Browsing by Subject "POPULATION-BASED COHORT"

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  • Catapano, Alberico L.; Graham, Ian; De Backer, Guy; Wiklund, Olov; Chapman, M. John; Drexel, Heinz; Hoes, Arno W.; Jennings, Catriona S.; Landmesser, Ulf; Pedersen, Terje R.; Reiner, Zeljko; Riccardi, Gabriele; Taskinen, Marja-Riita; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Wood, David A.; Luis Zamorano, Jose (2016)
  • Kinnunen, P. T. T.; Murtola, T. J.; Talala, K.; Taari, K.; Tammela, T. L. J.; Auvinen, A. (2019)
    PurposeAnticoagulants may reduce mortality of cancer patients, though the evidence remains controversial. We studied the association between different anticoagulants and cancer death.MethodsAll anticoagulant use during 1995-2015 was analyzed among 75,336 men in the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. Men with prevalent cancer were excluded. Multivariable Cox regression was performed to compare risk of death from any cancer and disease-specific death from 9 specific cancer types between (1) anticoagulant users overall and (2) warfarin users compared to anticoagulant non-users and (3) warfarin or (4) low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) compared to users of other anticoagulants. Medication use was analyzed as time-dependent variable to minimize immortal time bias. 1-, 2- and 3-year lag-time analyses were performed.ResultsDuring a median follow-up of 17.2years, a total of 27,233 men died of whom 8033 with cancer as the primary cause of death. In total, 32,628 men (43%) used anticoagulants. Any anticoagulant use was associated with an increased risk of cancer death (HR=2.50, 95% CI 2.37-2.64) compared to non-users. Risk was similar independent of the amount, duration, or intensity of use. The risk increase was observed both among warfarin and LMWH users, although not as strong in warfarin users. Additionally, cancer-specific risks of death were similar to overall cancer mortality in all anticoagulant categories.ConclusionOur study does not support reduced cancer mortality among anticoagulant users. Future studies on drug use and cancer mortality should be adjusted for anticoagulants as they are associated with significantly higher risk of cancer death.
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylä, Mikko; Rasmussen, Finn (2013)
  • Zheng, GQ; Sundquist, K; Sundquist, J; Forsti, A; Hemminki, O; Hemminki, K (2021)
    Background Previous population-based studies on second primary cancers (SPCs) in urothelial cancers have focused on known risk factors in bladder cancer patients without data on other urothelial sites of the renal pelvis or ureter. Aims To estimate sex-specific risks for any SPCs after urothelial cancers, and in reverse order, for urothelial cancers as SPCs after any cancer. Such two-way analysis may help interpret the results. Methods We employed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to estimate bidirectional relative risks of subsequent cancer associated with urothelial cancers. Patient data were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1990 through 2015. Results We identified 46 234 urinary bladder cancers (75% male), 940 ureteral cancers (60% male), and 2410 renal pelvic cancers (57% male). After male bladder cancer, SIRs significantly increased for 9 SPCs, most for ureteral (SIR 41.9) and renal pelvic (17.2) cancers. In the reversed order (bladder cancer as SPC), 10 individual FPCs were associated with an increased risk; highest associations were noted after renal pelvic (21.0) and ureteral (20.9) cancers. After female bladder cancer, SIRs of four SPCs were significantly increased, most for ureteral (87.8) and pelvic (35.7) cancers. Female bladder, ureteral, and pelvic cancers associated are with endometrial cancer. Conclusions The risks of recurrent urothelial cancers were very high, and, at most sites, female risks were twice over the male risks. Risks persisted often to follow-up periods of >5 years, motivating an extended patient follow-up. Lynch syndrome-related cancers were associated with particularly female urothelial cancers, calling for clinical vigilance.
