B or with the further developed PAS-E was compared by measuring the exposure of CD62P by flow cytometry and the content of soluble glycoprotein V (sGPV) of PCs by an immunoassay. Changes in the concentration and size distribution of EVs were determined using nanoparticle tracking analysis. A time-dependent increase in platelet activation in PCs was demonstrated by increased CD62P ex­posure, sGPV content, and EV concentration. Using these strongly correlating parameters, PAS-B platelets were shown to be more activated compared to PAS-E platelets. Since the EV concentration correlated well with the established platelet activation markers CD62P and sGPV, it could potentially be used as a complementary parameter for platelet activation for PCs. More detailed characterization of the resulting EVs could help to understand how the PC components contribute the functional effects of transfused PCs.
  • Tynkkynen, Juho; Chouraki, Vincent; van der Lee, Sven J.; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Yang, Qiong; Li, Shuo; Beiser, Alexa; Larson, Martin G.; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Shipley, Martin J.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Gerszten, Robert E.; Wang, Thomas J.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Würtz, Peter; Fischer, Krista; Demirkan, Ayse; Ikram, M. Arfan; Amin, Najaf; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Perola, Markus; Metspalu, Andres; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Kivimäki, Mika; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Seshadri, Sudha; Salomaa, Veikko (2018)
    Introduction: Metabolite, lipid, and lipoprotein lipid profiling can provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Methods: We studied eight prospective cohorts with 22,623 participants profiled by nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry metabolomics. Four cohorts were used for discovery with replication undertaken in the other four to avoid false positives. For metabolites that survived replication, combined association results are presented. Results: Over 246,698 person-years, 995 and 745 cases of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease were detected, respectively. Three branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine), creatinine and two very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-specific lipoprotein lipid subclasses were associated with lower dementia risk. One high density lipoprotein (HDL; the concentration of cholesterol esters relative to total lipids in large HDL) and one VLDL (total cholesterol to total lipids ratio in very large VLDL) lipoprotein lipid subclass was associated with increased dementia risk. Branched-chain amino acids were also associated with decreased Alzheimer's disease risk and the concentration of cholesterol esters relative to total lipids in large HDL with increased Alzheimer's disease risk. Discussion: Further studies can clarify whether these molecules play a causal role in dementia pathogenesis or are merely markers of early pathology. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Alzheimer's Association.
  • Turc, Lucile; Taryus, Vertti; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Johlander, Andreas; Grandin, Maxime; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Dubart, Maxime; Palmroth, Minna (2020)
    Bounded by the bow shock and the magnetopause, the magnetosheath forms the interface between solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas and regulates solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Previous works have revealed pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetries in the magnetosheath properties. The dependence of these asymmetries on the upstream parameters remains however largely unknown. One of the main sources of these asymmetries is the bow shock configuration, which is typically quasi-parallel on the dawn side and quasi-perpendicular on the dusk side of the terrestrial magnetosheath because of the Parker spiral orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Earth. Most of these previous studies rely on collections of spacecraft measurements associated with a wide range of upstream conditions which are processed in order to obtain average values of the magnetosheath parameters. In this work, we use a different approach and quantify the magnetosheath asymmetries in global hybrid-Vlasov simulations performed with the Vlasiator model. We concentrate on three parameters: the magnetic field strength, the plasma density, and the flow velocity. We find that the Vlasiator model reproduces the polarity of the asymmetries accurately but that their level tends to be higher than in spacecraft measurements, probably because the magnetosheath parameters are obtained from a single set of upstream conditions in the simulation, making the asymmetries more prominent. A set of three runs with different upstream conditions allows us to investigate for the first time how the asymmetries change when the angle between the IMF and the Sun-Earth line is reduced and when the Alfven Mach number decreases. We find that a more radial IMF results in a stronger magnetic field asymmetry and a larger variability of the magnetosheath density. In contrast, a lower Alfven Mach number leads to a reduced magnetic field asymmetry and a decrease in the variability of the magnetosheath density, the latter likely due to weaker foreshock processes. Our results highlight the strong impact of the quasi-parallel shock and its associated foreshock on global magnetosheath properties, in particular on the magnetosheath density, which is extremely sensitive to transient quasi-parallel shock processes, even with the perfectly steady upstream conditions in our simulations. This could explain the large variability of the density asymmetry levels obtained from spacecraft measurements in previous studies.
