Browsing by Subject "PLASTIN 3"

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  • Kämpe, A. J.; Costantini, A.; Makitie, R. E.; Jäntti, N.; Valta, H.; Mäyränpää, M.; Kröger, H.; Pekkinen, M.; Taylan, F.; Jiao, H.; Mäkitie, O. (2017)
    The Summary Altogether 95 children with primary bone fragility were screened for variants in PLS3, the gene underlying X-linked osteoporosis. Two children with multiple peripheral and spinal fractures and low BMD had novel disease-causing PLS3 variants. Children with milder phenotypes had no pathogenic variants. PLS3 screening is indicated in childhood-onset primary osteoporosis. Introduction The study aimed to determine the role of pathogenic PLS3 variants in children's bone fragility and to elucidate the associated phenotypic features. Methods Two cohorts of children with bone fragility were screened for variants in PLS3, the gene underlying X-linked osteoporosis. Cohort I comprised 31 patients with childhood-onset primary osteoporosis of unknown etiology. Cohort II comprised 64 children who had sustained multiple fractures but were otherwise healthy. Clinical and radiological data were reviewed. Peripheral blood DNA was Sanger sequenced for coding exons and flanking intronic regions of PLS3. Results In two patients of cohort I, where other common genetic causes had been excluded, we identified two novel disease-causing PLS3 variants. Patient 1 was a male with bilateral femoral fractures at 10 years, low BMD (Z-score -4.1; 18 years), and multiple vertebral compression fractures. He had a novel nonsense variant in PLS3. Patient 2 was a girl with multiple long bone and vertebral fractures and low BMD (Z-score -6.6 at 6 years). She had a de novo missense variant in PLS3; whole exome sequencing and array-CGH identified no other genetic causes. Iliac crest bone biopsies confirmed low-turnover osteoporosis in both patients. In cohort II, no pathogenic PLS3 variants were identified in any of the subjects. Conclusion Two novel disease-causing variants in PLS3 were identified in a boy and a girl with multiple peripheral and spinal fractures and very low BMD while no pathogenic variants were identified in children with less severe skeletal fragility. PLS3 screening is warranted in male and female patients with childhood-onset primary osteoporosis.
  • Makitie, Riikka E.; Kampe, Anders J.; Taylan, Fulya; Makitie, Outi (2017)
    Purpose of Review This review summarizes our current knowledge on primary osteoporosis in children with focus on recent genetic findings. Recent Findings Advances in genetic research, particularly next-generation sequencing, have found several genetic loci that associate with monogenic forms of inherited osteoporosis, widening the scope of primary osteoporosis beyond classical osteogenesis imperfecta. New forms of primary osteoporosis, such as those related to WNT1, PLS3, and XYLT2, have identified defects outside the extracellular matrix components and collagen-related pathways, in intracellular cascades directly affecting bone cell function. Summary Primary osteoporosis can lead to severe skeletal morbidity, including abnormal longitudinal growth, compromised bone mass gain, and noticeable fracture tendency beginning at childhood. Early diagnosis and timely care are warranted to ensure the best achievable bone health. Future research will most likely broaden the spectrum of primary osteoporosis, hopefully provide more insight into the genetics governing bone health, and offer new targets for treatment.