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  • Tuomisto, Jouko; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Tukiainen, Erkki; Pekkanen, Juha; Tuomisto, Jouni T. (2016)
    A number of studies have found an association between the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and type 2 diabetes. Causality has remained uncertain. This study describes the pharmacokinetic behavior of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) both in a theoretical model based on elimination rate constants, and in a group of 409 adult surgical patients with known PCDD/F concentrations and dietary information. A model assuming 10% annual decrease in past PCDD/F intake, predicted the measured profile of TEQ (toxic equivalents) in the patient population fairly well. The dominant determinant of PCDD/F level was age, and the level in patients was also associated with consumption of animal source products. Predicted daily intakes correlated with diet, but also with body mass index (BMI), indicating that high BMI was preceded by high consumption of foods containing PCDD/Fs. The results suggest that a third factor, e. g. high intake of animal source foods, could explain both higher levels of POPs in the body and higher incidence of type 2 diabetes, and BMI is not sufficient in describing the confounding caused by diet. Thus, to fully address the causality between POPs and type 2 diabetes, careful studies considering the pharmacokinetics of the studied compounds, and including the analysis of food consumption, are needed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Fernandez-Llamazares Onrubia, Alvaro; Garteizgogeascoa, María; Basu, Niladri; Brondizio, Eduardo S.; Cabeza, Mar; Martínez-Alier, Joan; McElwee, Pamela; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria (2020)
    Indigenous peoples (IPs) worldwide are confronted by the increasing threat of pollution. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature (n = 686 studies), we present the current state of knowledge on: 1) the exposure and vulnerability of IPs to pollution; 2) the environmental, health, and cultural impacts of pollution upon IPs; and 3) IPs' contributions to prevent, control, limit, and abate pollution from local to global scales. Indigenous peoples experience large burdens of environmental pollution linked to the expansion of commodity frontiers and industrial development, including agricultural, mining, and extractive industries, as well as urban growth, waste dumping, and infrastructure and energy development. Nevertheless, IPs are contributing to limit pollution in different ways, including through environmental monitoring and global policy advocacy, as well as through local resistance toward polluting activities. This work adds to growing evidence of the breadth and depth of environmental injustices faced by IPs worldwide, and we conclude by highlighting the need to increase IPs' engagement in environmental decision‐making regarding pollution control. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2020;16:324–341. © 2019 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC)
  • Rantakokko, Panu; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Viluksela, Matti; Tuomisto, Jouko; Airaksinen, Riikka; Raitakari, Olli; Karvonen, Anne M.; Pekkanen, Juha; Kiviranta, Hannu (2020)
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that have detrimental health effects. As people are exposed to them mainly through the diet, EU has set maximum food dioxin and PCBs levels. EFSA CONTAM Panel made new risk assessment in 2018 that lowered the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) from 14 pg-TEQ/kg bw/week to 2 pgTEQ/kg bw/week. Critical effect was decreased semen count at the age of 18-19 years if serum total TEQ at the age of 9 years exceeded the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 7 pg/g lipid. However, it is largely unknown to what extent NOAEL is exceed in European boys currently. We thus measured PCBs from small volume of serum in 184 Finnish children 7-10 years of age. To estimate the TEQ levels of children from measured PCB levels, we used our existing human milk PCDD/F and PCB concentrations to create a hierarchical Bayesian regression model that was used to estimate TEQs from measured PCBs. For quality control (QC), three pooled blood samples from 18 to 20 year old males were measured for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, and estimated for TEQs. In QC samples measured and estimated TEQs agreed within 84% -106%. In our estimate for 7-10 year old children, PCDD/F TEQ exceeded NOAEL only in 0.5% and total TEQ in 2.7% of subjects. Risk management following the decreased TWI proposed by the CONTAM Panel should be carefully considered if total TEQ in children is already largely below the NOAEL. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Scopetani, Costanza; Chelazzi, David; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Leiniö, Ville; Pellinen, Jukka (2022)
    Macro-, meso-and microplastic (MAP, MEP, MP) occurrence in compost is an environmental issue whose extent and effects are not yet understood. Here, we studied the occurrence of MAPs, MEPs and MPs in compost samples, and the transfer of hazardous contaminants from plastics to compost and soil. MAPs/MEPs and MPs concentrations in compost were 6.5 g/kg and 6.6 +/- 1.5 pieces/kg; from common recommendations for compost application, we estimated similar to 4-23 x 10(7) pieces MPs and 4-29 x 10(4) g MAPs/MEPs ha(-1) per year ending into agricultural soils fertilized with such compost. Regarding contaminants, bis(ethylhexyl) phthalate, acetyl tributyl citrate, dodecane and nonanal were extracted in higher concentrations from plastics and plastic-contaminated compost than from compost where MAPs/MEPs had been removed prior to extraction and analysis. However, some contaminants were present even after MAPs/MEPs removal, ascribable to short-and long-term release by MAPs/MEPs, and to the presence of MPs. DEHP concentration was higher in soils where compost was applied than in fields where it was not used. These results, along with estimations of plastic load to soil from the use of compost, show that compost application is a source of plastic pollution into agricultural fields, and that plastic might transfer hazardous contaminants to soil.
  • Watson, John D.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Smith, Ashley B.; Okey, Allan B.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C. (2014)