Browsing by Subject "POLY(2-OXAZOLINE)"

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  • Hahn, Lukas; Kessler, Larissa; Polzin, Lando; Fritze, Lars; Forster, Stefan; Helten, Holger; Luxenhofer, Robert (2021)
    Thermoresponsive polymers are frequently involved in the development of materials for various applications. Here, polymers containing poly(2- benzhydryl-2-oxazine) (pBhOzi) repeating units are described for the first time. The homopolymer pBhOzi and an ABA type amphiphile comprising two flanking hydrophilic A blocks of poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (pMeOx) and the hydrophobic aromatic pBhOzi central B block (pMeOx-b-pBhOzi-b-pMeOx) are synthesized and the latter is shown to exhibit inverse thermogelling properties at concentrations of 20 wt.% in water. This behavior stands in contrast to a homologue ABA amphiphile consisting of a central poly(2-benzhydryl-2-oxazoline) block (pMeOx-b-pBhOx-b-pMeOx). No inverse thermogelling is observed with this polymer even at 25 wt.%. For 25 wt.% pMeOx-b-pBhOzi-b-pMeOx, a surprisingly high storage modulus of approximate to 22 kPa and high values for the yield and flow points of 480 Pa and 1.3 kPa are obtained. Exceeding the yield point, pronounced shear thinning is observed. Interestingly, only little difference between self-assemblies of pMeOx-b-pBhOzi-b-pMeOx and pMeOx-b-pBhOx-b-pMeOx is observed by dynamic light scattering while transmission electron microscopy images suggest that the micelles of pMeOx-b-pBhOzi-b-pMeOx interact through their hydrophilic coronas, which is probably decisive for the gel formation. Overall, this study introduces new building blocks for poly(2-oxazoline) and poly(2-oxazine)-based self-assemblies, but additional studies will be needed to unravel the exact mechanism.
  • Loeblein, Jochen; Lorson, Thomas; Komma, Miriam; Kielholz, Tobias; Windbergs, Maike; Dalton, Paul D.; Luxenhofer, Robert (2021)
    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing as an umbrella term for various materials processing methods has distinct advantages over many other processing methods, including the ability to generate highly complex shapes and designs. However, the performance of any produced part not only depends on the material used and its shape, but is also critically dependent on its surface properties. Important features, such as wetting or fouling, critically depend mainly on the immediate surface energy. To gain control over the surface chemistry post-processing modifications are generally necessary, since it' s not a feature of additive manufacturing. Here, we report on the use of initiator and catalyst-free photografting and photopolymerization for the hydrophilic modification of microfiber scaffolds obtained from hydrophobic medical-grade poly(epsilon-caprolactone) via melt-electrowriting. Contact angle measurements and Raman spectroscopy confirms the formation of a more hydrophilic coating of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). Apart from surface modification, we also observe bulk polymerization, which is expected for this method, and currently limits the controllability of this procedure.
  • Sochor, Benedikt; Dudukcu, Ozgur; Luebtow, Michael M.; Schummer, Bernhard; Jaksch, Sebastian; Luxenhofer, Robert (2020)
    Drug-loaded polymer micelles or nanoparticles are being continuously explored in the fields of drug delivery and nanomedicine. Commonly, a simple core-shell structure is assumed, in which the core incorporates the drug and the corona provides steric shielding, colloidal stability, and prevents protein adsorption. Recently, the interactions of the dissolved drug with the micellar corona have received increasing attention. Here, using small-angle neutron scattering, we provide an in-depth study of the differences in polymer micelle morphology of a small selection of structurally closely related polymer micelles at different loadings with the model compound curcumin. This work supports a previous study using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and we confirm that the drug resides predominantly in the core of the micelle at low drug loading. As the drug loading increases, neutron scattering data suggests that an inner shell is formed, which we interpret as the corona also starting to incorporate the drug, whereas the outer shell mainly contains water and the polymer. The presented data clearly shows that a better understanding of the inner morphology and the impact of the hydrophilic block can be important parameters for improved drug loading in polymer micelles as well as provide insights into the structure-property relationship.