Browsing by Subject "PLASMASPHERIC HISS"

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  • Kilpua, Emilia; Juusola, Liisa; Grandin, Maxime; Kero, Antti; Dubyagin, Stepan; Partamies, Noora; Osmane, Adnane; George, Harriet; Kalliokoski, Milla; Raita, Tero; Asikainen, Timo; Palmroth, Minna (2020)
    We study here energetic-electron (E > 30 keV) precipitation using cosmic noise absorption (CNA) during the sheath and ejecta structures of 61 interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed in the near-Earth solar wind between 1997 and 2012. The data come from the Finnish riometer (relative ionospheric opacity meter) chain from stations extending from auroral (IVA, 65.2 degrees N geomagnetic latitude; MLAT) to subauroral (JYV, 59.0 degrees N MLAT) latitudes. We find that sheaths and ejecta lead frequently to enhanced CNA (> 0.5 dB) both at auroral and subauroral latitudes, although the CNA magnitudes stay relatively low (medians around 1 dB). Due to their longer duration, ejecta typically lead to more sustained enhanced CNA periods (on average 6-7 h), but the sheaths and ejecta were found to be equally effective in inducing enhanced CNA when relative-occurrence frequency and CNA magnitude were considered. Only at the lowest-MLAT station, JYV, ejecta were more effective in causing enhanced CNA. Some clear trends of magnetic local time (MLT) and differences between the ejecta and sheaths were found. The occurrence frequency and magnitude of CNA activity was lowest close to midnight, while it peaked for the sheaths in the morning and afternoon/evening sectors and for the ejecta in the morning and noon sectors. These differences may reflect differences in typical MLT distributions of wave modes that precipitate substorm-injected and trapped radiation belt electrons during the sheaths and ejecta. Our study also emphasizes the importance of substorms and magnetospheric ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves for enhanced CNA.
  • Kilpua, E. K. J.; Turner, D. L.; Jaynes, A.; Hietala, H.; Koskinen, H. E. J.; Osmane, A.; Palmroth, M.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Vainio, R.; Baker, D.; Claudepierre, S. (2019)
    We study the response of the outer Van Allen radiation belt during an intense magnetic storm on 15-22 February 2014. Four interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) arrived at Earth, of which the three last ones were interacting. Using data from the Van Allen Probes, we report the first detailed investigation of electron fluxes from source (tens of kiloelectron volts) to core (megaelectron volts) energies and possible loss and acceleration mechanisms as a response to substructures (shock, sheath and ejecta, and regions of shock-compressed ejecta) in multiple interacting ICMEs. After an initial enhancement induced by a shock compression of the magnetosphere, core fluxes strongly depleted and stayed low for 4 days. This sustained depletion can be related to a sequence of ICME substructures and their conditions that influenced the Earth's magnetosphere. In particular, the main depletions occurred during a high-dynamic pressure sheath and shock-compressed southward ejecta fields. These structures compressed/eroded the magnetopause close to geostationary orbit and induced intense and diverse wave activity in the inner magnetosphere (ULF Pc5, electromagnetic ion cyclotron, and hiss) facilitating both effective magnetopause shadowing and precipitation losses. Seed and source electrons in turn experienced stronger variations throughout the studied interval. The core fluxes recovered during the last ICME that made a glancing blow to Earth. This period was characterized by a concurrent lack of losses and sustained acceleration by chorus and Pc5 waves. Our study highlights that the seemingly complex behavior of the outer belt during interacting ICMEs can be understood by the knowledge of electron dynamics during different substructures.