Browsing by Subject "POLYSACCHARIDES"

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  • Lassfolk, Robert; Rahkila, Jani; Johansson, Mikael Peter; Ekholm, Filip Sebastian; Wärnå, Johan; Leino, Reko (2019)
    Acetylated oligosaccharides are common in nature. While they are involved in several biochemical and biological processes, the role of the acetyl groups and the complexity of their migration has largely gone unnoticed. In this work, by combination of organic synthesis, NMR spectroscopy and quantum chemical modeling, we show that acetyl group migration is a much more complex phenomenon than previously known. By use of synthetic oligomannoside model compounds, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the migration of acetyl groups in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides may not be limited to transfer within a single monosaccharide moiety, but may also involve migration over a glycosidic bond between two different saccharide units. The observed phenomenon is not only interesting from the chemical point of view, but it also raises new questions about the potential biological role of acylated carbohydrates in nature.
  • Yilmaz-Turan, Secil; Jiménez-Quero, Amparo; Menzel, Carolin; Morais de Carvalho, Danila; Lindström, Mikael E.; Sevastyanova, Olena; Moriana, Rosana; Vilaplana, Francisco (2020)
    This study demonstrates the potential of feruloylated arabinoxylan (AX) from wheat bran for the preparation of bioactive barrier films with antioxidant properties. We have comprehensively evaluated the influence of the structural features and chemical acetylation of feruloylated AX extracted by subcritical water on their film properties, in comparison with alkaline extracted AX and a reference wheat endosperm AX. The degree of substitution (DS) of AX had a large influence on film formation, higher DS yielded better thermal and mechanical properties. The barrier properties of AX films were significantly enhanced by external plasticization by sorbitol. Chemical acetylation significantly improved the thermal stability but not the mechanical or barrier properties of the films. The presence of bound ferulic acid in feruloylated AX films resulted in higher antioxidant activity compared to external addition of free ferulic acid, which demonstrates their potential use in active packaging applications for the preservation of oxygen-sensitive foodstuff.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth (2021)
    In this individual patient data meta-analysis we examined datasets of two randomized placebo-controlled trials which investigated the effect of nasal carrageenan separately on children and adults. In both trials, iota-carrageenan was administered nasally three times per day for 7 days for patients with the common cold and follow-up lasted for 21 days. We used Cox regression to estimate the effect of carrageenan on recovery rate. We also used quantile regression to calculate the effect of carrageenan on colds of differing lengths. Nasal carrageenan increased the recovery rate from all colds by 54% (95% CI 15%-105%; p = .003). The increase in recovery rate was 139% for coronavirus infections, 119% for influenza A infections, and 70% for rhinovirus infections. The mean duration of all colds in the placebo groups of the first four quintiles were 4.0, 6.8, 8.8, and 13.7 days, respectively. The fifth quintile contained patients with censored data. The 13.7-day colds were shortened by 3.8 days (28% reduction), and 8.8-day colds by 1.3 days (15% reduction). Carrageenan had no meaningful effect on shorter colds. In the placebo group, 21 patients had colds lasting over 20 days, compared with six patients in the carrageenan group, which corresponds to a 71% (p = .003) reduction in the risk of longer colds. Given that carrageenan has an effect on diverse virus groups, and effects at the clinical level on two old coronaviruses, it seems plausible that carrageenan may have an effect on COVID-19. Further research on nasal iota-carrageenan is warranted.
