Browsing by Subject "PLEOMORPHIC VIRUSES"

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  • Bignon, Eduardo A.; Chou, Kevin R.; Roine, Elina; Tischler, Nicole D. (2022)
    (1) Background: Haloarchaea comprise extremely halophilic organisms of the Archaea domain. They are single-cell organisms with distinctive membrane lipids and a protein-based cell wall or surface layer (S-layer) formed by a glycoprotein array. Pleolipoviruses, which infect haloarchaeal cells, have an envelope analogous to eukaryotic enveloped viruses. One such member, Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 6 (HRPV-6), has been shown to enter host cells through virus-cell membrane fusion. The HRPV-6 fusion activity was attributed to its VP4-like spike protein, but the physiological trigger required to induce membrane fusion remains yet unknown. (2) Methods: We used SDS-PAGE mass spectroscopy to characterize the S-layer extract, established a proteoliposome system, and used R18-fluorescence dequenching to measure membrane fusion. (3) Results: We show that the S-layer extraction by Mg2+ chelating from the HRPV-6 host, Halorubrum sp. SS7-4, abrogates HRPV-6 membrane fusion. When we in turn reconstituted the S-layer extract from Hrr. sp. SS7-4 onto liposomes in the presence of Mg2+, HRPV-6 membrane fusion with the proteoliposomes could be readily observed. This was not the case with liposomes alone or with proteoliposomes carrying the S-layer extract from other haloarchaea, such as Haloferax volcanii. (4) Conclusions: The S-layer extract from the host, Hrr. sp. SS7-4, corresponds to the physiological fusion trigger of HRPV-6.
  • Mizuno, Carolina M.; Prajapati, Bina; Lucas-Staat, Soizick; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore; Forterre, Patrik; Bamford, Dennis Henry; Prangishvili, David; Krupovic, Mart; Oksanen, Hanna Maarit (2019)
    The diversity of archaeal viruses is severely undersampled compared with that of viruses infecting bacteria and eukaryotes, limiting our understanding on their evolution and environmental impacts. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of four new viruses infecting halophilic archaea from the saline Lake Retba, located close to Dakar on the coast of Senegal. Three of the viruses, HRPV10, HRPV11 and HRPV12, have enveloped pleomorphic virions and should belong to the family Pleolipoviridae, whereas the forth virus, HFTV1, has an icosahedral capsid and a long non-contractile tail, typical of bacterial and archaeal members of the order Caudovirales. Comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses place HRPV10, HRPV11 and HRPV12 into the genus Betapleolipovirus, whereas HFTV1 appears to be most closely related to the unclassified Halorubrum virus HRTV-4. Differently from HRTV-4, HFTV1 encodes host-derived minichromosome maintenance helicase and PCNA homologues, which are likely to orchestrate its genome replication. HFTV1, the first archaeal virus isolated on a Haloferax strain, could also infect Halorubrum sp., albeit with an eightfold lower efficiency, whereas pleolipoviruses nearly exclusively infected autochthonous Halorubrum strains. Mapping of the metagenomic sequences from this environment to the genomes of isolated haloarchaeal viruses showed that these known viruses are underrepresented in the available viromes.