  • Orosz, Zsuzsanna Z.; Bardos, Helga; Shemirani, Amir H.; Debreceni, Ildiko Beke; Lassila, Riitta; Riikonen, Antti S.; Hovinga, Johanna A. Kremer; Seiler, Theo G.; van Dorland, Hendrika A.; Schroeder, Verena; Boda, Zoltan; Nemes, Laszlo; Frueh Eppstein, Beatrice; Nagy, Bence; Facsko, Andrea; Kappelmayer, Janos; Muszbek, Laszlo (2019)
    Cellular factor XIII (cFXIII, FXIII-A(2)), a transglutaminase, has been demonstrated in a few cell types. Its main function is to cross-link proteins by isopeptide bonds. Here, we investigated the presence of cFXIII in cells of human cornea. Tissue sections of the cornea were immunostained for FXIII-A in combination with staining for CD34 antigen or isopeptide cross-links. Isolated corneal keratocytes were also evaluated by immunofluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. FXIII-A in the corneal stroma was quantified by Western blotting. FXIII-A mRNA was detected by RT-qPCR. The cornea of FXIII-A-deficient patients was evaluated by cornea topography. FXIII-A was detected in 68 +/- 13% of CD34+ keratocytes. Their distribution in the corneal stroma was unequal; they were most abundant in the subepithelial tertile. cFXIII was of cytoplasmic localization. In the stroma, 3.64 ng cFXIII/mg protein was measured. The synthesis of cFXIII by keratocytes was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Isopeptide cross-links were detected above, but not within the corneal stroma. Slight abnormality of the cornea was detected in six out of nine FXIII-A-deficient patients. The presence of cFXIII in human keratocytes was established for the first time. cFXIII might be involved in maintaining the stability of the cornea and in the corneal wound healing process.
  • Kumpula, Linda S.; Makela, Sanna M.; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Karjalainen, Anna; Liinamaa, Johanna M.; Kaski, Kimmo; Savolainen, Markku J.; Hannuksela, Minna L.; Ala-Korpela, Mika (2010)
  • Akhavan-Tafti, M.; Palmroth, M.; Slavin, J. A.; Battarbee, M.; Ganse, U.; Grandin, M.; Le, G.; Gershman, D. J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Stawarz, J. E. (2020)
    The Vlasiator hybrid-Vlasov code was developed to investigate global magnetospheric dynamics at ion-kinetic scales. Here we focus on the role of magnetic reconnection in the formation and evolution of magnetic islands at the low-latitude magnetopause, under southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions. The simulation results indicate that (1) the magnetic reconnection ion kinetics, including the Earthward pointing Larmor electric field on the magnetospheric side of an X-point and anisotropic ion distributions, are well-captured by Vlasiator, thus enabling the study of reconnection-driven magnetic island evolution processes, (2) magnetic islands evolve due to continuous reconnection at adjacent X-points, "coalescence" which refers to the merging of neighboring islands to create a larger island, "erosion" during which an island loses magnetic flux due to reconnection, and "division" which involves the splitting of an island into smaller islands, and (3) continuous reconnection at adjacent X-points is the dominant source of magnetic flux and plasma to the outer layers of magnetic islands resulting in cross-sectional growth rates up to + 0.3 R-E(2)/min. The simulation results are compared to the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) measurements of a chain of ion-scale flux transfer events (FTEs) sandwiched between two dominant X-lines. The MMS measurements similarly reveal (1) anisotropic ion populations and (2) normalized reconnection rate similar to 0.18, in agreement with theory and the Vlasiator predictions. Based on the simulation results and the MMS measurements, it is estimated that the observed ion-scale FTEs may grow Earth-sized within similar to 10 min, which is comparable to the average transport time for FTEs formed in the subsolar region to the high-latitude magnetopause. Future simulations shall revisit reconnection-driven island evolution processes with improved spatial resolutions.
