Browsing by Subject "POLICIES"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-13 of 13
  • Chen, Qiuzhen; Sipiläinen, Timo Antti Ilmari; Sumelius, John Holger (2014)
    This study used a synthetic evaluation method to assess agri-environmental externalities at the regional level in Finland. The article developed a relative measure that made it possible to rank the 15 regions studied for seven agri-environmental indicators, which were based on the preferences of the evaluators. The results indicated significant differences in the provision of public goods between the regions. The provision of public goods tended to increase over the 10-year study period. The results were robust with respect to changes in preferences.
  • Masiero, Mauro; Secco, Laura; Pettenella, Davide; Da Re, Riccardo; Bernö, Hanna; Carreira, Ariane; Dobrovolsky, Alexander; Giertlieova, Blanka; Giurca, Alexandru; Holmgren, Sara; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia; Navrátilová, Lenka; Pülzl, Helga; Ranacher, Lea; Salvalaggio, Alessandra; Sergent, Arnaud; Sopanen, Juuso; Stelzer, Cristoph; Stetter, Theresa; Valsta, Lauri; Výbošťok, Jozef; Wallin, Ida (2020)
    This article provides useful information for universities offering forestry programs and facing the growing demand for bioeconomy education. An explorative survey on bioeconomy perception among 1400 students enrolled in 29 universities across nine European countries offering forestry programs was performed. The data have been elaborated via descriptive statistics and cluster analysis. Around 70% of respondents have heard about the bioeconomy, mainly through university courses. Students perceive forestry as the most important sector for bioeconomy; however, the extent of perceived importance of forestry varies between countries, most significantly across groups of countries along a North–South European axis. Although differences across bachelor and master programs are less pronounced, they shed light on how bioeconomy is addressed by university programs and the level of student satisfaction with this. These differences and particularities are relevant for potential development routes towards comprehensive bioeconomy curricula at European forestry universities with a forestry focus.
  • CENTER-TBI Investigators; van Veen, Ernest; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Cnossen, Maryse C.; Maas, Andrew I. R.; de Beaufort, Inez D.; Menon, David K.; Citerio, Giuseppe; Stocchetti, Nino; Rietdijk, Wim J. R.; van Dijck, Jeroen T. J. M.; Kompanje, Erwin J. O.; Raj, Rahul (2018)
    BackgroundWe aimed to investigate the extent of the agreement on practices around brain death and postmortem organ donation.MethodsInvestigators from 67 Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study centers completed several questionnaires (response rate: 99%).ResultsRegarding practices around brain death, we found agreement on the clinical evaluation (prerequisites and neurological assessment) for brain death determination (BDD) in 100% of the centers. However, ancillary tests were required for BDD in 64% of the centers. BDD for nondonor patients was deemed mandatory in 18% of the centers before withdrawing life-sustaining measures (LSM). Also, practices around postmortem organ donation varied. Organ donation after circulatory arrest was forbidden in 45% of the centers. When withdrawal of LSM was contemplated, in 67% of centers the patients with a ventricular drain in situ had this removed, either sometimes or all of the time.ConclusionsThis study showed both agreement and some regional differences regarding practices around brain death and postmortem organ donation. We hope our results help quantify and understand potential differences, and provide impetus for current dialogs toward further harmonization of practices around brain death and postmortem organ donation.
  • Anttonen, Markku; Lammi, Minna; Mykkänen, Juri; Repo, Petteri (2018)
    The Triple Helix concept of innovation systems holds that consensus space among industry, government and university is required to bring together their competences to achieve enhanced economic and social development on a systemic scale. In line with this argument, this article analyses empirically how the concept of circular economy is conceived in the institutional spheres of "industry", "government" and "university". Innovation systems are constantly being reconstructed through knowledge production and communication, which is reflected in how concepts develop in the different spheres. By applying natural language processing tools to key contributions from each of the three spheres (the "Triple Helix"), it is shown that, although institutional backgrounds do contribute to differing conceptualizations of circular economy, there is a substantial but limited conceptual consensus space, which, according to the Triple Helix, should open new opportunities for innovations. The consensus space shared across the three spheres focuses on materials and products and sees circular economy as a way to create new resources, businesses and products from waste. The industry sphere highlights business opportunities on global scale, which are also evident in the government sphere. The government sphere connects circular economy to waste-related innovation policies targeted at industrial renewal, economic growth, investments and jobs. The university sphere, in turn, focuses on production and environmental issues, waste and knowledge, and is rather distinct from the two other spheres. The importance of the differing conceptions of circular economy is based on the logic of Triple Helix systems. Accordingly, sufficient consensus between the Triple Helix spheres can advance the application of the concept of circular economy beyond the individual spheres to achieve systemic changes.
