Browsing by Subject "PLUS AU COLLISIONS"

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  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    The elliptic (v(2)), triangular (v(3)), and quadrangular (v(4)) flow coefficients of pi(+/-), K-+/-, p + (p) over bar, Lambda + (Lambda) over bar, K-S(0)), and the phi-meson are measured in Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-s = 5.02 TeV. Results obtained with the scalar product method are reported for the rapidity range vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.5 as a function of transverse momentum, P-T, at different collision centrality intervals between 0-70%, including ultra-central (0-1%) collisions for pi(+/-), K-+/-, and p + (p) over bar. For P-T < 3 GeV/c, the flow coefficients exhibit a particle mass dependence. At intermediate transverse momenta (3 < p(T) < 8-10 GeV/c), particles show an approximate grouping according to their type (i.e., mesons and baryons). The phi-meson v(2), which tests both particle mass dependence and type scaling, follows p + <(p)over bar> v(2) at low P-T and pi(+/-) v(2) at intermediate p(T). The evolution of the shape of v(n) (p(T)) as a function of centrality and harmonic number n is studied for the various particle species. Flow coefficients of pi(+/-), K-+/- , and p + (p) over bar for p(T) < 3 GeV/c are compared to iEBE-VISHNU and MUSIC hydrodynamical calculations coupled to a hadronic cascade model (UrQMD). The iEBE-VISHNU calculations describe the results fairly well for P-T < 2.5 GeV/c, while MUSIC calculations reproduce the measurements for p(T) < 1 GeV/c. A comparison to vn coefficients measured in Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-s = 2.76 TeV is also provided.
  • The CMS collaboration; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkila, J. K.; Jarvinen, T.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Maenpaa, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Karimäki, V.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    The almost hermetic coverage of the CMS detector is used to measure the distribution of transverse energy, E-T, over 13.2 units of pseudorapidity, eta, for pPb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV. The huge angular acceptance exploits the fact that the CASTOR calorimeter at -6.6 <eta <-5.2 is effectively present on both sides of the colliding system because of a switch in the proton-going and lead-going beam directions. This wide acceptance enables the study of correlations between well-separated angular regions and makes the measurement a particularly powerful test of event generators. For minimum bias pPb collisions the maximum value of dE(T)/d eta is 22 GeV, which implies an E-T per participant nucleon pair comparable to that of peripheral PbPb collisions at root s(NN) 7 = 2.76 TeV. The increase of dE(T)/d eta with centrality is much stronger for the lead-going side than for the proton-going side. The i dependence of dE(T)/d eta is sensitive to the eta range in which the centrality variable is defined. Several modern generators are compared to these results but none is able to capture all aspects of the eta and centrality dependence of the data and the correlations observed between different eta regions.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brücken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2019)
    The measurement of dielectron production is presented as a function of invariant mass and transverse momentum (p(T)) at midrapidity (vertical bar ye vertical bar < 0.8) in proton-proton (pp) collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of root s = 13 TeV. The contributions from light-hadron decays are calculated from their measured cross sections in pp collisions at root s = 7 TeV or 13 TeV. The remaining continuum stems from correlated semileptonic decays of heavy-flavour hadrons. Fitting the data with templates from two different MC event generators, PYTHIA and POWHEG, the charm and beauty cross sections at midrapidity are extracted for the first time at this collision energy: d sigma(c<(c)over bar>)/dy vertical bar(y=0) = 974 +/- 138 (stat.) +/- 140 (syst.) +/- 214(BR) mu b and d sigma(b (b) over bar)/dy vertical bar(y=0) = 79 +/- 14 (stat.) +/- 11 (syst.) +/- 5(BR) mu b using PYTHIA simulations and d sigma(c (c) over bar)/dy vertical bar(y=0) = 1417 +/- 184 (stat.) +/- 204 (syst.) +/- 312(BR) mu b and d sigma(b (b) over bar)/dy vertical bar(y=0) = 48 +/- 14 (stat.) +/- 7 (syst.) +/- 3(BR) mu b for POWHEG. These values, whose uncertainties are fully correlated between the two generators, are consistent with extrapolations from lower energies. The different results obtained with POWHEG and PYTHIA imply different kinematic correlations of the heavy-quark pairs in these two generators. Furthermore, comparisons of dielectron spectra in inelastic events and in events collected with a trigger on high charged-particle multiplicities are presented in various p(T) intervals. The differences are consistent with the already measured scaling of light-hadron and open-charm production at high charged-particle multiplicity as a function of p(T). Upper limits for the contribution of virtual direct photons are extracted at 90% confidence level and found to be in agreement with pQCD calculations. (C) 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Kral, J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; The ALICE collaboration (2016)
