Browsing by Subject "PORE-WATER"

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  • Silvonen, Soila; Niemistö, Juha; Csibrán, Adrián; Jilbert, Tom; Torma, Péter; Krámer, Tamás; Nurminen, Leena; Horppila, Jukka (2021)
    Hypolimnetic withdrawal (HW) is a lake restoration method that is based on the removal of phosphorus (P) along with near-bottom water. While it has often proven to be effective, the method also sets challenges: it is about balancing between effective P removal and maintenance of the thermal stratification of the lake. The success of different HW projects has been reviewed in some studies retrospectively, but scientific literature still lacks studies that use detailed data on the lake biogeochemistry to scale and optimize the method in advance, and to predict the outcomes of the restoration measure. In the current study, we investigated the seasonal biogeochemistry, P stocks and thermal stratification of a eutrophic lake (Lake Kymijarvi/Myllypohja basin, southern Finland) to determine an optimal withdrawal rate, to assess its effects on stratification, and to evaluate the expected success of HW. We found that by adjusting HW with P diffusive fluxes from the sediment (diffusion-adjusted HW), it is possible to remove a notable part of the cycling P without causing major disturbances to the thermal stratification even in a relatively shallow lake. Our results show that HW can have great potential in lake restoration: diffusion-adjusted HW in our study lake could increase the annual P output by 35-46%, shifting the P budget of the lake to negative. We thus propose a novel approach to optimize HW on the basis of the diffusive flux of P from the sediment, with the goal of extracting P continuously at an equivalent rate to the diffusive flux. We finally discuss how this can be achieved more effectively with HW based on a closed-circuit system. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Niemisto, Juha; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten (2019)
    Climate change is leading to harsher resuspension events in shallow coastal environments influencing benthic nutrient fluxes. However, we lack information on the quantitative connection between these fluxes and the physical forces. Two identical experiments that were carried out both in May and August provided novel knowledge on the instantaneous effects of resuspension with known intensity on the benthic dissolved inorganic (phosphate: DIP, ammonium: NH4+, nitrite+nitrate: NOx, silicate, DSi) and organic nutrient (phosphorus: DOP, nitrogen: DON, carbon: DOC) fluxes in the shallow soft bottoms of the archipelago of Gulf of Finland (GoF), Baltic Sea. Resuspension treatments, as 2 times the critical shear stress, induced effluxes of one to two orders of magnitude higher than the diffusive fluxes from the studied oxic bottoms. The presence of oxygen resulted in newly formed iron oxyhydroxides and the subsequent precipitation/adsorption of the redox-dependent nutrients (DIP, DSi, organic nutrients) affecting their fluxes. Resuspension-induced NH4+ and NOx fluxes were associated with the organic content of sediments showing the highest values at the organic rich sites. NH4+ showed the strongest responses to resuspension treatments in August, but NOx at the time of high oxygen concentrations in near-bottom water in May. Foreseen increases in the frequency and intensity of resuspension events due to climate change will most likely enhance the internal nutrient loading of the studied coastal areas. The fluxes presented here, connected to known current velocities, can be utilized in modeling work and to assess and predict the internal nutrient loading following climate change.