Browsing by Subject "POPULATION-DYNAMICS"

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  • Ovaskainen, Otso; Somervuo, Panu; Finkelshtein, Dmitri (2020)
    Agent-based models are used to study complex phenomena in many fields of science. While simulating agent-based models is often straightforward, predicting their behaviour mathematically has remained a key challenge. Recently developed mathematical methods allow the prediction of the emerging spatial patterns for a general class of agent-based models, whereas the prediction of spatio-temporal pattern has been thus far achieved only for special cases. We present a general and mathematically rigorous methodology that allows deriving the spatio-temporal correlation structure for a general class of individual-based models. To do so, we define an auxiliary model, in which each agent type of the primary model expands to three types, called the original, the past and the new agents. In this way, the auxiliary model keeps track of both the initial and current state of the primary model, and hence the spatio-temporal correlations of the primary model can be derived from the spatial correlations of the auxiliary model. We illustrate the agreement between analytical predictions and agent-based simulations using two example models from theoretical ecology. In particular, we show that the methodology is able to correctly predict the dynamical behaviour of a host-parasite model that shows spatially localized oscillations.
  • Holopainen, Sari; Christensen, Thomas Kjaer; Pöysä, Hannu; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Rintala, Jukka; Fox, Anthony D. (2018)
    Ducks are important game species, hunted in several countries throughout their annual cycle. We investigated whether the size of the annual duck harvest in Finland and Denmark reflected annual reproductive output in three common quarry duck species. Finland represents an important breeding area and Denmark important staging/wintering grounds for common teal (Anas crecca), Eurasian wigeon (Mareca penelope) and common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula). We assessed whether (i) annual duck harvest in these two countries correlated with variation in Finnish reproductive output or adult population size during 1990-2016 and (ii) variation in reproductive output of Finnish ducks was reflected in the juvenile ratios of birds harvested in Finland (2005-2007, 2014-2016) or Denmark (1990-2016). We hypothesised that variation in Finnish reproductive output would positively affect the size and juvenile ratio of the harvest, and that this effect would be stronger closer to the breeding grounds. Our data showed that the annual harvest of goldeneye in Finland was positively correlated with reproductive output, a desirable basis for applying sustainable management to this species. Teal and wigeon have much longer, more complex flyways, and their harvest did not mirror the annual production of young, although the wigeon harvest in Denmark increased with increasing juvenile ratio there. For these populations, we need to better define population units if we are to be able to assess harvest sustainability. We urgently need to monitor duck breeding success and harvest at larger spatial scales to support a comprehensive analysis of how well the harvest reflects reproductive output.
  • Kiljunen, Mikko; Peltonen, Heikki; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Uusitalo, Laura; Sinisalo, Tuula; Norkko, Joanna; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Torniainen, Jyrki; Rissanen, Antti J.; Karjalainen, Juha (2020)
    Understanding marine ecosystem structure and functioning is crucial in supporting sustainable management of natural resources and monitoring the health of marine ecosystems. The current study utilized stable isotope (SI) mixing models and trophic position models to examine energy flow, trophic relationships, and benthic-pelagic coupling between food web components. Roughly 1900 samples from different trophic levels in the food web, collected during 2001-2010 from four northern and central sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, were analyzed for SI ratios of carbon and nitrogen. Trophic structure of the food webs among the sub-basins was consistent, but there were differences between the proportions of energy in different trophic levels that had originated from the benthic habitat. Mysids and amphipods served as important links between the benthic and pelagic ecosystems. Much (35-65%) of their energy originated from the benthic zone but was transferred to higher trophic levels in the pelagic food web by consumption by herring (Clupea harengus). One percent to twenty-four percent of the energy consumption of apex seal predators (Halichoerus grypus and Pusa hispida) and predatory fish (Salmo salar) was derived from benthic zone. Diets of mysids and amphipods differed, although some overlap in their dietary niches was observed. The food web in the Gulf of Finland was more influenced by the benthic subsystem than food webs in the other sub-basins. The baseline levels of delta C-13 and delta N-15 differed between sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, indicating differences in the input of organic matter and nutrients to each sub-basin.