  • Carstensen, Bendix; Read, Stephanie H.; Friis, Soren; Sund, Reijo; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Ljung, Rickard; Wild, Sarah H.; Kerssens, Joannes J.; Harding, Jessica L.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Gudbjornsdottir, Soffia; Diabet Canc Res Consortium (2016)
    An excess cancer incidence of 20-25% has been identified among persons with diabetes, most of whom have type 2 diabetes. We aimed to describe the association between type 1 diabetes and cancer incidence. Persons with type 1 diabetes were identified from five nationwide diabetes registers: Australia (2000-2008), Denmark (1995-2014), Finland (1972-2012), Scotland (1995-2012) and Sweden (1987-2012). Linkage to national cancer registries provided the numbers of incident cancers in people with type 1 diabetes and in the general population. We used Poisson models with adjustment for age and date of follow up to estimate hazard ratios for total and site-specific cancers. A total of 9,149 cancers occurred among persons with type 1 diabetes in 3.9 million person-years. The median age at cancer diagnosis was 51.1 years (interquartile range 43.5-59.5). The hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CIs) associated with type 1 diabetes for all cancers combined were 1.01 (0.98, 1.04) among men and 1.07 (1.04, 1.10) among women. HRs were increased for cancer of the stomach (men, HR 1.23 [1.04, 1.46]; women, HR 1.78 [1.49, 2.13]), liver (men, HR 2.00 [1.67, 2.40]; women, HR 1.55 [1.14, 2.10]), pancreas (men, HR 1.53 [1.30, 1.79]; women, HR 1.25 [1.02,1.53]), endometrium (HR 1.42 [1.27, 1.58]) and kidney (men, HR 1.30 [1.12, 1.49]; women, HR 1.47 [1.23, 1.77]). Reduced HRs were found for cancer of the prostate (HR 0.56 [0.51, 0.61]) and breast (HR 0.90 [0.85, 0.94]). HRs declined with increasing diabetes duration. Type 1 diabetes was associated with differences in the risk of several common cancers; the strength of these associations varied with the duration of diabetes.
  • Purmonen, Timo; Puolakka, Kari; Mishra, Dinesh; Gunda, Praveen; Martikainen, Janne (2019)
    Aim: This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of secukinumab vs currently licensed biologics for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) from the Finnish health care system perspective. Methods: A semi-Markov model compared secukinumab with adalimumab, adalimumab biosimilar, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, etanercept biosimilar, golimumab, and infliximab in a biologic-naive population over a lifetime horizon. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) was used to assess the treatment response. Efficacy inputs were obtained from the network meta-analysis, and other model inputs were obtained from the published literature and Finnish sources. Main study outcomes included quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in terms of cost per QALY gained. Robustness of results was confirmed by sensitivity analyses and alternative scenario analyses. Results: Secukinumab achieved highest QALYs (13.1) at lowest expected lifetime cost (ss279,872) vs other comparators in biologic-naive AS patients in the base case analysis, thus it dominated other biologics. Golimumab had a second highest QALYs (12.9) at the total cost of ss309,551. Results were sensitive to variation in BASDAI 50 response for secukinumab, baseline Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) score across all drugs, change in BASDAI and BASFI scores, and discount rates as observed in the one-way sensitivity analyses. Secukinumab was either dominant or cost-effective treatment in different alternative scenarios. Conclusion: Secukinumab presented itself to be the dominant (ie, less costly and more effective) treatment vs other comparators for the biologic-naive patients with AS in Finland.
  • Tähkäpää, Sanna-Mari; Saastamoinen, Leena; Airaksinen, Marja; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Aalto-Setälä, Terhi; Kurko, Terhi (2018)
    Objective: Patterns of benzodiazepine (BZD) use and long-term use among young adults are not well known. Our aim was to study trends in BZD use and long-term use among 18-25-year-old young adults by gender and active substance in a nationwide retrospective longitudinal register-based setting. Methods: All Finns aged 18-25 years with reimbursed purchases of BZDs in 2006-2014 recorded to the Finnish Prescription Register were included. Annual prevalence rates of BZD use and long-term use among young adults were reported overall, according to gender, drug group (anxiolytic or hypnotic), and active substance. Long-term use of BZDs was defined as purchasing 180 Defined Daily Doses (DDDs) in at least two drug purchases during a calendar year. Results: Overall prevalence of BZD use among young adults decreased from 24.0 to 18.8 users per 1000 inhabitants in 2006-2014. Prevalence of long-term use decreased from 5.5 to 3.3 users per 1000 inhabitants. Overall BZD use was higher among females, whereas long-term use was more common among males. Use of anxiolytics was more common than use of hypnotics. Oxazepam, alprazolam, zopiclone, and zolpidem were the most used BZDs, whereas alprazolam and clonazepam were the substances with most long-term use. The use and long-term use of BZDs have decreased annually since 2008 among Finnish young adults. Further research is needed to investigate the reasons behind the decline.