  • Ma, Fanyi; Zhang, Yun; Yao, Yanna; Wen, Yurong; Hu, Weiping; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiuhua; Bell, Alan E.; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina (2017)
    The properties of mucilage obtained from Dioscorea opposita, generated during industrial manufacturing were investigated in this study. Characteristics such as monosaccharide content, amino acid content, molecular weight, and structural features were measured, whereas morphology was observed using a scanning/transmission electron microscope. Additionally, emulsification properties at different concentrations (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and 1.0%) and under acidic and basic pH (5.0 and 9.0) conditions were studied. The results showed that emulsions prepared from mucilage and medium-chain triglycerides presented more effective emulsifying functions and higher stability, especially at low concentrations. Both, acidic and basic conditions improved the overall emulsification properties, which suggested that the isoelectric point of amino acids may be involved in the emulsification properties. The results of this study show that mucilage from Dioscorea opposita can be considered as a sustainable resource of a natural emulsifier obtained from industrial waste. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Lingxi; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula (2020)
    This study investigated the mechanisms of the co-migration of phytic acid during beta-glucan isolation and its contribution to the retardation of starch hydrolysis in vitro. During the isolation, phytic acid precipitated together with beta-glucan when ethanol was added as the precipitation solvent. The precipitation of phytic acid was reduced by lowering the pH or the ethanol concentration. When 20% (NH4)(2)SO4 was used as the precipitation solvent, only minor phytic acid was found in isolated beta-glucan, because phytic acid did not precipitate by this solvent. In the in vitro starch hydrolysis test, the isolated oat beta-glucan (OBG) containing 3.9% co-migrated phytic acid showed better retardation effect than OBG containing 0.6% phytic acid. Therefore, we concluded that the co-migration of phytic acid was dependent on the chosen isolation procedure and conditions, and both intrinsic phytic acid and viscosity contributed to the retardation of starch hydrolysis.
  • Shi, Qiao; Hou, Yaxi; Yan, Xu; Mørkeberg , Kristian B.R.; Tenkanen, Tiina Maija (2019)
    Levans and inulins are fructans with mainly beta-(2 -> 6) and beta-(2 -> 1) linkages, respectively. Levans are produced by many lactic acid bacteria, e.g. during sourdough fermentation. Levans have shown prebiotic properties and may also function as in situ-produced hydrocolloids. So far, levan contents have been measured by acid hydrolysis, which cannot distinguish levans from e.g. inulins. In order to develop a specific analysis for levan in food matrices, a Paenibacillus amylolyticus endolevanase was combined with exoinulinase for levan hydrolysis. A separate endoinulinase treatment was used to detect the possible presence of inulin. Interfering sugars were removed by a pre-wash with aqueous ethanol. Levan content was estimated from fructose and glucose released in the hydrolysis, with a correction made for the residual fructose and glucose-containing sugars. The method was validated using wheat model doughs spiked with commercial Erwinia levan, and tested by analyzing levan content in Leuconostoc mesenteroides DSM 20343-fermented fava bean doughs.
  • Peng, Mao; Aguilar-Pontes, Maria V.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Mäkelä, Miia R. (2018)
    Aspergillus niger is one of the most widely used fungi to study the conversion of the lignocellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars. Understanding the sugar uptake system of A. niger is essential to improve the efficiency of the process of fungal plant biomass degradation. In this study, we report a comprehensive characterization of the sugar transportome of A. niger by combining phylogenetic and comparative transcriptomic analyses. We identified 86 putative sugar transporter (ST) genes based on a conserved protein domain search. All these candidates were then classified into nine subfamilies and their functional motifs and possible sugar-specificity were annotated according to phylogenetic analysis and literature mining. Furthermore, we comparatively analyzed the ST gene expression on a large set of fungal growth conditions including mono-, di- and polysaccharides, and mutants of transcriptional regulators. This revealed that transporter genes from the same phylogenetic clade displayed very diverse expression patterns and were regulated by different transcriptional factors. The genome-wide study of STs of A. niger provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying an extremely flexible metabolism and high nutritional versatility of A. niger and will facilitate further biochemical characterization and industrial applications of these candidate STs.
  • Rico del Cerro, Daniel; Mera-Adasme, Raúl; King, Alistair W. T.; Perea-Buceta, Jesus E.; Heikkinen, Sami; Hase, Tapio; Sundholm, Dage; Wähälä, Kristiina (2018)
    Comprehensive spectroscopic kinetic studies illustrate an alternative mechanism for the traditional free-carbene intermediated H/D exchange reaction of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium salts under neutral (D2O) and acidic conditions (DCl/D2O 35wt% solution). The deuteration of high purity [bmim]Cl in D2O is studied at different temperatures, in absence of catalyst or impurities, to yield an activation energy. DFT transition-state modelling, of a small water cluster and [bmim] cation, also yields an activation energy which strongly supports the proposed mechanism. The presence of basic impurities are shown to significantly enhance the exchange reaction, which brings into question the need for further analysis of technical purities of ionic liquids and the implications for a wide range of chemical reactions in such media.
