Browsing by Subject "POLYPHARMACY"

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  • Ikäheimo, Ilona; Karjalainen, Merja; Tiihonen, Miia; Haanpää, Maija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Saltevo, Juha; Mäntyselkä, Pekka (2019)
    What is known and objective Polypharmacy and age are known to increase the risk for potential drug interactions. Type 2 diabetes has been associated with polypharmacy and several comorbidities. Currently, there is no information on whether the frequency of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions and the risk for drug adverse effects differ between older persons with and without diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of drug-drug interactions and the risk for drug adverse effects in these two groups in primary care. Methods The basic study population consisted of Finnish home-dwelling primary care patients aged >= 65 years (N = 3039). For each person with diabetes, two controls were selected with adjusted age and gender. To collect data, electronic primary care patient records, a structured health questionnaire and a structured health examination conducted by a physician were utilized. Using the SFINX-PHARAO (R) database, drug-drug interactions and the risk for drug adverse effects were evaluated in 182 persons with type 2 diabetes and 176 persons without diabetes. Results and discussion There were no significant differences in the frequency of drug-drug interactions or the risk for drug adverse effects in persons with and without diabetes. At least one clinically relevant interaction was found in 81 (44.5%) persons with diabetes and 73 (41.5%) persons without diabetes. The most common drugs causing interactions included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and warfarin. What is new and conclusion There is no difference in the frequency of drug-drug interactions or risk for drug adverse effects in older home-dwelling persons with and without diabetes. Due to common comorbidities and commonly used drugs among persons with diabetes, drug-drug interactions involving warfarin or NSAIDs in particular should be carefully monitored to avoid drug adverse effects.
  • Kallio, Sonja E.; Kiiski, Annika; Airaksinen, Marja S. A.; Mäntylä, Antti T.; Kumpusalo-Vauhkonen, Anne E. J.; Järvensivu, Timo P.; Pohjanoksa-Mantyla, Marika K. (2018)
    ObjectivesTo identify medication review interventions for older adults that involve community pharmacists and evidence of outcomes of these interventions. DesignSystematic review. MeasurementsCinahl, MEDLINE (Ovid), Scopus, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between January 2000 and February 2016. Articles involving community pharmacists in medication reviews for outpatients aged 65 and older were included. Evidence of economic, clinical, and humanistic outcomes of interventions was summarized. ResultsSixteen articles were found that described 12 medication review interventions, of which 6 were compliance and concordance reviews, 4 were clinical medication reviews, and 2 were prescription reviews according to a previously developed typology. Community pharmacists' contributions to reviewing medications varied from sending the dispensing history to other healthcare providers to comprehensive involvement in medication management. The most commonly assessed outcomes of the interventions were medication changes leading to reduction in actual or potential drug-related problems (n=12) and improved adherence (n=5). ConclusionRegardless of community pharmacists' contributions to interventions, medication review interventions seem to reduce drug-related problems and increase medication adherence. More well-designed, rigorous studies with more sensitive and specific outcomes measures need to be conducted to assess the effect of community pharmacists' contributions to reviewing medications and improving the health of older adults.
  • Toivo, Terhi; Airaksinen, Marja; Dimitrow, Maarit; Savela, Eeva; Pelkonen, Katariina; Kiuru, Valtteri; Suominen, Tuula; Uunimäki, Mira; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Leikola, Saija; Puustinen, Juha (2019)
    Background As populations are aging, a growing number of home care clients are frail and use multiple, complex medications. Combined with the lack of coordination of care this may pose uncontrolled polypharmacy and potential patient safety risks. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a care coordination intervention on medication risks identified in drug regimens of older home care clients over a one-year period. Methods Two-arm, parallel, cluster randomized controlled trial with baseline and follow-up assessment at 12 months. The study was conducted in Primary Care in Lohja, Finland: all 5 home care units, the public healthcare center, and a private community pharmacy. Participants: All consented home care clients aged > 65 years, using at least one prescription medicine who were assessed at baseline and at 12 months. Intervention: Practical nurses were trained to make the preliminary medication risk assessment during home visits and report findings to the coordinating pharmacist. The coordinating pharmacist prepared the cases for the triage meeting with the physician and home care nurse to decide on further actions. Each patient's physician made the final decisions on medication changes needed. Outcomes were measured as changes in medication risks: use of potentially inappropriate medications and psychotropics; anticholinergic and serotonergic load; drug-drug interactions. Results Participants (n = 129) characteristics: mean age 82.8 years, female 69.8%, mean number of prescription medicines in use 13.1. The intervention did not show an impact on the medication risks between the original intervention group and the control group in the intention to treat analysis, but the per protocol analysis indicated tendency for effectiveness, particularly in optimizing central nervous system medication use. Half (50.0%) of the participants with a potential need for medication changes, agreed on in the triage meeting, had none of the medication changes actually implemented. Conclusion The care coordination intervention used in this study indicated tendency for effectiveness when implemented as planned. Even though the outcome of the intervention was not optimal, the value of this paper is in discussing the real world experiences and challenges of implementing new practices in home care.