  • Airaksinen, Jaakko Matias; Jokela, Markus Mikael; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Koskenvuo, Markku Juhani; Kawachi, Ichiro; Betty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika Juhani (2017)
    Work disability affects quality of life, earnings, and opportunities to contribute to society. Work characteristics, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors have been associated with the risk of work disability, but few multifactorial algorithms exist to identify individuals at risk of future work disability. We developed and validated a parsimonious multifactorial score for the prediction of work disability using individual-level data from 65,775 public-sector employees (development cohort) and 13,527 employed adults from a general population sample (validation cohort), both linked to records of work disability. Candidate predictors for work disability included sociodemographic (3 items), health status and lifestyle (38 items), and work-related (43 items) variables. A parsimonious model, explaining > 99% of the variance of the full model, comprised 8 predictors: age, self-rated health, number of sickness absences in previous year, socioeconomic position, chronic illnesses, sleep problems, body mass index, and smoking. Discriminative ability of a score including these predictors was high: C-index 0.84 in the development and 0.83 in the validation cohort. The corresponding C-indices for a score constructed from work-related predictors (age, sex, socioeconomic position, job strain) were 0.79 and 0.78, respectively. It is possible to identify reliably individuals at high risk of work disability by using a rapidly-administered prediction score.
  • Bronsveld, Heleen K.; Jensen, Vibeke; Vahl, Pernille; De Bruin, Marie L.; Cornelissen, Sten; Sanders, Joyce; Auvinen, Anssi; Haukka, Jari; Andersee, Morten; Vestergaard, Peter; Schmidt, Marjanka K. (2017)
    Background Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes. Methods and Findings This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (50 years), women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories) to women without diabetes, to select similar to 300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR), HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211) and women without diabetes (n = 101), irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%C1:1.07-5.55)), HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%C1:1.11-7.22)), and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%C1:1.03-9.60) tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95`)/X1:0.95-6.45)) and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67) tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general. Conclusions We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes, treated with or without insulin, develop different breast cancer subtypes than women without diabetes. However, premenopausal women with diabetes tended to develop breast tumors that do not express hormonal receptors, which are typically associated with poor prognosis.
  • Tormalehto, Soili; Aarnio, Emma; Mononen, Mika E.; Arokoski, Jari P. A.; Korhonen, Rami K.; Martikainen, Janne A. (2019)
    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) worsens health-related quality of life (HRQoL) but the symptom pathway varies from person to person. We aimed to identify groups of people with knee OA or at its increased risk whose HRQoL changed similarly. Our secondary aim was to evaluate if patient-related characteristics, incidence of knee replacement (KR) and prevalence of pain medication use differed between the identified HRQoL trajectory groups. Methods Eight-year follow-up data of 3053 persons with mild knee OA or at increased risk were obtained from the public Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) database. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify patterns of experiencing a decrease of >= 10 points (Minimal Important Change, MIC) in the Quality of Life subscale of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score compared to baseline. Multinomial logistic regression, Cox regression and generalized estimating equation models were used to study secondary aims. Results Four HRQoL trajectory groups were identified. Persons in the 'no change' group (62.9%) experienced no worsening in HRQoL. 'Rapidly' (9.5%) and 'slowly' worsening (17.1%) groups displayed an increasing probability of experiencing the MIC in HRQoL. The fourth group (10.4%) had 'improving' HRQoL. Female gender, higher body mass index, smoking, knee pain, and lower income at baseline were associated with belonging to the 'rapidly worsening' group. People in 'rapidly' (hazard ratio (HR) 6.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6-10.7) and 'slowly' worsening (HR 3.4, 95% CI 2.0-5.9) groups had an increased risk of requiring knee replacement. Pain medication was more rarely used in the 'no change' than in the other groups. Conclusions HRQoL worsening was associated with several risk factors; surgical and pharmacological interventions were more common in the poorer HRQoL trajectory groups indicating that HRQoL does reflect the need for OA treatment. These findings may have implications for targeting interventions to specific knee OA patient groups.
  • Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Arends, Lidia R.; Alsaker, Elin; Chappell, Lucy; Hansson, Stefan; Harsem, Nina K.; Jalmby, Maya; Jeyabalan, Arundhathi; Laivuori, Hannele; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Magnus, Per; Myers, Jenny; Olsen, Jorn; Poston, Lucilla; Redman, Christopher W.; Staff, Anne C.; Villa, Pia; Roberts, James M.; Steegers, Eric A.; Global Pregnancy Collaboration (Oxford University Press, 2017)
    Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a major pregnancy disorder complicating up to 8% of pregnancies. Increasing evidence indicates a sex-specific interplay between the mother,placenta and fetus. This may lead to different adaptive mechanisms during pregnancy. Methods: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis to determine associations of fetal sex and PE, with specific focus on gestational age at delivery in PE. This was done on 219 575 independent live-born singleton pregnancies, with a gestational age at birth between 22.0 and 43.0 weeks of gestation, from 11 studies participating in a worldwide consortium of international research groups focusing on pregnancy. Results: Of the women, 9033 (4.1%) experienced PE in their pregnancy and 48.8% of the fetuses were female versus 51.2% male. No differences in the female/male distribution were observed with respect to term PE (delivered >= 37 weeks). Preterm PE (delivered <37 weeks) was slightly more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus than in pregnancies with a male fetus [odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.21]. Very preterm PE (delivered <34 weeks) was even more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus as compared with pregnancies with a male fetus (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.17-1.59). Conclusions: Sexual dimorphic differences in the occurrence of PE exist, with preterm PE being more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus as compared with pregnancies with a male fetus and with no differences with respect to term PE.
  • Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Arends, Lidia R.; Alsaker, Elin; Chappell, Lucy; Hansson, Stefan; Harsem, Nina K.; Jalmby, Maya; Jeyabalan, Arundhathi; Laivuori, Hannele; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Magnus, Per; Myers, Jenny; Olsen, Jorn; Poston, Lucilla; Redman, Christopher W.; Staff, Anne C.; Villa, Pia; Roberts, James M.; Steegers, Eric A.; Global Pregnancy Collaboration (2017)
    Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a major pregnancy disorder complicating up to 8% of pregnancies. Increasing evidence indicates a sex-specific interplay between the mother,placenta and fetus. This may lead to different adaptive mechanisms during pregnancy. Methods: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis to determine associations of fetal sex and PE, with specific focus on gestational age at delivery in PE. This was done on 219 575 independent live-born singleton pregnancies, with a gestational age at birth between 22.0 and 43.0 weeks of gestation, from 11 studies participating in a worldwide consortium of international research groups focusing on pregnancy. Results: Of the women, 9033 (4.1%) experienced PE in their pregnancy and 48.8% of the fetuses were female versus 51.2% male. No differences in the female/male distribution were observed with respect to term PE (delivered >= 37 weeks). Preterm PE (delivered <37 weeks) was slightly more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus than in pregnancies with a male fetus [odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.21]. Very preterm PE (delivered <34 weeks) was even more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus as compared with pregnancies with a male fetus (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.17-1.59). Conclusions: Sexual dimorphic differences in the occurrence of PE exist, with preterm PE being more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus as compared with pregnancies with a male fetus and with no differences with respect to term PE.
  • Keikkala, Elina; Koskinen, Sini; Vuorela, Piia; Laivuori, Hannele; Romppanen, Jarkko; Heinonen, Seppo; Stenman, Ulf-Hakan (2016)
    Background: To study whether maternal serum hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-h) improves first trimester prediction of pre-eclampsia when combined with placental growth factor (PlGF), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and maternal risk factors. Methods: Gestational-age-adjusted concentrations of hCG, hCG-h, PlGF and PAPP-A were analysed in serum samples by time-resolved immunofluorometric assays at 8-13 weeks of gestation. The case-control study included 98 women who developed pre-eclampsia, 25 who developed gestational hypertension, 41 normotensive women with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and 177 controls. Results: Of 98 women with pre-eclampsia, 24 women developed preterm pre-eclampsia (diagnosis <37 weeks of gestation) and 13 of them had early-onset pre-eclampsia (diagnosis <34 weeks of gestation). They had lower concentrations of PlGF, PAPP-A and proportion of hCG-h to hCG (% hCG-h) than controls. In receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for the combination of PlGF, PAPP-A, % hCG-h, nulliparity and mean arterial blood pressure was 0.805 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.699-0.912) for preterm pre-eclampsia and 0.870 (95% CI 0.750-0.988) for early-onset pre-eclampsia. Without % hCG-h the AUC values were 0.756 (95% CI 0.651-0.861) and 0.810 (95% CI 0.682-0.938) respectively. For prediction of gestational hypertension, the AUC for % hCG-h was 0.708 (95% CI 0.608-0.808), but for other markers the AUC values were not significant. None of the AUC values were significant for the prediction of SGA infants in normotensive women. Conclusions: First trimester maternal serum % hCG-h tended to improve prediction of preterm and early-onset pre-eclampsia when combined with PlGF, PAPP-A and maternal risk factors.
