Browsing by Subject "PLASMA-MEMBRANE"

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  • Postila, Pekka A.; Róg, Tomasz (2020)
    Synaptic neurotransmission is generally considered as a function of membrane-embedded receptors and ion channels in response to the neurotransmitter (NT) release and binding. This perspective aims to widen the protein-centric view by including another vital component—the synaptic membrane—in the discussion. A vast set of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and biophysical experiments indicate that NTs are divided into membrane-binding and membrane-nonbinding categories. The binary choice takes place at the water-membrane interface and follows closely the positioning of the receptors’ binding sites in relation to the membrane. Accordingly, when a lipophilic NT is on route to a membrane-buried binding site, it adheres on the membrane and, then, travels along its plane towards the receptor. In contrast, lipophobic NTs, which are destined to bind into receptors with extracellular binding sites, prefer the water phase. This membrane-based sorting splits the neurotransmission into membrane-independent and membrane-dependent mechanisms and should make the NT binding into the receptors more efficient than random diffusion would allow. The potential implications and notable exceptions to the mechanisms are discussed here. Importantly, maintaining specific membrane lipid compositions (MLCs) at the synapses, especially regarding anionic lipids, affect the level of NT-membrane association. These effects provide a plausible link between the MLC imbalances and neurological diseases such as depression or Parkinson’s disease. Moreover, the membrane plays a vital role in other phases of the NT life cycle, including storage and release from the synaptic vesicles, transport from the synaptic cleft, as well as their synthesis and degradation.
  • Kilpinen, Lotta; Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Oja, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Parmar, Amarjit; Saavalainen, Päivi Marjaana; Nikkilä, Janne Tapio; Korhonen, Matti; Lehenkari, Petri; Käkelä, Reijo; Laitinen, Saara (2013)
  • Romano, Roberta; Rivellini, Cristina; De Luca, Maria; Tonlorenzi, Rossana; Beli, Raffaella; Manganelli, Fiore; Nolano, Maria; Santoro, Lucio; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Previtali, Stefano C.; Bucci, Cecilia (2021)
    The small GTPase RAB7A regulates late stages of the endocytic pathway and plays specific roles in neurons, controlling neurotrophins trafficking and signaling, neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration. Mutations in the RAB7A gene cause the autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B (CMT2B) disease, an axonal peripheral neuropathy. As several neurodegenerative diseases are caused by alterations of endocytosis, we investigated whether CMT2B-causing mutations correlate with changes in this process. To this purpose, we studied the endocytic pathway in skin fibroblasts from healthy and CMT2B individuals. We found higher expression of late endocytic proteins in CMT2B cells compared to control cells, as well as higher activity of cathepsins and higher receptor degradation activity. Consistently, we observed an increased number of lysosomes, accompanied by higher lysosomal degradative activity in CMT2B cells. Furthermore, we found increased migration and increased RAC1 and MMP-2 activation in CMT2B compared to control cells. To validate these data, we obtained sensory neurons from patient and control iPS cells, to confirm increased lysosomal protein expression and lysosomal activity in CMT2B-derived neurons. Altogether, these results demonstrate that in CMT2B patient-derived cells, the endocytic degradative pathway is altered, suggesting that higher lysosomal activity contributes to neurodegeneration occurring in CMT2B.