  • Casteleijn, Marco G.; Richardson, Dominique; Parkkila, Petteri Kalervo; Granqvist, Niko Markus; Urtti, Arto Olavi; Viitala, Tapani Juhani Samuel (2018)
    Chitin, abundant in nature, is a renewable resource with many possible applications in bioengineering. Biosensors, capable of label-free and in-line evaluation, play an important role in the investigation of chitin synthesis, degradation and interaction with other materials. This work presents a comparative study of the usefulness of a chitin surface preparation, either on gold (Au) or on polystyrene (PS). In both cases the most common method to dissolve chitin was used, followed by a simple spin-coating procedure. Multi-parametric surface plasmon resonance (MP-SPR), modeling of the optical properties of the chitin layers, scanning electron microscopy, and contact angle goniometry were used to confirm: the thickness of the layers in air and buffer, the refractive indices of the chitin layers in air and buffer, the hydrophobicity, the binding properties of the chitin binding domain (CBD) of Bacillus circulans, and the split-intein capture process. Binding of the CBD differed between chitin on Au versus chitin on PS in terms of binding strength and binding specificity due to a less homogenous structured chitin-surface on Au in comparison to chitin on PS, despite a similar thickness of both chitin layers in air and after running buffer over the surfaces. The use of the simple method to reproduce chitin films on a thin polystyrene layer to study chitin as a biosensor and for chitin binding studies was obvious from the SPR studies and the binding studies of CBD as moiety of chitinases or as protein fusion partner. In conclusion, stable chitin layers for SPR studies can be made from chitin in a solution of dimethylacetamide (DMA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) followed by spin-coating if the gold surface is protected with PS.
  • Lyczakowski, Jan J.; Bourdon, Matthieu; Terrett, Oliver M.; Helariutta, Ykä; Wightman, Raymond; Dupree, Paul (2019)
    The woody secondary cell walls of plants are the largest repository of renewable carbon biopolymers on the planet. These walls are made principally from cellulose and hemicelluloses and are impregnated with lignin. Despite their importance as the main load bearing structure for plant growth, as well as their industrial importance as both a material and energy source, the precise arrangement of these constituents within the cell wall is not yet fully understood. We have adapted low temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) for imaging the nanoscale architecture of angiosperm and gymnosperm cell walls in their native hydrated state. Our work confirms that cell wall macrofibrils, cylindrical structures with a diameter exceeding 10 nm, are a common feature of the native hardwood and softwood samples. We have observed these same structures in Arabidopsis thaliana secondary cell walls, enabling macrofibrils to be compared between mutant lines that are perturbed in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin formation. Our analysis indicates that the macrofibrils in Arabidopsis cell walls are dependent upon the proper biosynthesis, or composed, of cellulose, xylan, and lignin. This study establishes that cryo-SEM is a useful additional approach for investigating the native nanoscale architecture and composition of hardwood and softwood secondary cell walls and demonstrates the applicability of Arabidopsis genetic resources to relate fibril structure with wall composition and biosynthesis.
  • Bhattarai, Mamata; Valoppi, Fabio; Hirvonen, Sami-Pekka; Hietala, Sami; Kilpelainen, Petri; Aseyev, Vladimir; Mikkonen, Kirsi S. (2020)
    The demand for naturally derived, functional and cost-effective raw materials for various food applications is escalating. Spruce wood is a sustainable and abundant, but underutilized source of novel hydrocolloids-galactoglucomannans (GGM). Pressurized-hot water extracted GGM with an intermediate molar mass are hypothesized to form colloidal solutions. To design superior quality products from GGM, an understanding of their colloidal stability and their potential effect in multiphasic systems is required. The present study addresses the functionality of GGM by characterizing their properties in a bi-phasic system, and for the first time, their time-dependent colloidal stability at different extrinsic conditions- pH, ionic strength and after the application of high-intensity mechanical shearing. Amongst the conditions studied, the colloidal stability of aqueous GGM solution was highly pH dependent. The results showed that an intermediate molar mass polysaccharide like GGM formed inter-/intra molecular assemblies, which grew over time, depending on the composition and processing of the aqueous medium. The molecular dispersion of GGM and their dynamic behavior was also compared to solutions of known food hydrocolloids-gum Arabic and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. The observed solution properties explain the hydmcolloid functionality of GGM and contribute to design of colloidal polysaccharide systems in food application.