  • Somersalo, Axel; Paloneva, Juha; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lonnroos, Eija; Heinanen, Mikko; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2016)
    Background and purpose The association between mortality and lower extremity fractures (other than hip fractures in older individuals) is unclear. We therefore investigated mortality in adults of all ages after lower extremity fractures that required inpatient care.Patients and methods Diagnosis code (ICD10), procedure code (NOMESCO), and 7 additional characteristics of patients admitted to the trauma ward at Central Finland Hospital were collected between 2002 and 2008 (n = 3,567). Patients were followed up until the end of 2012. Mortality rates were calculated for patients with all types of lower extremity fractures using data from the population at risk.Results During the study, 2,081 women and 1,486 men sustained a lower extremity fracture. By the end of follow-up (mean duration 5 years), 42% of the women and 32% of the men had died. For all lower extremity fractures, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.8-2.0) for women and 2.6 (CI: 2.4-2.9) for men. In patients aged 65 years, mortality was increased and of similar magnitude after fractures of the hip, femoral diaphysis, and knee (distal femur, patella, and proximal tibia). In patients aged
  • Malm, Heli; Artama, Miia; Brown, Alan S.; Gissler, Mika; Gyllenberg, David; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian; Sourander, Andre (2012)
  • Piekkala, Maija; Hagström, Jaana; Tanskanen, Maarit; Rintala, Risto; Haglund, Caj; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2013)
  • Barclay, Kieron; Myrskyla, Mikko (2018)
    As parental ages at birth continue to rise, concerns about the effects of fertility postponement on offspring are increasing. Due to reproductive ageing, advanced parental ages have been associated with negative health outcomes for offspring, including decreased longevity. The literature, however, has neglected to examine the potential benefits of being born at a later date. Secular declines in mortality mean that later birth cohorts are living longer. We analyse mortality over ages 30-74 among 1.9 million Swedish men and women born 1938-60, and use a sibling comparison design that accounts for all time-invariant factors shared by the siblings. When incorporating cohort improvements in mortality, we find that those born to older mothers do not suffer any significant mortality disadvantage, and that those born to older fathers have lower mortality. These findings are likely to be explained by secular declines in mortality counterbalancing the negative effects of reproductive ageing.
  • Weismueller, Tobias J.; Trivedi, Palak J.; Bergquist, Annika; Imam, Mohamad; Lenzen, Henrike; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Holm, Kristian; Gotthardt, Daniel; Färkkilä, Martti; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Thorburn, Douglas; Weersma, Rinse K.; Fevery, Johan; Mueller, Tobias; Chazouilleres, Olivier; Schulze, Kornelius; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Almer, Sven; Pereira, Stephen P.; Levy, Cynthia; Mason, Andrew; Naess, Sigrid; Bowlus, Christopher L.; Floreani, Annarosa; Halilbasic, Emina; Yimam, Kidist K.; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Beuers, Ulrich; Huynh, Dep K.; Pares, Albert; Manser, Christine N.; Dalekos, George N.; Eksteen, Bertus; Invernizzi, Pietro; Berg, Christoph P.; Kirchner, Gabi I.; Sarrazin, Christoph; Zimmer, Vincent; Fabris, Luca; Braun, Felix; Marzioni, Marco; Juran, Brian D.; Said, Karouk; Rupp, Christian; Jokelainen, Kalle; de Valle, Maria Benito; Saffioti, Francesca; Cheung, Angela; Trauner, Michael; Schramm, Christoph; Int PSC Study Grp (2017)
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an orphan hepatobiliary disorder associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to estimate the risk of disease progression based on distinct clinical phenotypes in a large international cohort of patients with PSC. METHODS: We performed a retrospective outcome analysis of patients diagnosed with PSC from 1980 through 2010 at 37 centers in Europe, North America, and Australia. For each patient, we collected data on sex, clinician-reported age at and date of PSC and IBD diagnoses, phenotypes of IBD and PSC, and date and indication of IBD-related surgeries. The primary and secondary endpoints were liver transplantation or death (LTD) and hepatopancreatobiliary malignancy, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to determine the effects of individual covariates on rates of clinical events, with time-to-event analysis ascertained through Kaplan-Meier estimates. RESULTS: Of the 7121 patients in the cohort, 2616 met the primary endpoint (median time to event of 14.5 years) and 721 developed hepatopancreatobiliary malignancy. The most common malignancy was cholangiocarcinoma (n = 594); patients of advanced age at diagnosis had an increased incidence compared with younger patients (incidence rate: 1.2 per 100 patient-years for patients younger than 20 years old, 6.