    Two-particle angular correlations between trigger particles in the forward pseudorapidity range (2.5 <vertical bar eta vertical bar <4.0) and associated particles in the central range(vertical bar eta vertical bar <1.0) are measured with the ALICE detector in p-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. The trigger particles are reconstructed using the muon spectrometer, and the associated particles by the central barrel tracking detectors. In high-multiplicity events, the double-ridge structure, previously discovered in two-particle angular correlations at midrapidity, is found to persist to the pseudorapidity ranges studied in this Letter. The second-order Fourier coefficients for muons in high-multiplicity events are extracted after jet-like correlations from low-multiplicity events have been subtracted. The coefficients are found to have a similar transverse momentum(p(T)) dependence in p-going (p-Pb) and Pb-going (Pb-p) configurations, with the Pb-going coefficients larger by about 16 +/- 6%, rather independent of p(T) within the uncertainties of the measurement. The data are compared with calculations using the AMPT model, which predicts a different p(T) and eta dependence than observed in the data. The results are sensitive to the parent particle v(2) and composition of reconstructed muon tracks, where the contribution from heavy flavour decays is expected to dominate at p(T) > 2GeV/c. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ALICE Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B. V.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The azimuthal correlations of D mesons with charged particles were measured with the ALICE apparatus in pp collisions at root s = 7 TeV and p-Pb collisions at root sNN = 5.02 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. D-0, D+, and D*+ mesons and their charge conjugates with transverse momentum 3 <pT <16 GeV/c and rapidity in the nucleonnucleon centre-of-mass system vertical bar y(cms)vertical bar <0.5 (pp collisions) and -0.96 <y(cms) <0.04 (p-Pb collisions) were correlated to charged particles with p(T) > 0.3 GeV/c. The yield of charged particles in the correlation peak induced by the jet containing the D meson and the peak width are compatible within uncertainties in the two collision systems. The data are described within uncertainties by Monte-Carlo simulations based on PYTHIA, POWHEG, and EPOS 3 event generators.
  • Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The transverse momentum (p(T)) spectra and elliptic flow coefficient (v(2)) of deuterons and anti-deuterons at mid-rapidity (|y| <0.5) are measured with the ALICE detector at the LHC in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV. The measurement of the p(T) spectra of (anti-)deuterons is done up to 8 GeV/c in 0-10% centrality class and up to 6 GeV/c in 10-20% and 20-40% centrality classes. The v(2) is measured in the 0.8 <p(T) <5 GeV/c interval and in six different centrality intervals (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50%) using the scalar product technique. Measured pi(+/-), K-+/- and p+(p) over bar transverse-momentum spectra and v(2) are used to predict the deuteron p(T) spectra and v(2) within the Blast-Wave model. The predictions are able to reproduce the v(2) coefficient in the measured p(T) range and the transverse-momentum spectra for p(T) > 1.8 GeV/c within the experimental uncertainties. The measurement of the coalescence parameter B-2 is performed, showing a p(T) dependence in contrast with the simplest coalescence model, which fails to reproduce also the measured v(2) coefficient. In addition, the coalescence parameter B-2 and the elliptic flow coefficient in the 20-40% centrality interval are compared with the AMPT model which is able, in its version without string melting, to reproduce the measured v(2)(p(T)) and the B-2(p(T)) trend.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The production of beauty hadrons was measured via semi-leptonic decays at mid-rapidity with the ALICE detector at the LHC in the transverse momentum interval 1 <PT <8 GeV/c in minimum-bias p-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S = 5.02 TeV and in 1.3 <PT <8 GeV/c in the 20% most central Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S = 2.76 TeV. The pp reference spectra at root s = 5.02 TeV and root s = 2.76 TeV, needed for the calculation of the nuclear modification factors RpPb and R-PbPb, were obtained by a pQCD-driven scaling of the cross section of electrons from beauty-hadron decays measured at root s = 7 TeV. In the PT interval 3 <PT <8 GeV/c, a suppression of the yield of electrons from beauty-hadron decays is observed in Pb-Pb compared to pp collisions. Towards lower PT, the R-PbPb values increase with large systematic uncertainties. The R-ppb is consistent with unity within systematic uncertainties and is well described by theoretical calculations that include cold nuclear matter effects in p-Pb collisions. The measured R-pPb and these calculations indicate that cold nuclear matter effects are small at high transverse momentum also in Pb-Pb collisions. Therefore, the observed reduction of R-PbPb below unity at high PT may be ascribed to an effect of the hot and dense medium formed in Pb-Pb collisions.