  • Plappert, Sven F.; Quraishi, Sakeena; Pircher, Nicole; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Veigel, Stefan; Klinger, Karl Michael; Potthast, Antje; Rosenau, Thomas; Liebner, Falk W. (2018)
    2,3-Dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) of a high degree of oxidation (92% relative to AGU units) prepared by oxidation of microcrystalline cellulose with sodium periodate (48 degrees C, 19 h) is soluble in hot water. Solution casting, slow air drying, hot pressing, and reinforcement by cellulose nanocrystals afforded films (similar to 100 mu m thickness) that feature intriguing properties: they have very smooth surfaces (SEM), are highly flexible, and have good light transmittance for both the visible and near-infrared range (89-91%), high tensile strength (81-122 MPa), and modulus of elasticity (3.4-4.0 GPa) depending on hydration state and respective water content. The extraordinarily low oxygen permeation of
  • Lucenius, Jessica; Valle-Delgado, Juan José; Parikka, Kirsti; Österberg, Monika (2019)
    Plant-based polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose) are a very interesting option for the preparation of sustainable composite materials to replace fossil plastics, but the optimum bonding mechanism between the hard and soft components is still not well known. In this work, composite films made of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and various modified and unmodified polysaccharides (galactoglucomannan, GGM; hydrolyzed and oxidized guar gum, GGhydHox; and guar gum grafted with polyethylene glycol, GG-g-PEG) were characterized from the nano- to macroscopic level to better understand how the interactions between the composite components at nano/microscale affect macroscopic mechanical properties, like toughness and strength. All the polysaccharides studied adsorbed well on CNF, although with different adsorption rates, as measured by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Direct surface and friction force experiments using the colloidal probe technique revealed that the adsorbed polysaccharides provided repulsive forces–well described by a polyelectrolyte brush model – and a moderate reduction in friction between cellulose surfaces, which may prevent CNF aggregates during composite formation and, consequently, enhance the strength of dry films. High affinity for cellulose and moderate hydration were found to be important requirements for polysaccharides to improve the mechanical properties of CNF-based composites in wet conditions. The results of this work provide fundamental information on hemicellulose-cellulose interactions and can support the development of polysaccharide-based materials for different packaging and medical applications.
  • Mäkelä, Noora; Brinck, Outi; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula (2020)
    The physiological functionality of cereal beta-glucan (beta-glucan) has been mainly attributed to its ability to form viscous solutions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The viscosity is dependent on the concentration, extractability and molecular weight of beta-glucan, and to enable maximal functionality, these factors should therefore be acknowledged and their role in the physiological functionality of cereal beta-glucan further studied. An in vitro GI simulation with separate oral, gastric and small intestine phases was used to model the state of beta-glucan from various oat products in the GI tract. A rather large variation (from 26% to 99%) was observed in the extractabilities between product categories, with the highest extractabilities observed in spoonable products. The viscosities also varied highly within categories. When the comparison was done at similar concentration levels, the highest viscosities were observed in the products produced through dry processes, and moisture content during processing was suggested to be essential to the extent of beta-glucan degradation. The viscosity in samples that were likely to exhibit enzymatic activity was shown to be rather low, and thus the physiological functionality of beta-glucan may be threatened if the product also contains grain ingredients other than kiln-dried oat. Clear differences were observed in the functionality of beta-glucan in the GI tract model depending on a product type, and these were explained by differences in ingredients and processes. However, further studies are needed to specify the influence of each factor and to clarify the factors determining the physiological functionality of beta-glucan in food products.