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 21-30 years old, 9.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 31-40 years old, 14.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 4150 years old, 15.2 per 100 patient-years for patients 51-60 years old, and 21.0 per 100 patient-years for patients older than 60 years). Of all patients with PSC studied, 65.5% were men, 89.8% had classical or large-duct disease, and 70.0% developed IBD at some point. Assessing the development of IBD as a time-dependent covariate, Crohn's disease and no IBD (both vs ulcerative colitis) were associated with a lower risk of LTD (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.62; P
  • d'Errico, Angelo; Ricceri, Fulvio; Stringhini, Silvia; Carmeli, Cristian; Kivimaki, Mika; Bartley, Mel; McCrory, Cathal; Bochud, Murielle; Vollenweider, Peter; Tumino, Rosario; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Barros, Henrique; Giles, Graham; Severi, Gianluca; Costa, Giuseppe; Vineis, Paolo; LIFEPATH Consortium (2017)
    Background Several social indicators have been used in epidemiological research to describe socioeconomic position (SEP) of people in societies. Among SEP indicators, those more frequently used are education, occupational class and income. Differences in the incidence of several health outcomes have been reported consistently, independently from the indicator employed. Main objectives of the study were to present the socioeconomic classifications of the social indicators which will be employed throughout the LIFEPATH project and to compare social gradients in all-cause mortality observed in the participating adult cohorts using the different SEP indicators. Methods Information on the available social indicators (education, own and father's occupational class, income) from eleven adult cohorts participating in LIFEPATH was collected and harmonized. Mortality by SEP for each indicator was estimated by Poisson regression on each cohort and then evaluated using a meta-analytical approach. Results In the meta-analysis, among men mortality was significantly inversely associated with both occupational class and education, but not with father's occupational class; among women, the increase in mortality in lower social strata was smaller than among men and, except for a slight increase in the lowest education category, no significant differences were found. Conclusions Among men, the proposed three-level classifications of occupational class and education were found to predict differences in mortality which is consistent with previous research. Results on women suggest that classifying them through their sole SEP, without considering that of their partners, may imply a misclassification of their social position leading to attenuation of mortality differences.
  • Aula, Hanna; Skyttä, Tanja; Tuohinen, Suvi; Luukkaala, Tiina; Hämäläinen, Mari; Virtanen, Vesa; Raatikainen, Pekka; Moilanen, Eeva; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa (2020)
    Objectives: To search for biomarkers of RT-induced cardiotoxicity, we studied the behavior of ST2 during RT and three years after RT, and the associations with echocardiographic changes. Materials and methods: We measured soluble ST2 (ng/ml) in serum samples from 63 patients receiving RT for early breast cancer. Sampling and echocardiography were performed at baseline, after RT and at the three-year follow-up. Patients were grouped by >15% (group 1) and Results: ST2 levels tended to increase during RT, from a median (interquartile range; IQR) of 17.9 (12.4 - 22.4) at baseline to 18.2 (14.1-23.5) after RT (p = 0.075). By the three-year follow up, ST2 levels increased to 18.7 (15.8-24.2), p = 0.018. The increase in ST2 level was associated with worsening cardiac systolic function at three-year follow-up, GLS (rho = 0.272, p = 0.034) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (rho = -0.343, p = 0.006). Group 1 (n = 14) had a significant increase in ST2 levels from 17.8 (12.3-22.5) at baseline to 18.4 (15.6-22.6) after RT, p = 0.035 and to 19.9 (16.0-25.1) three years after RT, p = 0.005. ST2 levels were stable in group 2 (n = 47): 17.8 (12.3-22.0) at baseline, 17.7 (12.6-23.5) after RT and 18.0 (15.5-22.4) at three years. Conclusion: ST2 may be useful for determining which patients are at risk for long-term cardiovascular toxicity following adjuvant breast cancer RT, but prospective clinical studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd.