Browsing by Subject "POISON FROG"

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  • Rönkä, Katja; Valkonen, Janne K.; Nokelainen, Ossi; Rojas, Bibiana; Gordon, Swanne; Burdfield-Steel, Emily; Mappes, Johanna (2020)
    Warning signals are predicted to develop signal monomorphism via positive frequency-dependent selection (+FDS) albeit many aposematic systems exhibit signal polymorphism. To understand this mismatch, we conducted a large-scale predation experiment in four countries, among which the frequencies of hindwing warning coloration of the aposematic moth,Arctia plantaginis,differ. Here we show that selection by avian predators on warning colour is predicted by local morph frequency and predator community composition. We found +FDS to be the strongest in monomorphic Scotland and lowest in polymorphic Finland, where the attack risk of moth morphs depended on the local avian community. +FDS was also found where the predator community was the least diverse (Georgia), whereas in the most diverse avian community (Estonia), hardly any models were attacked. Our results support the idea that spatial variation in predator communities alters the strength or direction of selection on warning signals, thus facilitating a geographic mosaic of selection.
  • Rojas, Bibiana; Burdfield-Steel, Emily; De Pasqual, Chiara; Gordon, Swanne; Hernandez, Linda; Mappes, Johanna; Nokelainen, Ossi; Ronka, Katja; Lindstedt, Carita (2018)
    Chemically defended animals often display conspicuous color patterns that predators learn to associate with their unprofitability and subsequently avoid. Such animals (i.e., aposematic), deter predators by stimulating their visual and chemical sensory channels. Hence, aposematism is considered to be "multimodal." The evolution of warning signals (and to a lesser degree their accompanying chemical defenses) is fundamentally linked to natural selection by predators. Lately, however, increasing evidence also points to a role of sexual selection shaping warning signal evolution. One of the species in which this has been shown is the wood tiger moth, Arctia plantaginis, which we here put forward as a promising model to investigate multimodality in aposematic and sexual signaling. A. plantaginis is an aposematic diurnal moth which exhibits sexually dimorphic coloration as well as sex-limited polymorphism in part of its range. The anti-predator function of its coloration and, more recently, its chemical defenses (even when experimentally decoupled from the visual signals), has been well-demonstrated. Interestingly, recent studies have revealed differences between the two male morphs in mating success, suggesting a role of coloration in mate choice or attraction, and providing a possible explanation for its sexual dimorphism in coloration. Here, we: (1) review the lines of evidence showing the role of predation pressure and sexual selection in the evolution of multimodal aposematic signals in general, and in the wood tiger moth in particular; (2) establish gaps in current research linking sexual selection and predation as selective pressures on aposematic signals by reviewing a sample of the literature published in the last 30 years; (3) highlight the need of identifying suitable systems to address simultaneously the effect of natural and sexual selection on multimodal aposematic signals; and (4) propose directions for future research to test how aposematic signals can evolve under natural and sexual selection.