Browsing by Subject "POLYPHARMACOLOGY"

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  • Ravikumar, Balaguru; Timonen, Sanna; Alam, Zaid; Parri, Elina; Wennerberg, Krister; Aittokallio, Tero (2019)
    Owing to the intrinsic polypharmacological nature of most small-molecule kinase inhibitors, there is a need for computational models that enable systematic exploration of the chemogenomic landscape underlying druggable kinome toward more efficient kinome-profiling strategies. We implemented Virtual-KinomeProfiler, an efficient computational platform that captures distinct representations of chemical similarity space of the druggable kinome for various drug discovery endeavors. By using the computational platform, we profiled approximately 37 million compound-kinase pairs and made predictions for 151,708 compounds in terms of their repositioning and lead molecule potential, against 248 kinases simultaneously. Experimental testing with biochemical assays validated 51 of the predicted interactions, identifying 19 small-molecule inhibitors of EGFR, HCK, FLT1, and MSK1 protein kinases. The prediction model led to a 1.5-fold increase in precision and 2.8-fold decrease in false-discovery rate, when compared with traditional single-dose biochemical screening, which demonstrates its potential to drastically expedite the kinome-specific drug discovery process.
  • Wang, Yinyin; Jafari, Mohieddin; Tang, Yun; Tang, Jing (2019)
    Plant-derived nature products, known as herb formulas, have been commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for disease prevention and treatment. The herbs have been traditionally classified into different categories according to the TCM Organ systems known as Meridians. Despite the increasing knowledge on the active components of the herbs, the rationale of Meridian classification remains poorly understood. In this study, we took a machine learning approach to explore the classification of Meridian. We determined the molecule features for 646 herbs and their active components including structure-based fingerprints and ADME properties (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion), and found that the Meridian can be predicted by machine learning approaches with a top accuracy of 0.83. We also identified the top compound features that were important for the Meridian prediction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that molecular properties of the herb compounds are associated with the TCM Meridians. Taken together, the machine learning approach may provide novel insights for the understanding of molecular evidence of Meridians in TCM. Author summary In East Asia, plant-derived natural products, known as herb formulas, have been commonly used as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for disease prevention and treatment. According to the theory of TCM, herbs can be classified as different Meridians according to the balance of Yin and Yang, which are commonly understood as metaphysical concepts. Therefore, the scientific rational of Meridian classification remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to provide a computational means to understand the classification of Meridians. We showed that the Meridians of herbs can be predicted by the molecular and chemical features of the ingredient compounds, suggesting that the Meridians indeed are associated with the properties of the compounds. Our work provided a novel chemoinformatics approach which may lead to a more systematic strategy to identify the mechanisms of action and active compounds for TCM herbs.
  • Wang, Tianduanyi; Gautam, Prson; Rousu, Juho; Aittokallio, Tero (2020)
    While high-throughput drug screening offers possibilities to profile phenotypic responses of hundreds of compounds, elucidation of the cell context-specific mechanisms of drug action requires additional analyses. To that end, we developed a computational target deconvolution pipeline that identifies the key target dependencies based on collective drug response patterns in each cell line separately. The pipeline combines quantitative drug-cell line responses with drug-target interaction networks among both intended on- and potent off-targets to identify pharmaceutically actionable and selective therapeutic targets. To demonstrate its performance, the target deconvolution pipeline was applied to 310 small molecules tested on 20 genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines to identify cell line-specific target mechanisms in terms of cytotoxic and cytostatic drug target vulnerabilities. The functional essentiality of each protein target was quantified with a target addiction score (TAS), as a measure of dependency of the cell line on the therapeutic target. The target dependency profiling was shown to capture inhibitory information that is complementary to that obtained from the structure or sensitivity of the drugs. Comparison of the TAS profiles and gene essentiality scores from CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screens revealed that certain proteins with low gene essentiality showed high target addictions, suggesting that they might be functioning as protein groups, and therefore be resistant to single gene knock-out. The comparative analysis discovered protein groups of potential multi-target synthetic lethal interactions, for instance, among histone deacetylases (HDACs). Our integrated approach also recovered a number of well-established TNBC cell line-specific drivers and known TNBC therapeutic targets, such as HDACs and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The present work provides novel insights into druggable vulnerabilities for TNBC, and opportunities to identify multi-target synthetic lethal interactions for further studies. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.