  • Zhong, Wenbin; Lin, Weize; Yang, Yingjie; Chen, Dan; Cao, Xiuye; Xu, Mengyang; Pan, Guoping; Chen, Huanzhao; Zheng, Jie; Feng, Xiaoqin; Yang, Li hua; Lai, Chaofeng; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Xu, Jun; Cui, Shuzhong; Yan, Daoguang (2022)
    Lipid remodeling is crucial for malignant cell transformation and tumorigenesis, but the precise molecular processes involved and direct evidences for these in vivo remain elusive. Here, we report that oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related protein 4 L (ORP4L) is expressed in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells but not normal T-cells. In ORP4L knock-in T-cells, ORP4L dimerizes with OSBP to control the shuttling of OSBP between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane (PM) as an exchanger of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P]/cholesterol. The PI(4)P arriving at the PM via this transport machinery replenishes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P-2] and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P-3] biosynthesis, thus contributing to PI3K/AKT hyperactivation and T-cell deterioration in vitro and in vivo. Disruption of ORP4L and OSBP dimerization disables PI(4)P transport and T-cell leukemogenesis. In summary, we identify a non-vesicular lipid transport machinery between Golgi and PM maintaining the oncogenic signaling competence initiating T-cell deterioration and leukemogenesis. The oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 4 (ORP4L) is expressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and is required for leukemogenesis. Here the authors show that ORP4L orchestrates the transport of the phospholipid PI(4)P from Golgi to the plasma membrane, contributing to PI3K/AKT hyperactivation and T-cell leukemogenesis.
  • Kentala, Henriikka; Koponen, Annika; Kivelä, Annukka M.; Andrews, Robert; Li, ChunHei; Zhou, You; Olkkonen, Vesa M. (2018)
    ORP2 is implicated in cholesterol transport, triglyceride metabolism, and adrenocortical steroid hormone production. We addressed ORP2 function in hepatocytes by generating ORP2-knockout (KO) HuH7 cells by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, followed by analyses of transcriptome, F-actin morphology, migration, adhesion, and proliferation. RNA sequencing of ORP2-KO cells revealed >2-fold changes in 579 mRNAs. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) uncovered alterations in the following functional categories: cellular movement, cell-cell signaling and interaction, cellular development, cellular function and maintenance, cellular growth and proliferation, and cell morphology. Many pathways in these categories involved actin cytoskeleton, cell migration, adhesion, or proliferation. Analysis of the ORP2 interactome uncovered 109 putative new partners. Their IPA analysis revealed Ras homolog A (RhoA) signaling as the most significant pathway. Interactions of ORP2 with SEPT9, MLC12, and ARHGAP12 were validated by independent assays. ORP2-KO resulted in abnormal F-actin morphology characterized by impaired capacity to form lamellipodia, migration defect, and impaired adhesion and proliferation. Rescue of the migration phenotype and generation of typical cell surface morphology required an intact ORP2 phosphoinositide binding site, suggesting that ORP2 function involves phosphoinositide binding and transport. The results point at a novel function of ORP2 as a lipid-sensing regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, with impacts on hepatocellular migration, adhesion, and proliferation.-Kentala, H., Koponen, A., Kivela, A. M., Andrews, R., Li, C., Zhou, Y., Olkkonen, V. M. Analysis of ORP2-knockout hepatocytes uncovers a novel function in actin cytoskeletal regulation.
  • Meneses-Salas, Elsa; García-Melero, Ana; Kanerva, Kristiina; Blanco-Muñoz, Patricia; Morales-Paytuvi, Frederic; Bonjoch, Júlia; Heeren, Joerg; Lu, Albert; Pol, Albert; Tebar, Francesc; Ikonen, Elina; Grewal, Thomas; Enrich, Carlos; Rentero, Carles (2020)
    Cholesterol accumulation in late endosomes is a prevailing phenotype of Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) mutant cells. Likewise, annexin A6 (AnxA6) overexpression induces a phenotype reminiscent of NPC1 mutant cells. Here, we demonstrate that this cellular cholesterol imbalance is due to AnxA6 promoting Rab7 inactivation via TBC1D15, a Rab7-GAP. In NPC1 mutant cells, AnxA6 depletion and eventual Rab7 activation was associated with peripheral distribution and increased mobility of late endosomes. This was accompanied by an enhanced lipid accumulation in lipid droplets in an acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)-dependent manner. Moreover, in AnxA6-deficient NPC1 mutant cells, Rab7-mediated rescue of late endosome-cholesterol export required the StAR-related lipid transfer domain-3 (StARD3) protein. Electron microscopy revealed a significant increase of membrane contact sites (MCS) between late endosomes and ER in NPC1 mutant cells lacking AnxA6, suggesting late endosome-cholesterol transfer to the ER via Rab7 and StARD3-dependent MCS formation. This study identifies AnxA6 as a novel gatekeeper that controls cellular distribution of late endosome-cholesterol via regulation of a Rab7-GAP and MCS formation.