  • Ruokolainen, Otto; Ollila, Hanna; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi (2019)
    Background: Socioeconomic differences in smoking and other tobacco use are prevalent in adolescents. Less is known about the association between intergenerational social mobility and tobacco use. Methods: Five waves of national cross-sectional School Health Promotion Study during 2008-2017 in Finland were used, including non-academically and academically oriented adolescents (15-21 years, N = 384,379). The adolescents' educational orientation was compared with the educational track of the parents as a proxy for intergenerational social mobility, which was used as the independent variable in regression models to examine the differences in daily smoking and daily snus use. Results: Smoking declined in all mobility groups over time, but remained more prevalent among non-academically oriented adolescents among boys and girls. Daily snus use among boys increased over time in all mobility groups. Multiple adjusted models showed that upward mobility and downward mobility are differently associated with tobacco use, the latter increasing the probability of tobacco use compared with the stable high group (boys: smoking: OR = 5.24, 95% CI 5.02-5.46; snus use: OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.50-1.66). In smoking, absolute socioeconomic differences between the mobility groups decreased over time while relative differences increased. In snus use, both absolute and relative differences increased. Conclusions: Adolescent smoking and snus use associate strongly with the adolescent's educational track, irrespective of the social mobility class. Non-academically oriented adolescents have an increased risk of tobacco use. The academic and non-academic orientation should already be taken into account in tobacco use prevention in basic education.
  • Tapaninen, Anna-Maria; Helen, Ilpo (2020)
    This article examines the role of DNA testing in immigration management practices in which individuals and their kin relationships are modified as objects of investigation: defined, categorised and "made up" (Hacking in Historical ontology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2002) as families. Analysis focuses on the interplay of documents (or lack thereof), narratives and DNA analysis that produces evidentiary facts and knowledge about migrants and, simultaneously, forges relationships between individuals, families and other collectives. Analysis of the Finnish administrative and legal data concerning family reunification shows that DNA testing does much more than just provide evidence of the existence of a genetic tie between alleged family members; testing can also be translated into proof of 'true' families or extended to test the credibility of the applicants. Via translations and extensions, the accuracy of DNA analysis is intertwined with the contingencies of decision-making in the context of immigration management. Related to this, the article demonstrates that DNA testing supports the process by which immigration authorities in the Global North constitute the family as contingent, indefinite and even arbitrary, rather than consolidating a clear and solid model of eligibility for family reunification.
  • Lehto, Reetta; Lehto, Elviira; Konttinen, Hanna; Vepsalainen, Henna; Nislin, Mari; Nissinen, Kaija; Vepsalainen, Ciara; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva; Ray, Carola (2019)
    Aims: Certain feeding practices, such as role modeling healthy eating and encouragement are recommended to be used in preschools. Little is known about whether preschool characteristics are associated with the use of these feeding practices. Our aim was to examine whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of the preschool neighborhood is associated with the feeding practices in preschools. Methods: This study was part of the cross-sectional DAGIS study. We studied 66 municipal preschools and 378 early childhood educators (ECEs). Preschool neighborhood SES was assessed with map grid data. Feeding practices were assessed by questionnaires and lunchtime observation. Associations between preschool neighborhood SES and feeding practices were tested with logistic regression analyses adjusted for ECEs' educational level and municipal policies on ECEs' lunch prices, and on birthday foods. Results: The crude model showed that in high-SES neighborhood preschools ECEs were more likely to eat the same lunch as the children (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.42-4.24) and to reward children with other food for eating vegetables (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.40-4.41). Furthermore, in high-SES preschools it was less likely that birthday foods outside of the normal menu were available on birthdays (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.12-0.71). In the adjusted model, rewarding with other food remained associated with preschool neighborhood SES (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.12-4.07). Conclusions: After adjustments, preschool neighborhood SES was mostly unassociated with the feeding practices in preschools. Municipal policies may have a significant impact on feeding practices and ultimately on young children's food intake in Finland where most children attend municipal preschools.
