Browsing by Subject "PLUTONIUM"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-5 of 5
  • Qiao, Jixin; Lagerkvist, Petra; Rodushkin, Ilia; Salminen-Paatero, Marke Susanna; Roos, Per; Lierhagen, Syverin; Jensen, Karl Andreas; Engström, Emma; Skipperud, Lindis (NKS Secretariat, 2018)
    NKS report series
    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry techniques are widely used in the fields related to environmental monitoring, nuclear waste disposal and management, radioecology and tracer studies, as well as nuclear forensics and nuclear emergency preparedness. Especially ICP mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is playing an important role for determination of low-level long-lived radionuclides and their isotopic ratios. ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is commonly used for determining stable elements (Al, Fe, Ca, etc.) and cannot perform isotopic ratio measurement with desirable precision and at low analyte concentrations. Therefore ICP-OES is often used as a supplementary technique to ICP-MS in the analysis, for instance, to screen the matrix composition of a sample, or to determine Sr and Y chemical yield in the Sr-90 analysis, etc. Among the Nordic countries, there are probably less than 20 ICP-MS instruments which are currently applied in the nuclear field for the measurement of radionuclides and their isotopic ratios. Due to different application purposes and technical background of the analysts, each ICP lab has different set-ups and experiences in running these instruments. More efficient application of ICP-MS will be achieved when these experiences are well shared among these labs. Also, for newly established ICP labs or scientists/students in the Nordic countries to quickly build up the competence in operating their instruments in practice, hands-on experience is very valuable. Therefore, within the Nordic-ICP project, an inter-comparison exercise was performed during 2016, which was focused on the measurement of uranium and plutonium isotopes in certified reference material by ICP-MS in combination with radiochemical separation. This report summarizes the results and conclusions obtained base on this inter-comparison exercise.
  • Salminen-Paatero, Susanna; Hou, Xiaolin; Olszewski, Grzegorz; Ekerljung, Lina; Tovedal, Annika; Vesterlund, Anna; Andersson, Angelica; Kangas, Satu; Ramebäck, Henrik (2021)
    Radioanalytical methods for the determination of isotopes of Pu, Am and Cm in water samples from nuclear power plants were compared and further developed in a Nordic project (Optimethod) through two intercomparison exercises among Nordic laboratories. With this intercomparison, the analytical performance of some laboratories was improved by modification of the analytical method and adopting new techniques. The obtained results from the two intercomparisons for alpha emitting transuranium isotopes are presented, and the lessons learnt from these intercomparison exercises are discussed.
  • Ray, Daisy; Leary, Peter; Livens, Francis; Gray, Neil; Morris, Katherine; Law, Kathleen A.; Fuller, Adam J.; Abrahamsen-Mills, Liam; Howe, John; Tierney, Kieran; Muir, Graham; Law, Gareth T.W. (2020)
    Understanding anthropogenic radionuclide biogeochemistry and mobility in natural systems is key to improving the management of radioactively contaminated environments and radioactive wastes. Here, we describe the contemporary depth distribution and phase partitioning of 137Cs, Pu, and 241Am in two sediment cores taken from the Irish Sea (Site 1: the Irish Sea Mudpatch; Site 2: the Esk Estuary). Both sites are located ~10 km from the Sellafield nuclear site. Low-level aqueous radioactive waste has been discharged from the Sellafield site into the Irish Sea for >50 y. We compare the depth distribution of the radionuclides at each site to trends in sediment and porewater redox chemistry, using trace element abundance, microbial ecology, and sequential extractions, to better understand the relative importance of sediment biogeochemistry vs. physical controls on radionuclide distribution/post-depositional mobility in the sediments. We highlight that the distribution of 137Cs, Pu, and 241Am at both sites is largely controlled by physical mixing of the sediments, physical transport processes, and sediment accumulation. Interestingly, at the Esk Estuary, microbially-mediated redox processes (considered for Pu) do not appear to offer significant controls on Pu distribution, even over decadal timescales. We also highlight that the Irish Sea Mudpatch likely still acts as a source of historical pollution to other areas in the Irish Sea, despite ever decreasing levels of waste output from the Sellafield site.
  • Paatero, Jussi; Salminen-Paatero, Susanna (2020)
    Following the atmospheric nuclear tests in the '50s and early '60s radioecological research on the (sub)arctic food chain lichen-reindeer/caribou-man was initiated in Finland among other northern countries. The enrichment of radionuclides in this food chain can lead to exceptionally high body burdens among the indigenous Sami and Inuit populations consuming large quantities of the meat and edible organs of reindeer and caribou. In Finland, first fission and activation products and natural radionuclides were studied but in the early 1970s' the investigations concerning transuranium elements were started. These studies have continued to the present as also the effects of the Chernobyl accident on the existence of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in the environment of northern Finland have been investigated. In addition to radioactivity measure-ments detailed dietary surveys were performed among the reindeer herders and other Sami persons to assess the human intake of radionuclides by ingestion. The main aim of this literature review is to summarize the obtained data concerning transuranium elements in the food chain lichen-reindeer-man in northern Finland but also some supporting data is included.