  • Saraswat, Mayank; Joenvaara, Sakari; Seppanen, Hanna; Mustonen, Harri; Haglund, Caj; Renkonen, Risto (2017)
    Finland ranks sixth among the countries having highest incidence rate of pancreatic cancer with mortality roughly equaling incidence. The average age of diagnosis for pancreatic cancer is 69years in Nordic males, whereas the average age of diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is 40-50years, however, many cases overlap in age. By radiology, the evaluation of a pancreatic mass, that is, the differential diagnosis between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer is often difficult. Preoperative needle biopsies are difficult to obtain and are demanding to interpret. New blood based biomarkers are needed. The accuracy of the only established biomarker for pancreatic cancer, CA 19-9 is rather poor in differentiating between benign and malignant mass of the pancreas. In this study, we have performed mass spectrometry analysis (High Definition MSE) of serum samples from patients with chronic pancreatitis (13) and pancreatic cancer (22). We have quantified 291 proteins and performed detailed statistical analysis such as principal component analysis, orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis and receiver operating curve analysis. The proteomic signature of chronic pancreatitis versus pancreatic cancer samples was able to separate the two groups by multiple statistical techniques. Some of the enriched pathways in the proteomic dataset were LXR/RXR activation, complement and coagulation systems and inflammatory response. We propose that multiple high-confidence biomarker candidates in our pilot study including Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2 (Area under the curve, AUC: 0.947), protein AMBP (AUC: 0.951) and prothrombin (AUC: 0.917), which should be further evaluated in larger patient series as potential new biomarkers for differential diagnosis.
  • Teder, Hindrek; Paluoja, Priit; Rekker, Kadri; Salumets, Andres; Krjutškov, Kaarel; Palta, Priit (2019)
    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) enables accurate detection of fetal chromosomal trisomies. The majority of publicly available computational methods for sequencing-based NIPT analyses rely on low-coverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data and are not applicable for targeted high-coverage sequencing data from cell-free DNA samples. Here, we present a novel computational framework for a targeted high-coverage sequencing-based NIPT analysis. The developed framework uses a hidden Markov model (HMM) in conjunction with a supplemental machine learning model, such as decision tree (DT) or support vector machine (SVM), to detect fetal trisomy and parental origin of additional fetal chromosomes. These models were developed using simulated datasets covering a wide range of biologically relevant scenarios with various chromosomal quantities, parental origins of extra chromosomes, fetal DNA fractions, and sequencing read depths. Developed models were tested on simulated and experimental targeted sequencing datasets. Consequently, we determined the functional feasibility and limitations of each proposed approach and demonstrated that read count-based HMM achieved the best overall classification accuracy of 0.89 for detecting fetal euploidies and trisomies on simulated dataset. Furthermore, we show that by using the DT and SVM on the HMM classification results, it was possible to increase the final trisomy classification accuracy to 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. We demonstrate that read count and allelic ratio-based models can achieve a high accuracy (up to 0.98) for detecting fetal trisomy even if the fetal fraction is as low as 2%. Currently, existing commercial NIPT analysis requires at least 4% of fetal fraction, which can be possibly a challenge in case of early gestational age (35 kg/m2). More accurate detection can be achieved at higher sequencing depth using HMM in conjunction with supplemental models, which significantly improve the trisomy detection especially in borderline scenarios (e.g., very low fetal fraction) and enables to perform NIPT even earlier than 10 weeks of pregnancy.
  • Viinamaki, Jenni; Ojanpera, Ilkka (2016)
    There is a constant demand for the quantification of drug metabolites within post-mortem toxicology. Especially electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry techniques necessitate that calibration is carried out using primary reference standards due to the non-uniform ionization efficiency between parent drugs and their metabolites. As reference standards for metabolites are not readily available and their costs are high, alternative methods for immediate quantification are required. In this study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and corona charged aerosol detection was utilized for the concurrent quantification of 23 drug metabolites using the corresponding parent drug for calibration. Based on this secondary calibration, the quantitative results for the N-demethylated metabolites by each detector were similar to those obtained by the ordinary calibration using reference standards. For O-demethylated metabolites, the differences in detector response caused somewhat larger biases using the secondary calibration. Using the validated secondary calibration, the blood sample data gathered from 633 post-mortem cases was retrospectively reprocessed to discover the combined metabolite-parent concentrations and metabolite to parent ratios for six toxicologically relevant drugs. These results, representing all causes of death, were compared to published data from therapeutic drug monitoring and post-mortem toxicology. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Przybyla, Beata; Pinomäki, Anne; Petäjä, Jari; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Strandberg, Karin; Hillarp, Andreas; Öhlin, Ann-Kristin; Ruutu, Tapani; Volin, Liisa; Lassila, Riitta (2017)
    Background Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) enhances coagulation via endothelial perturbation and inflammation. Role of natural anticoagulants in interactions between coagulation and inflammation as well as in acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are not well known. The purpose of this study was to define changes in natural anticoagulants over time in association with GVHD. Patients and methods This prospective study included 30 patients who received grafts from siblings (n = 19) or unrelated donors (n = 11). Eight patients developed GVHD. Standard clinical assays were applied to measure natural anticoagulants, represented by protein C (PC), antithrombin (AT), protein S (PS), complex of activated PC with its inhibitor (APC-PCI) and by markers of endothelial activation: Factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII: C) and soluble thrombomodulin (s-TM) at 6-8 time points over three months. Results Overall, PC, AT and FVIII: C increased in parallel after engraftment. Significant correlations between PC and FVIII: C (r = 0.64-0.82, p Conclusion The coordinated activation of natural anticoagulants in our longitudinal study indicates the sustained ability of adaptation to endothelial and inflammatory activation during allogenic SCT treatment. The suboptimal control of coagulation by natural anticoagulants at early stage of SCT may contribute to onset of GVHD.
  • Kauhanen, Dimple; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Laaksonen, Reijo; Sinisalo, Juha; Ekroos, Kim (2016)
    Monitoring the levels of the ceramides (Cer) d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/24:0, and Cer d18:1/24:1 and ratios thereof in human plasma empowers the prediction of fatal outcome of coronary artery disease (CAD). We describe a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methodology for clinical-scaled measurement of the four distinct ceramides. Rapid plasma precipitation was accomplished in 96-well format. Excellent extraction recoveries in the range of 98-109 % were achieved for each ceramide. Addition of corresponding D-7-labeled ceramide standards facilitated precise quantification of each plasma ceramide species utilizing a novel short 5-min LC-MS/MS method. Neither matrix interference nor carryover was observed. Robust intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision <15 % at five different concentrations were obtained. Linear calibration lines with regressions, R (2) > 0.99, were achieved for all analytes. Short-term bench top, long-term plasma, and extract stability demonstrated that the distinct ceramides were stable in the conditions evaluated. The validity of the methodology was demonstrated by determining the precise ceramide concentrations in a small CAD case-control study. Thus, our LC-MS/MS methodology features simple sample preparation and short analysis time for accurate quantification of Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/24:0, and Cer d18:1/24:1, designed for routine analysis.
  • Mäkitaipale, Johanna; Sievänen, Harri; Sankari, Satu; Vapaavuori, Outi (2019)
    During the winter time in Finland, sunlight is inadequate for vitamin D synthesis. Many pet rabbits live as house rabbits with limited outdoor access even during summer and may therefore be dependent on dietary sources of vitamin D. The aims of this study were to report the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in Finnish pet rabbits and to identify factors that influence vitamin D status. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations from 140 pet rabbits were determined using a vitamin D enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Eleven rabbits were excluded from the statistical analysis because of unclear dietary data. The remaining 129 rabbits were divided into groups depending on outdoor access during summer (no access n = 26, periodic n = 57, regular n = 46) as well as daily diet: little or no hay and commercial rabbit food = 1 dl (n = 35). The range of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was from 4.5 to 67.5 ng/ml with a mean of 26.1 ng/ml. Statistical general linear model adjusted for weight, age and season indicated that diet was associated with vitamin D concentrations (p = 0.001), but outdoor access during summer was not (p = 0.41). Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was significantly higher in the rabbits receiving a lot of hay and commercial food >= 1 dl (33.9 +/- 13.2 ng/ml) than in rabbits in other diet groups (24.0 +/- 8.5 ng/ml, 21.7 +/- 8.1 ng/ml, and 22.2 +/- 18.0 ng/ml, respectively). This investigation showed wide variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations among Finnish pet rabbits. Diet remains a main source since outdoor access seems to be too limited to provide adequate vitamin D synthesis for most of them, and the use of vitamin D supplements is rare.