  • Bonthuis, Marjolein; Cuperus, Liz; Chesnaye, Nicholas C.; Akman, Sema; Melgar, Angel Alonso; Baiko, Sergey; Bouts, Antonia H.; Boyer, Olivia; Dimitrova, Kremena; Carmo, Carmen do; Grenda, Ryszard; Heaf, James; Jahnukainen, Timo; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Kaltenegger, Lukas; Kostic, Mirjana; Marks, Stephen D.; Mitsioni, Andromachi; Novljan, Gregor; Palsson, Runolfur; Parvex, Paloma; Podracka, Ludmila; Bjerre, Anna; Seeman, Tomas; Slavicek, Jasna; Szabo, Tamas; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Torres, Diletta D.; Van Hoeck, Koen J.; Ladfors, Susanne Westphal; Harambat, Jérôme; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Jager, Kitty J. (2020)
    One of the main objectives of the European health policy framework is to ensure equitable access to high-quality health services across Europe. Here we examined country-specific kidney transplantation and graft failure rates in children and explore their country- and patient-level determinants. Patients under 20 years of age initiating kidney replacement therapy from January 2007 through December 2015 in 37 European countries participating in the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry were included in the analyses. Countries were categorized as low-, middle-, and high-income based on gross domestic product. At five-years of follow-up, 4326 of 6909 children on kidney replacement therapy received their first kidney transplant. Overall median time from kidney replacement therapy start to first kidney transplantation was 1.4 (inter quartile range 0.3-4.3) years. The five-year kidney transplantation probability was 48.8% (95% confidence interval: 45.9-51.7%) in low-income, 76.3% (72.8-79.5%) in middle-income and 92.3% (91.0-93.4%) in high-income countries and was strongly associated with macro-economic factors. Gross domestic product alone explained 66% of the international variation in transplantation rates. Compared with high-income countries, kidney transplantation was 76% less likely to be performed in low-income and 58% less likely in middle-income countries. Overall five-year graft survival in Europe was 88% and showed little variation across countries. Thus, despite large disparities transplantation access across Europe, graft failure rates were relatively similar. Hence, graft survival in low-risk transplant recipients from lower-income countries seems as good as graft survival among all (low, medium, and high risk) graft recipients from high-income countries.
  • Ruokolainen, Otto; Ollila, Hanna; Patja, Kristiina; Borodulin, Katja; Laatikainen, Tiina; Korhonen, Tellervo (2018)
    Aims: Finland has implemented a gradually tightening tobacco control policy for decades. Recently the objective of a tobacco-free Finland was introduced. Still, the population's acceptance of tobacco control policy has not been measured. More knowledge is needed on differences in attitudes and factors associated with tobacco control opinions for future policy-making. Methods: A population-based study with quantitative analysis. Attitudes on smoking and tobacco control policy were assessed within the National FINRISK 2012 Study in Finland involving 25-74-year-old adults (N = 4905). In analyses, smoking status groups were compared. Results: In general, attitudes differed systematically by smoking status. Differences increased or decreased when moving from never smokers to other smoking groups. Similarities in attitudes were found particularly on youth smoking, while differences between smoking groups were notable on statements regarding smoking on balconies and availability of tobacco products. The adjusted analysis showed that smoking status was most strongly associated with attitudes on different tobacco control policy measures. Daily smokers viewed stricter tobacco control policy and workplace smoking bans more negatively than others, though they viewed societal support for quitters and sufficiency of tobacco control policy more positively compared with others. Differences were vast compared with non-smokers, but also occasional smokers differed from daily smokers. Conclusions: Tightening tobacco control and workplace smoking bans were supported by the Finnish adult population, but societal support for quitters to a lesser extent. Attitude change, where smokers are seen as deserving help to quit smoking, is important.
  • D'amato, Dalia; Droste, Nils; Winkler, Klara; Toppinen, Anne (2019)
    The continuous emergence of new ideas and terms simultaneously enables and impedes the advancement of sustainability, because of an increasingly complex conceptual landscape. This study aims at highlighting combinations of sustainability concepts (circular, green and bioeconomy) and of development models (growth, steady-state, degrowth) which selected researchers have considered priorities for pursuing sustainability transformations. Thirteen leading scholars working on sustainability issues were asked to rank 36 statements describing activities related to either circular, green, bio, growth, steady-state or degrowth economy. Using Q methodology, an exploratory approach to the identification of shared or diverging opinions, three archetypical perspectives were identified across the respondents: 1. circular solutions towards economic-environmental decoupling in a degrowth perspective; 2. a mix of circular and green economy solutions; 3. a green economy perspective, with an emphasis on natural capital and ecosystem services, and critical towards growth. Economic growth was perceived negatively across all perspectives, in contrast to the current lack of political and societal support for degrowth ideas. Neither did bioeconomy-oriented activities have support among the participating researchers, even though half of the respondents were working with bioeconomy issues, which are currently high on the political agenda. The lack of support for pro-growth and bioeconomy solutions are unexpected results given the current political discourses. While the results are not to be generalised beyond the sample, they provide valuable orientation for emerging and under-investigated research and policy directions. If bioeconomy policies are to be implemented on a broader scale, it seems worthwhile evaluating the acceptability of the bioeconomy agenda among various societal actors. Furthermore, our results point to the (still under-explored) potential of formulating synergic circular, green and bioeconomy policies, possibly without a focus on economic growth.
  • Munkejord, Mai Camilla; Ness, Tove M.; Gao, I-An (2021)
    For the past three decades, to meet the increasing need for long-term care, the Taiwanese government’s primary approach has been to import migrant care workers. In this article, we analyse qualitative interview data produced in an Indigenous community. Drawing on Kittay’s feminist dependency theory, we explore the interrelationships and collaborative efforts between live-in carers and their employers. Three types of relationships were identified: ‘unsupportive relationships’, where the live-in carer was treated as a servant; ‘supportive relationships’, where the live-in carer was treated as a care worker; and ‘semi-supportive relationships’, where the live-in carer was treated as a carer-servant. In conclusion, the article sheds light on how the live-in carer arrangement could be practised in ways that allow live-in carers and thereby their care recipients to thrive.
  • Im, Zhen Jie; Shin, Young-Kyu (2022)
    Policy access biases worry social policy scholars because they generate Matthew effects that exacerbate socioeconomic divides. Yet, access biases in many social investment policies, like training during unemployment, remain under-researched. Such access biases may be detrimental to a critical objective of social investment: to improve and uplift workers with precarious economic prospects. We focus here on access bias in training provided by public employment services against lower-educated workers. They are vulnerable to unemployment and fractured employment and should thus be targeted for training. While there is burgeoning attention on access biases in training against disadvantaged youths and non-citizens, fewer studies have focused on similar access bias against lower-educated workers. We highlight that access bias against such workers may stem from their lower willingness and demand for training, as well as policy design, informal eligibility criteria and caseworkers' creaming practices. We suggest, however, that greater availability of training opportunities may ease this access bias against lower-educated workers. Using the Finnish Income Distribution survey data (2007-2012), we find evidence of training access bias: primary-educated workers are significantly less likely to participate in training than upper secondary and vocationally educated workers. Concurrently, our results show that availability of training is not significantly associated with the extent of training access bias against primary-educated workers. With a Nordic welfare model that prioritizes training to remedy labour market vulnerability and stresses that access to benefits and services is based on need, Finland represents a least likely case to find such access bias in training. We therefore consider these results worrying: if it is found here, it may be prevalent in countries with other welfare models.