  • Allolio, Christoph; Magarkar, Aniket; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Baxova, Katarina; Javanainen, Matti; Mason, Philip E.; Sachl, Radek; Cebecauer, Marek; Hof, Martin; Horinek, Dominik; Heinz, Veronika; Rachel, Reinhard; Ziegler, Christine M.; Schröfel, Adam; Jungwirth, Pavel (2018)
    Arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides do not enter cells by directly passing through a lipid membrane; they instead passively enter vesicles and live cells by inducing membrane multilamellarity and fusion. The molecular picture of this penetration mode, which differs qualitatively from the previously proposed direct mechanism, is provided by molecular dynamics simulations. The kinetics of vesicle agglomeration and fusion by an iconic cell-penetrating peptide-nonaarginine-are documented via real-time fluorescence techniques, while the induction of multilamellar phases in vesicles and live cells is demonstrated by a combination of electron and fluorescence microscopies. This concert of experiments and simulations reveals that the identified passive cell penetration mechanism bears analogy to vesicle fusion induced by calcium ions, indicating that the two processes may share a common mechanistic origin.
  • Arnal-Levron, Maud; Chen, Yinan; Greimel, Peter; Calevro, Federica; Gaget, Karen; Riols, Fabien; Batut, Aurélie; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Delton, Isabelle; Luquain-Costaz, Céline (2019)
    Bis(Monoacylglycero) Phosphate (BMP) is a unique phospholipid localized in late endosomes, a critical cellular compartment in low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol metabolism. In previous work, we demonstrated the important role of BMP in the regulation of macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. BMP exerts a protective role against the pro-apoptotic effect of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) by reducing the production of deleterious oxysterols. As the intracellular sterol traffic in macrophages is in part regulated by oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs), we investigated the role of ORP11, localized at the Golgi-late endosomes interface, in the BMP-mediated protection from oxLDL/oxysterol cytotoxicity. Stably silencing of ORP11 in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages via a shRNA lentiviruses system had no effect on BMP production. However, ORP11 knockdown abrogated the protective action of BMP against oxLDL induced apoptosis. In oxLDL treated control cells, BMP enrichment was associated with reduced generation of 7-oxysterols, while these oxysterol species were abundant in the ORP11 knock-down cells. Of note, BMP enrichment in ORP11 knock-down cells was associated with a drastic increase in free cholesterol and linked to a decrease of cholesterol efflux. The expression of ATP-binding cassette-transporter G1 (ABCG1) was also reduced in the ORP11 knock-down cells. These observations demonstrate a cooperative function of OPR11 and BMP, in intracellular cholesterol trafficking in cultured macrophages. We suggest that BMP favors the egress of cholesterol from late endosomes via an ORP11-dependent mechanism, resulting in a reduced production of cytotoxic 7-oxysterols.
  • Kulig, Waldemar; Mikkolainen, Heikki; Olzynska, Agnieszka; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Hof, Martin; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Jungwirth, Pavel; Rog, Tomasz (2018)
    Translocation of sterols between cellular membrane leaflets is of key importance in membrane organization, dynamics, and signaling. We present a novel translocation mechanism that differs in a unique manner from the established ones. The bobbing mechanism identified here is demonstrated for tail-oxidized sterols, but is expected to be viable for any molecule containing two polar centers at the opposite sides of the molecule. The mechanism renders translocation across a lipid membrane possible without a change in molecular orientation. For tail-oxidized sterols, the bobbing mechanism provides an exceptionally facile means to translocate these signaling molecules across membrane structures and may thus represent an important pathway in the course of their biological action.