  • Tiainen, Juha; Hyvönen, Terho; Hagner, Marleena; Huusela-Veistola, Erja; Louhi, Pauliina; Miettinen, Antti; Nieminen, Tiina M.; Palojärvi, Ansa; Seimola, Tuomas; Taimisto, Pauliina; Virkajärvi, Perttu (2020)
    Biodiversity degradation is a national and global problem which is interconnected with land use and climate change. All these are major unsolved questions and their interactions are only partly understood. Agriculture and especially cattle farming is under keen societal focus because of its significant role in soil carbon losses, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and biodiversity preservation. We reviewed the Finnish scientific literature to assess the impact of intensive contra extensive grass production on biodiversity using vascular plants, vertebrates, invertebrates and soil biota. Still a few decades ago, mixed farming was prevailing almost everywhere in Finland, but nowadays cereal production is essentially clustered in the southwest and milk and beef production in the northeast. This is reflected in the distribution of intensive (connected with cattle) and extensive grasslands (both types of farming). The bird community was most abundant and species rich in farmland which provides small fields in large blocks of farmland and many kinds of crops, including both intensive and extensive grasslands. Overall permanent grasslands with rather simply vegetation diversity can maintain a diverse community of spiders and leafhoppers, and act as overwintering habitat for polyphagous predators in field ecosystems. The ecological requirement of all species and species groups are probably never met at one site and consequently target should be in having differently managed areas at regional scale. For some of the taxa, ecosystem services could be indicated, but a research-based quantitative assessment is available only for carbon sequestration and weak impact of dung-beetles in diminishing GHG emissions from cow pats. Our review demonstrated that quite much is known about biodiversity in extensively managed grasslands, but very little in intensively managed grasslands. An important question is whether there is some threshold for the proportion of grasslands under which regional biodiversity will be reduced. Intensive production offers limited value to replace the high biodiversity value of semi-natural pastures.
  • Xie, Long; Lehvavirta, Susanna; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2020)
    Vegetated roofs, often called "green roofs", are popular and necessary in urban greening in densely populated areas. Well-functioning vegetated roofs can provide various ecosystem services to urban residents (e.g., stormwater management, air pollution mitigation, and aesthetic value). Plants essentially determine the actualization of the ecosystem services, thus finding effective ways to establish and maintain the roof plants is important. While greenhouse experiments can be better controlled than field experiments, it is critical to test whether results gained in the greenhouse hold in actual roof conditions. Therefore, we investigated the effects of microbial inoculant, plant species, planting method, and their interactions on plant growth and the beneficial microbes in the roof substrate at the initial establishment of vegetated roofs. The selected plants (i.e., Antennaria dioica, Campanula rotundifolia, Fragaria vesca, Geranium sanguineum, Lotus corniculatus, Thymus serpyllum, Trifolium repens, and Viola tricolor) were established using pre-grown vegetation mats, plug plants, and seeds, each with and without the co-inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, two plant growth-promoting microbial species. Eventually, only F. vesca, T. serpyllum, T. repens, and V. tricolor were found successfully settled in either of the three planting methods. Dry aboveground plant biomass was measured to assess the effects of co-inoculation on plant growth. R. irregularis colonization level and B. amyloliquefaciens bacterial density were detected from root and substrate samples, respectively. The results indicated that co-inoculation with R. irregularis and B. amyloliquefaciens successfully colonized target plant species and significantly increased the initial growth of the vegetated roof plants by 18-292%. Additionally, the abundance of R. irregularis was affected by plant species (F. vesca > T. serpyllum > T. repens) and planting methods (seed > plug > mat), while the bacterial density of B. amyloliquefaciens was higher in T. repens roots than the other plant species, and was not affected by planning methods. The results suggest that co-inoculating R. irregularis and B. amyloliquefaciens at the installation phase of vegetated roofs could improve microbial settlement and colonization in the substrate, and consequently achieve synergistic effect on plant growth. The study also provides basis and reference for future vegetated roofs research.
  • Ribas Salvador, Alexis; Guivier, Emmanuel; Xuereb, Anne; Chaval, Yannick; Cadet, Patrice; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Henttonen, Heikki; Cosson, Jean-Francois; Charbonnel, Nathalie (2011)
  • Cotter, S. C.; Pincheira-Donoso, D.; Thorogood, R. (2019)
    Parasitic interactions are so ubiquitous that all multicellular organisms have evolved a system of defences to reduce their costs, whether the parasites they encounter are the “classic parasites” that feed on the individual, or “brood parasites” that usurp parental care. Many parallels have been drawn between defences deployed against both types of parasite, but typically, whilst defences against classic parasites have been selected to protect survival, those against brood parasites have been selected to protect the parent’s inclusive fitness, suggesting that the selection pressures they impose are fundamentally different. However, there is another class of defences against classic parasites that have specifically been selected to protect an individual’s inclusive fitness, known as “social immunity”. Social immune responses include the anti-parasite defences typically provided for others in kin-structured groups, such as the antifungal secretions produced by termite workers to protect the brood. Defences against brood parasites, therefore, are more closely aligned with social immune responses. Much like social immunity, host defences against brood parasitism are employed by a donor (a parent) for the benefit of one or more recipients (typically kin), and as with social defences against classic parasites, defences have therefore evolved to protect the donor’s inclusive fitness, not the survival or ultimately the fitness of individual recipients This can lead to severe conflicts between the different parties, whose interests are not always aligned. Here we consider defences against brood parasitism in the light of social immunity, at different stages of parasite encounter, addressing where conflicts occur and how they might be resolved. We finish with considering how this approach could help us to address longstanding questions in our understanding of brood parasitism.
  • Vatka, Emma; Orell, Markku; Rytkönen, Seppo; Merilä, Juha (2021)
    Many populations need to adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as warming climate. Changing conditions generate directional selection for traits critical for fitness. For evolutionary responses to occur, these traits need to be heritable. However, changes in environmental conditions can alter the amount of heritable variation a population expresses, making predictions about expected responses difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ambient temperatures on evolutionary potential and strength of natural selection on the timing of reproduction in two passerine birds breeding in boreal forests. Long-term data on individually marked Willow Tits Poecile montanus (1975-2018) and Great Tits Parus major (1969-2018) were analysed with random regression animal models to assess if spring temperatures affect the expressed amount of additive genetic variation (V-A) and heritability (h(2)) in the timing of breeding. We assessed if ambient temperatures of different seasons influenced the direction and strength of selection on breeding time. We also evaluated if the strength of selection covaried with evolutionary potential. Levels of V-A or h(2) expressed in laying date were unaffected by spring temperatures in both study species. Selection for earlier breeding was found in the Willow Tit, but not in the Great Tit. In the Willow Tit, selection for earlier breeding was more intense when the temperatures of following autumns and winters were low. Different measures of evolutionary potential did not covary strongly with the strength of selection in either species. We conclude that there is no or little evidence that climate warming would either constrain or promote evolutionary potential in timing of breeding through changes in amount of genetic variance expressed in boreal Willow and Great Tits. However, selection on the timing of breeding, a life-history event taking place in springtime, is regulated by temperatures of autumns and winters. Rapid warming of these periods have thus potential to reduce the rate of expected evolutionary response in reproductive timing.
  • Dallas, Tad A.; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Ovaskainen, Otso (2021)
    The spatial arrangement of habitat patches in a metapopulation and the dispersal connections among them influence metapopulation persistence. Metapopulation persistence emerges from a dynamic process, namely the serial extinctions and recolonizations of local habitat patches, while measures of persistence are typically based solely on structural properties of the spatial network (e.g., spatial distance between sites). Persistence estimators based on static properties may be unable to capture the dynamic nature of persistence. Understanding the shape of the distribution of extinction times is a central goal in population ecology. Here, we examine the goodness of fit of the power law to patch persistence time distributions using data on a foundational metapopulation system-the Glanville fritillary butterfly in the angstrom land islands. Further, we address the relationship between structural measures of metapopulation persistence (i.e., metapopulation capacity) and our temporal distributional fits to patch persistence times based on a power law. Patch persistence time distributions were well fit by a power law for the majority of semi-independent networks. Power law fits to persistence time distributions were related to metapopulation capacity, linking structural and temporal measures of metapopulation persistence. Several environmental variables and measures of network topology were correlated with both measures of metapopulation persistence, though correlations tended to be stronger for the structural measure of metapopulation persistence (i.e., metapopulation capacity). Together, our findings suggest that persistence time distributions are useful dynamic properties of metapopulations, and provide evidence of a relationship between metapopulation structure and metapopulation dynamics.
  • Buechley, Evan R.; Santangeli, Andrea; Girardello, Marco; Neate-Clegg, Montague H.C.; Oleyar, Dave; McClure, Christopher J.W.; Şekercioğlu, Çagan H. (2019)
    Abstract Aim Raptors serve critical ecological functions, are particularly extinction-prone and are often used as environmental indicators and flagship species. Yet, there is no global framework to prioritize research and conservation actions on them. We identify for the first time the factors driving extinction risk and scientific attention on raptors and develop a novel research and conservation priority index (RCPI) to identify global research and conservation priorities. Location Global. Methods We use random forest models based on ecological traits and extrinsic data to identify the drivers of risk and scientific attention in all raptors. We then map global research and conservation priorities. Lastly, we model where priorities fall relative to country-level human social indicators. Results Raptors with small geographic ranges, scavengers, forest-dependent species and those with slow life histories are particularly extinction-prone. Research is extremely biased towards a small fraction of raptor species: 10 species (1.8% of all raptors) account for one-third of all research, while one-fifth of species have no publications. Species with small geographic ranges and those inhabiting less developed countries are greatly understudied. Regions of Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia are identified as particularly high priority for raptor research and conservation. These priorities are highly concentrated in developing countries, indicating a global mismatch between priorities and capacity for research and conservation. Main conclusions A redistribution of scientific attention and conservation efforts towards developing tropical countries and the least-studied, extinction-prone species is critical to conserve raptors and their ecological functions worldwide. We identify clear taxonomic and geographic research and conservation priorities for all raptors, and our methodology can be applied across other taxa to prioritize scientific investment.
  • Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Aikio, Sami; Luukkonen, Aappo; Koivula, Kari (2016)
    The effect of habitat management is commonly evaluated by measuring population growth, which does not distinguish changes in reproductive success from changes in survival or the effects of immigration or emigration. Management has rarely been evaluated considering complete life cycle of the target organisms, including also possible negative impacts from management. We evaluated the effectiveness of cattle grazing in the restoration of coastal meadows as a breeding habitat for small and medium-sized ground-nesting birds by examining the size and demography of a southern dunlin (Calidris alpina schinzii) breeding population. Using a stochastic renesting model that includes within-season variation in breeding parameters, we evaluated the effect of grazing time and stocking rates on reproduction. The census data indicated that the population was stable when nest trampling was prevented, but detailed demographic models showed that the population on managed meadows was a sink that persisted by attracting immigrants. Even small reductions in reproductive success caused by trampling were detrimental to long-term viability. We suggest that the best management strategy is to postpone grazing to after the 19th of June, which is about three weeks later than what is optimal from the farmer's point of view. The differing results from the two evaluation approaches warn against planning and evaluating management only based on census population size and highlight the need to consider target-specific life history characteristics and demography. Even though grazing management is crucial for creating and maintaining suitable habitats, we found that it was insufficient in maintaining a viable population without additional measures that increase nest success. In the presently studied case and in populations with similar breeding cycles, impacts from nest trampling can be avoided by starting grazing when about 70% of the breeding season has past.
  • Opedal, Oystein H.; Ovaskainen, Otso; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Nouhuys, Saskya (2020)
    The dynamics of ecological communities depend partly on species interactions within and among trophic levels. Experimental work has demonstrated the impact of species interactions on the species involved, but it remains unclear whether these effects can also be detected in long-term time series across heterogeneous landscapes. We analyzed a 19-year time series of patch occupancy by the Glanville fritillary butterflyMelitaea cinxia, its specialist parasitoid waspCotesia melitaearum, and the specialist fungal pathogenPodosphaera plantaginisinfectingPlantago lanceolata,a host plant of the Glanville fritillary. These species share a network of more than 4,000 habitat patches in the angstrom land islands, providing a metacommunity data set of unique spatial and temporal resolution. To assess the influence of interactions among the butterfly, parasitoid, and mildew on metacommunity dynamics, we modeled local colonization and extinction rates of each species while including or excluding the presence of potentially interacting species in the previous year as predictors. The metapopulation dynamics of all focal species varied both along a gradient in host plant abundance, and spatially as indicated by strong effects of local connectivity. Colonization and to a lesser extent extinction rates depended also on the presence of interacting species within patches. However, the directions of most effects differed from expectations based on previous experimental and modeling work, and the inferred influence of species interactions on observed metacommunity dynamics was limited. These results suggest that although local interactions among the butterfly, parasitoid, and mildew occur, their roles in metacommunity spatiotemporal dynamics are relatively weak. Instead, all species respond to variation in plant abundance, which may in turn fluctuate in response to variation in climate, land use, or other environmental factors.
  • Tallavaara, Miikka; Pesonen, Petro (2020)
    High-quality palaeoenvironmental proxies and well-preserved archaeological record make Fennoscandia as an excellent area for the studies of long-term human-environment interaction in high-latitude settings. Here, we use palaeoenvironmental data and temporal frequency distributions of 754 shoreline dated hunter-gatherer sites to analyse the relationship between environmental changes and hunter-gatherer population dynamics, mobility, social organisation, and conflicts in the Baltic Sea coast of western Finland. Our results suggest, firstly, that hunter-gatherer population dynamics were strongly influenced by changes in the productivity of terrestrial and marine environments. Secondly, the degree of residential mobility, as indicated by the frequency of house pit sites, was correlated with population size. Thirdly, large villages and large co-residential units were tightly associated with the highest population size and their frequency dropped sharply when population size started to decrease. Fourthly, intensity of conflicts, as indicated by frequency of defensive structures, was the highest slightly after the highest population sizes, when environmental productivity had started to decline. Increased conflicts were probably caused by the imbalance between human population and its resources. Lastly, dramatic population crash (76% within 200 years) occurred just after the intensity peak in conflicts. The crash was partly density dependent (conflicts) and partly density independent phenomenon as it coincided with the onset of the Late Holocene acceleration in the cooling trend in climate. Continuing decline in the environmental productivity during the Late Holocene did not allow hunter-gatherer population to recover from the collapse. All this highlights the importance of environmental forcing on hunter-gatherer populations in northern Europe.
  • Lappalainen, Jyrki; Malinen, Tommi (2022)
    The density and mean size of 0 + pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) were studied in late summer in 2004-2017 in clay-turbid and eutrophic Lake Tuusulanjarvi in southern Finland. Hydroacoustics and simultaneous experimental trawling were used to estimate the density of 0 + pikeperch. In some autumns, 0 + pikeperch was the most abundant species in the pelagic fish assemblage. However, the annual amplitude of pikeperch density was extremely high (1,300 -19,900 individuals ha(-1)). The density and size variations of 0 + pikeperch were analysed in relation to air temperature sums and degree days. Unexpectedly, the density of 0 + pikeperch showed no correlation with the air temperature sums or degree days, but both the mean length and weight of 0 + pikeperch correlated positively with these temperature variables. The highest correlation coefficients between mean size and temperature were found with temperature sums over 10 degrees C and degree days over 5 degrees C. The correlation between density and condition of 0 + pikeperch was negative but non-significant. The high density of 0 + pikeperch in some autumns suggests that pikeperch may play a central role in the pelagic food web in eutrophic lakes - not only as a predator of planktivores but also by its own planktivory.
  • Song, Mengya; Yu, Lei; Jiang, Yonglei; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2019)
    The stress gradient hypothesis predicts that plant-plant interactions switch between facilitation (positive) and competition (negative) along environmental gradients, with facilitation being more common under high abiotic stress conditions relative to more moderate abiotic stress conditions. Our aim was to reveal, whether the interactions between Populus purdomii Rehder and Salix rehderiana Schneider switch from positive to negative during the early stages of primary succession in the Gongga Mountain glacier retreat region. We also investigated, whether soil age is a major driving factor for the transformation of interactions between neighboring plants. We analyzed differences between intraspecific interactions and interspecific interactions of Populus and Salix under 20- and 40-year-old soil conditions, including plant biomass accumulation and allocation, nutrient absorption and utilization, relative competition intensity, non-structural carbohydrates, foliar carbon and nitrogen isotope composition, mesophyll cell ultrastructure, soil microbial biomass and community structure, extracellular enzyme activities, and soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (TN), soil ammonium (NH4+-N), and soil nitrate (NO3--N) contents. We found that P. purdomii and S. rehderiana growing under interspecific interactions had greater contents of aboveground dry matter, belowground dry matter and total dry matter compared to intraspecific interactions in 20-year-old soil. Furthermore, in 40-year-old soil conditions, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that Populus and Salix exposed to interspecific interactions exhibited lower amounts of gram-positive bacteria, fungi (18,1 omega 9c) and actinomycetes, and lower levels of total PLFAs than those growing under intraspecific interactions. The redundancy analysis (RDA) results demonstrated that soil N was the most important parameter contributing to the composition of microbial communities. In addition, the N-15 stable isotope labeling method showed that Populus and Salix growing under interspecific interactions had higher foliage delta N-15 derived from NO3- (delta N-15-NO3-) than those growing under intraspecific interactions in 20-year-old soil. In summary, our results demonstrated that Populus-Salix interactions exhibited positive effects on survival in 20-year-old soil. Conversely, under 40-year-old soil conditions, Populus-Salix interactions presented negative effects in relation to nutrients and elimination by neighboring plants. Moreover, soil age is a major driving factor for plant-plant interactions that shift from positive to negative with an increasing soil age in the Gongga Mountain glacier forefield. In all, our results support the stress gradient hypothesis. Our findings improve understanding of plant-plant interactions and plant-soil feedbacks during the early stages of soil development, and of the construction of vegetation communities.
  • Kaitala, Veijo; Koivu-Jolma, Mikko; Laakso, Jouni (2021)
    An infective prey has the potential to infect, kill and consume its predator. Such a prey-predator relationship fundamentally differs from the predator-prey interaction because the prey can directly profit from the predator as a growth resource. Here we present a population dynamics model of partial role reversal in the predator-prey interaction of two species, the bottom dwelling marine deposit feeder sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and an important food source for the sea cucumber but potentially infective bacterium Vibrio splendidus. We analyse the effects of different parameters, e.g. infectivity and grazing rate, on the population sizes. We show that relative population sizes of the sea cucumber and V. Splendidus may switch with increasing infectivity. We also show that in the partial role reversal interaction the infective prey may benefit from the presence of the predator such that the population size may exceed the value of the carrying capacity of the prey in the absence of the predator. We also analysed the conditions for species extinction. The extinction of the prey, V. splendidus, may occur when its growth rate is low, or in the absence of infectivity. The extinction of the predator, A. japonicus, may follow if either the infectivity of the prey is high or a moderately infective prey is abundant. We conclude that partial role reversal is an undervalued subject in predator-prey studies.
  • Berardo, Cecilia; Geritz, Stefan; Gyllenberg, Mats; Raoul, Gaël (2020)
    In this paper we introduce a formal method for the derivation of a predator's functional response from a system of fast state transitions of the prey or predator on a time scale during which the total prey and predator densities remain constant. Such derivation permits an explicit interpretation of the structure and parameters of the functional response in terms of individual behaviour. The same method is also used here to derive the corresponding numerical response of the predator as well as of the prey.
  • Woestmann, Luisa; Stucki, Dimitri; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2019)
    Life history strategies often shape biological interactions by specifying the parameters for possible encounters, such as the timing, frequency, or way of exposure to parasites. Consequentially, alterations in life-history strategies are closely intertwined with such interaction processes. Understanding the connection between life-history alterations and host-parasite interactions can therefore be important to unveil potential links between adaptation to environmental change and changes in interaction processes. Here, we studied how two different host-parasite interaction processes, oral and hemocoelic exposure to bacteria, affect various life histories of the Glanville fritillary butterfly Melitaea cinxia. We either fed or injected adult butterflies with the bacterium Micrococcus luteus and observed for differences in immune defenses, reproductive life histories, and longevity, compared to control exposures. Our results indicate differences in how female butterflies adapt to the two exposure types. Orally infected females showed a reduction in clutch size and an earlier onset of reproduction, whereas a reduction in egg weight was observed for hemocoelically exposed females. Both exposure types also led to shorter intervals between clutches and a reduced life span. These results indicate a relationship between host-parasite interactions and changes in life-history strategies. This relationship could cast restrictions on the ability to adapt to new environments and consequentially influence the population dynamics of a species in changing environmental conditions.
  • Vehmaa, Anu; Katajisto, Tarja; Candolin, Ulrika (2018)
    To reconstruct changes in zooplankton communities in response to past anthropogenic perturbations, one possibility is to use the sedimentary records. We analyzed the sediments at a coastal site in the Northern Baltic Sea to relate changes in the zooplankton community to anthropogenic eutrophication and the invasion of a predatory cladoceran, Cercopagis pengoi. We sampled 30-cm laminated sediment cores and dated the sediment layers back to the 1950s. From each 1-cm layer, we measured eutrophication indicators (delta C-13, delta N-15, TC, TN, TP) and identified and counted zooplankton resting eggs (cladoceran, calanoid copepod, rotifer). In addition, we estimated the abundance of the cladoceran Bosmina (Eubosmina) maritima by counting subfossils (carapaces, headshields, and ephippia) and estimated the experienced stress as the relationship between sexual and asexual reproduction. Using redundancy and variance partitioning analyses, we found similar to 16% of the variation in the zooplankton community to be explained by eutrophication, and 24% of the variation in B. (E.) maritima abundance and reproduction mode to be explained by eutrophication and the introduction of the alien predator. Our results show a long-term shift from calanoid copepods and predatory cladocerans toward small-sized zooplankton species, like rotifers. Furthermore, the results indicate that the invasion of C. pengoi induced a short-term increase in sexual reproduction in B. (E.) maritima. The results indicate that anthropogenic eutrophication since the 1950s has altered the zooplankton community toward smaller species, while the invasion of the predatory cladoceran had only a transitory influence on the community during its expansion phase.