  • Hyytia, Heidi; Ristiniemi, Noora; Laitinen, Päivi; Lovgren, Timo; Pettersson, Kim (2014)
  • Pitkänen, Hanna; Jouppila, Annukka; Lemponen, Marja; Ilmakunnas, Minna; Ahonen, Jouni; Lassila, Riitta (2017)
    Introduction: Factor XIII (FXIII) cross-links fibrin, completing blood coagulation. Congenital FXIII deficiency is managed with plasma-derived FXIII (pdFXIII) or recombinant FXIII (rFXIII) concentrates. Aim: As the mechanisms protecting patients with low FXIII levels ( Methods: Patients received initially rFXIII (35 IU/kg, A-subunit) following with pdFXIII at 1250 IU or 2500 IU (1230 IU/kg) monthly. TG (CAT), thromboelastometry (ROTEM), prothrombin fragments F1 + 2, fibrinogen and FXIII activity (FXIII:C) were measured at baseline and one-hour recovery. Results: FXIII was at the target level of 20 +/- 6 IU/dL at the 4-week trough. rFXIII corrected FXIII to 98 +/- 15 and high-dose pdFXIII to a level of 90 +/- 6, whereas low-dose/half dose pdFXIII reached 45 +/- 4 IU/dL. Although fibrinogen (Clauss Method) was normal, coagulation in FIBTEM was impaired, which FXIII administration tended to correct. CAT implied 1.6- to 1.9-fold enhanced TG, which FXIII administration normalized. Inhibition of fibrin polymerization by Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro peptide mimicked FXIII deficiency in CAT by enhancing TG both in control and FXIII recovery plasma. Antithrombin, alpha 2-macroblobulin-thrombin complex and prothrombin were normal, whereas F1 + 2 were elevated compatible with in vivo TG. Discussion: FXIII deficiency impairs fibrinogen function and fibrin formation simultaneously enhancing TG on the poorly polymerizing fibrin strands, when fibrin's antithrombin I -like function is absent. Our study suggests an inverse link between low FXIII levels and enhanced TG modifying structure-function relationship of fibrin to support hemostasis. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Almeda-Valdes, Paloma; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Mehta, Roopa; Munoz-Hernandez, Liliana; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Teresa Tusie-Luna, Maria; Gomez-Perez, Francisco J.; Pajukanta, Paivi; Matikainen, Niina; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. (2014)
  • Jyske, Tuula; Brännström, Hanna; Sarjala, Tytti; Hellström, Jarkko; Halmemies, Eelis; Raitanen, Jan-Erik; Kaseva, Janne; Lagerquist, Lucas; Eklund, Patrik; Nurmi, Juha (2020)
    Softwood bark is an important by-product of forest industry. Currently, bark is under-utilized and mainly directed for energy production, although it can be extracted with hot water to obtain compounds for value-added use. In Norway spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) bark, condensed tannins and stilbene glycosides are among the compounds that comprise majority of the antioxidative extractives. For developing feasible production chain for softwood bark extractives, knowledge on raw material quality is critical. This study examined the fate of spruce bark tannins and stilbenes during storage treatment with two seasonal replications (i.e., during winter and summer). In the experiment, mature logs were harvested and stored outside. During six-month-storage periods, samples were periodically collected for chemical analysis from both inner and outer bark layers. Additionally, bark extractives were analyzed for antioxidative activities by FRAP, ORAC, and H(2)O(2)scavenging assays. According to the results, stilbenes rapidly degraded during storage, whereas tannins were more stable: only 5-7% of the original stilbene amount and ca. 30-50% of the original amount of condensed tannins were found after 24-week-storage. Summer conditions led to the faster modification of bark chemistry than winter conditions. Changes in antioxidative activity were less pronounced than those of analyzed chemical compounds, indicating that the derivatives of the compounds contribute to the antioxidative activity. The results of the assays showed that, on average, ca. 27% of the original antioxidative capacity remained 24 weeks after the onset of the storage treatment, while a large variation (2-95% of the original capacity remaining) was found between assays, seasons, and bark layers. Inner bark preserved its activities longer than outer bark, and intact bark attached to timber is expected to maintain its activities longer than a debarked one. Thus, to ensure prolonged quality, no debarking before storage is suggested: outer bark protects the inner bark, and debarking enhances the degradation.