  • Najumudeen, A. K.; Jaiswal, A.; Lectez, B.; Oetken-Lindholm, C.; Guzman, C.; Siljamaki, E.; Posada, I. M. D.; Lacey, E.; Aittokallio, T.; Abankwa, D. (2016)
    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be responsible for treatment relapse and have therefore become a major target in cancer research. Salinomycin is the most established CSC inhibitor. However, its primary mechanistic target is still unclear, impeding the discovery of compounds with similar anti-CSC activity. Here, we show that salinomycin very specifically interferes with the activity of K-ras4B, but not H-ras, by disrupting its nanoscale membrane organization. We found that caveolae negatively regulate the sensitivity to this drug. On the basis of this novel mechanistic insight, we defined a K-ras-associated and stem cell-derived gene expression signature that predicts the drug response of cancer cells to salinomycin. Consistent with therapy resistance of CSC, 8% of tumor samples in the TCGA-database displayed our signature and were associated with a significantly higher mortality. Using our K-ras-specific screening platform, we identified several new candidate CSC drugs. Two of these, ophiobolin A and conglobatin A, possessed a similar or higher potency than salinomycin. Finally, we established that the most potent compound, ophiobolin A, exerts its K-ras4B-specific activity through inactivation of calmodulin. Our data suggest that specific interference with the K-ras4B/calmodulin interaction selectively inhibits CSC.
  • Borger, Jessica G.; Morrison, Vicky L.; Filby, Andrew; Garcia, Celine; Uotila, Liisa M.; Simbari, Fabio; Fagerholm, Susanna C.; Zamoyska, Rose (2017)
    TCR stimulation by peptide-MHC complexes on APCs requires precise reorganization of molecules into the area of cellular contact to form an immunological synapse from where T cell signaling is initiated. Caveolin (Cav) 1, a widely expressed transmembrane protein, is involved in the regulation of membrane composition, cellular polarity and trafficking, and the organization of signal transduction pathways. The presence of Cav1 protein in T cells was identified only recently, and its function in this context is not well understood. We show that Cav1-knockout CD8 T cells have a reduction in membrane cholesterol and sphingomyelin, and upon TCR triggering they exhibit altered morphology and polarity, with reduced effector function compared with Cav1 wild-type CD8 T cells. In particular, redistribution of the b2 integrin LFA-1 to the immunological synapse is compromised in Cav1-knockout T cells, as is the ability of LFA-1 to form high-avidity interactions with ICAM-1. Our results identify a role for Cav1 in membrane organization and b2 integrin function in primary CD8 T cells.
  • Ikonen, Elina; Zhou, Xin (2021)
    Cholesterol represents the most abundant single lipid in mammalian cells. How its asymmetric distribution between subcellular membranes is achieved and maintained attracts considerable interest. One of the challenges is that cholesterol rarely is transported alone, but rather is coupled with heterotypic transport and metabolism of other lipids, in particular phosphoinositides, phosphatidylserine, and sphingolipids. This perspective summarizes the major exo- and endocytic cholesterol transport routes and how lipid transfer proteins at membrane contacts and membrane transport intersect along these routes. It discusses the cotransport of cholesterol with other lipids in mammalian cells and reviews emerging evidence related to the physiological relevance of this process.
  • Neuvonen, Maarit; Manna, Moutusi; Mokkila, Sini; Javanainen, Matti; Rog, Tomasz; Liu, Zheng; Bittman, Robert; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Ikonen, Elina (2014)
  • El-Battari, Assou; Rodriguez, Lea; Chahinian, Henri; Delezay, Olivier; Fantini, Jacques; Yahi, Nouara; Di Scala, Coralie (2021)
    We present here a gene therapy approach aimed at preventing the formation of Ca2+-permeable amyloid pore oligomers that are considered as the most neurotoxic structures in both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Our study is based on the design of a small peptide inhibitor (AmyP53) that combines the ganglioside recognition properties of the beta-amyloid peptide (A beta, Alzheimer) and alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn, Parkinson). As gangliosides mediate the initial binding step of these amyloid proteins to lipid rafts of the brain cell membranes, AmyP53 blocks, at the earliest step, the Ca2+ cascade that leads to neurodegeneration. Using a lentivirus vector, we genetically modified brain cells to express the therapeutic coding sequence of AmyP53 in a secreted form, rendering these cells totally resistant to oligomer formation by either A beta or alpha-syn. This protection was specific, as control mCherry-transfected cells remained fully sensitive to these oligomers. AmyP53 was secreted at therapeutic concentrations in the supernatant of cultured cells, so that the therapy was effective for both transfected cells and their neighbors. This study is the first to demonstrate that a unique gene therapy approach aimed at preventing the formation of neurotoxic oligomers by targeting brain gangliosides may be considered for the treatment of two major neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
  • Zamora, Olena; Schulze, Sebastian; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Parik, Helen; Unt, Jaanika; Brosché, Mikael; Schroeder, Julian I.; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Kollist, Hannes (2021)
    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) regulate stomatal closure, preventing pathogen invasion into plants. However, to what extent abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA interact, and what the roles of SA and JA are in stomatal responses to environmental cues, remains unclear. Here, by using intact plant gas-exchange measurements in JA and SA single and double mutants, we show that stomatal responsiveness to CO2, light intensity, ABA, high vapor pressure deficit and ozone either did not or, for some stimuli only, very slightly depended upon JA and SA biosynthesis and signaling mutants, including dde2, sid2, coi1, jai1, myc2 and npr1 alleles. Although the stomata in the mutants studied clearly responded to ABA, CO2, light and ozone, ABA-triggered stomatal closure in npr1-1 was slightly accelerated compared with the wild type. Stomatal reopening after ozone pulses was quicker in the coi1-16 mutant than in the wild type. In intact Arabidopsis plants, spraying with methyl-JA led to only a modest reduction in stomatal conductance 80 min after treatment, whereas ABA and CO2 induced pronounced stomatal closure within minutes. We could not document a reduction of stomatal conductance after spraying with SA. Coronatine-induced stomatal opening was initiated slowly after 1.5-2.0 h, and reached a maximum by 3 h after spraying intact plants. Our results suggest that ABA, CO2 and light are major regulators of rapid guard cell signaling, whereas JA and SA could play only minor roles in the whole-plant stomatal response to environmental cues in Arabidopsis and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato).
  • Steringer, Julia P.; Lange, Sascha; Cujova, Sabina; Sachi, Radek; Poojari, Chetan; Lolicato, Fabio; Beutel, Oliver; Mueller, Hans-Michael; Unger, Sebastian; Coskun, Uenal; Honigmann, Alf; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Hof, Martin; Freund, Christian; Nickel, Walter (2017)
    FGF2 is secreted from cells by an unconventional secretory pathway. This process is mediated by direct translocation across the plasma membrane. Here, we define the minimal molecular machinery required for FGF2 membrane translocation in a fully reconstituted inside-out vesicle system. FGF2 membrane translocation is thermodynamically driven by PI(4,5)P-2-induced membrane insertion of FGF2 oligomers. The latter serve as dynamic translocation intermediates of FGF2 with a subunit number in the range of 8-12 FGF2 molecules. Vectorial translocation of FGF2 across the membrane is governed by sequential and mutually exclusive interactions with PI(4,5)P-2 and heparan sulfates on opposing sides of the membrane. Based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a mechanism that drives PI(4,5)P-2 dependent oligomerization of FGF2. Our combined findings establish a novel type of self-sustained protein translocation across membranes revealing the molecular basis of the unconventional secretory pathway of FGF2.
  • Pfisterer, Simon G.; Peranen, Johan; Ikonen, Elina (2016)
    Purpose of review In this article, we summarize the present information related to the export of LDL-derived cholesterol from late endosomes, with a focus on Nieman-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) cholesterol delivery toward the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We review data suggesting that several pathways may operate in parallel, including membrane transport routes and membrane contact sites (MCSs). Recent findings There is increasing appreciation that MCSs provide an important mechanism for intermembrane lipid transfer. In late endosome-ER contacts, three protein bridges involving oxysterol binding protein related protein (ORP) 1L-vesicle associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) D3-VAP and ORP5-NPC1 proteins have been reported. How much they contribute to the flux of LDL-cholesterol to the ER is currently open. Studies for lipid transfer via MCSs have been most advanced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recently, a new sterol-binding protein family conserved between yeast and man was identified. Its members localize at MCSs and were named lipid transfer protein anchored at membrane contact sites (Lam) proteins. In yeast, sterol transfer between the ER and the yeast lysosome may be facilitated by a Lam protein. Summary Increasing insights into the role of MCSs in directional sterol delivery between membranes propose that they might provide routes for LDL-cholesterol transfer to the ER. Future work should reveal which specific contacts may operate for this, and how they are controlled by cholesterol homeostatic machineries.
  • Manna, Moutusi; Javanainen, Matti; Monne, Hector Martinez-Seara; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo (2017)
    Extracellular and cytosolic leaflets in cellular membranes are distinctly different in lipid composition, yet they contribute together to signaling across the membranes. Here we consider a mechanism based on long-chain gangliosides for coupling the extracellular and cytosolic membrane leaflets together. Based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we find that long-chain GM1 in the extracellular leaflet exhibits a strong tendency to protrude into the opposing bilayer leaflet. This interdigitation modulates the order in the cytosolic monolayer and thereby strengthens the interaction and coupling across a membrane. Coarse-grained simulations probing longer time scales in large membrane systems indicate that GM1 in the extracellular leaflet modulates the phase behavior in the cytosolic monolayer. While short-chain GM1 maintains phase-symmetric bilayers with a strong membrane registration effect, the situation is altered with long-chain GM1. Here, the significant interdigitation induced by long-chain GM1 modulates the behavior in the cytosolic GM1-free leaflet, weakening and slowing down the membrane registration process. The observed physical interaction mechanism provides a possible means to mediate or foster transmembrane communication associated with signal transduction. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Islam, Mohammad Majharul; Hlushchenko, Iryna; Pfisterer, Simon (2022)
    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) internalization, degradation, and receptor recycling is a fundamental process underlying hypercholesterolemia, a high blood cholesterol concentration, affecting more than 40% of the western population. Membrane contact sites influence endosomal dynamics, plasma membrane lipid composition, and cellular cholesterol distribution. However, if we focus on LDL-related trafficking events we mostly discuss them in an isolated fashion, without cellular context. It is our goal to change this perspective and to highlight that all steps from LDL internalization to receptor recycling are likely associated with dynamic membrane contact sites in which endosomes engage with the endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles.
  • Tachikawa, Masashi; Morone, Nobuhiro; Senju, Yosuke; Sugiura, Tadao; Hanawa-Suetsugu, Kyoko; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Suetsugu, Shiro (2017)
    Caveolae are abundant flask-shaped invaginations of plasma membranes that buffer membrane tension through their deformation. Few quantitative studies on the deformation of caveolae have been reported. Each caveola contains approximately 150 caveolin-1 proteins. In this study, we estimated the extent of caveolar deformation by measuring the density of caveolin-1 projected onto a two-dimensional (2D) plane. The caveolin-1 in a flattened caveola is assumed to have approximately one-quarter of the density of the caveolin-1 in a flask-shaped caveola. The proportion of one-quarter-density caveolin-1 increased after increasing the tension of the plasma membrane through hypo-osmotic treatment. The one-quarter-density caveolin-1 was soluble in detergent and formed a continuous population with the caveolin-1 in the caveolae of cells under isotonic culture. The distinct, dispersed lower-density caveolin-1 was soluble in detergent and increased after the application of tension, suggesting that the hypo-osmotic tension induced the dispersion of caveolin-1 from the caveolae, possibly through flattened caveolar intermediates.