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    The cross sections for ϒ(1S), ϒ(2S), and ϒ(3S) production in lead-lead (PbPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV have been measured using the CMS detector at the LHC. The nuclear modification factors, RAA, derived from the PbPb-to-pp ratio of yields for each state, are studied as functions of meson rapidity and transverse momentum, as well as PbPb collision centrality. The yields of all three states are found to be significantly suppressed, and compatible with a sequential ordering of the suppression, RAA(ϒ(1S)) > RAA(ϒ(2S)) > RAA(ϒ(3S)). The suppression of ϒ(1S) is larger than that seen at √sNN = 2.76 TeV, although the two are compatible within uncertainties. The upper limit on the RAA of ϒ(3S) integrated over pT, rapidity and centrality is 0.096 at 95% confidence level, which is the strongest suppression observed for a quarkonium state in heavy ion collisions to date. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP3.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    Measurements of azimuthal angular correlations are presented for high-multiplicity pPb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV and peripheral PbPb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV. The data used in this work were collected with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Fourier coefficients as functions of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity are studied using the scalar product method; four-, six-, and eight-particle cumulants; and the Lee-Yang zero technique. The influence of event plane decorrelation is evaluated using the scalar product method and found to account for most of the observed pseudorapidity dependence.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, Laurent; Kirschenmann, H.; Österberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Brücken, Erik; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J.K.; Karimäki, V.; Kim, Minsuk; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Pekkanen, Juska; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Viinikainen, Jussi; Tuuva, T. (2021)
    Measurements of the second Fourier harmonic coefficient (v(2)) of the azimuthal distributions of prompt and nonprompt D-0 mesons produced in pp and pPb collisions are presented. Nonprompt D-0 mesons come from beauty hadron decays. The data samples are collected by the CMS experiment at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies of 13 and 8.16 TeV, respectively. In high multiplicity pp collisions, v(2) signals for prompt charm hadrons are reported for the first time, and are found to be comparable to those for light-flavor hadron species over a transverse momentum (pT) range of 2-6 GeV. Compared at similar event multiplicities, the prompt D-0 meson v(2) values in pp and pPb collisions are similar in magnitude. The v(2) values for open beauty hadrons are extracted for the first time via nonprompt D-0 mesons in pPb collisions. For pT in the range of 2-5 GeV, the results suggest that v(2) for nonprompt D-0 mesons is smaller than that for prompt D-0 mesons. These new measurements indicate a positive charm hadron v(2) in pp collisions and suggest a mass dependence in v(2) between charm and beauty hadrons in the pPb system. These results provide insights into the origin of heavy-flavor quark collectivity in small systems. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Vargyas, M. (2019)
    We present measurements of two-particle differential number correlation functions R-2 and transverse momentum correlation functions P-2, obtained from p-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV. The results are obtained by using charged particles in the pseudorapidity range vertical bar eta vertical bar <1.0 and transverse momentum range 0.2 <p(T) <2.0 GeV/c as a function of pair separation in pseudorapidity, vertical bar Delta eta vertical bar, azimuthal angle Delta phi, and for several charged-particle multiplicity classes. Measurements are carried out for like-sign and unlike-sign charged-particle pairs separately and combined to obtain charge-independent and charge-dependent correlation functions. We study the evolution of the width of the near-side peak of these correlation functions with collision centrality. Additionally, we study Fourier decompositions of the correlators in Delta phi as a function of pair separation vertical bar Delta eta vertical bar. Significant differences in the dependence of their harmonic coefficients on multiplicity classes are found. These differences can be exploited, in theoretical models, to obtain further insight into charged-particle production and transport in heavy-ion collisions. Moreover, an upper limit of nonflow contributions to flow coefficients nu(n) measured in Pb-Pb collisions based on the relative strength of Fourier coefficients measured in p-Pb interactions is estimated.