Browsing by Subject "PORPHYRINS"

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  • Wilkosz, Natalia; Rissanen, Sami; Cyza, Malgorzata; Szybka, Renata; Nowakowska, Maria; Bunker, Alex; Rog, Tomasz; Kepczynski, Mariusz (2017)
    Uptake of piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, from the intestines after oral intake is limited due to its low solubility and its wide use is associated with several side effects related to the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and fluorescent spectroscopy were employed to investigate the interaction of piroxicam in neutral, zwitterionic, and cationic forms with lipid bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and PEGylated lipids. Our study was aimed to assess the potential for encapsulation of piroxicam in liposomal carriers and to shed more light on the process of gastrointestinal tract injury by the drug. Through both the MD simulations and laser scanning confocal microscopy, we have demonstrated that all forms of piroxicam can associate with the lipid bilayers and locate close to the water-membrane interface. Conventional liposomes used in drug delivery are usually stabilized by the addition of cholesterol and have their bloodstream lifetime extended through the inclusion of PEGylated lipids in the formulation to create a protective polymer corona. For this reason, we tested the effect of these two modifications on the behavior of piroxicam in the membrane. When the bilayer was PEGylated, piroxicam localize to the PEG layer and within the lipid headgroup region. This suggests that PEGylated liposomes are capable of carrying a larger quantity of piroxicam than the conventional ones. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Isokuortti, Jussi; Kuntze, Kim; Virkki, Matti; Ahmed, Zafar; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Elina; Filatov, Mikhail A.; Turshatov, Andrey; Laaksonen, Timo; Priimagi, Arri; Durandin, Nikita A. (2021)
    Developing azobenzene photoswitches capable of selective and efficient photoisomerization by long-wavelength excitation is an enduring challenge. Herein, rapid isomerization from the Z- to E-state of two ortho-functionalized bistable azobenzenes with near-unity photoconversion efficiency was driven by triplet energy transfer upon red and near-infrared (up to 770 nm) excitation of porphyrin photosensitizers in catalytic micromolar concentrations. We show that the process of triplet-sensitized isomerization is efficient even when the sensitizer triplet energy is substantially lower (>200 meV) than that of the azobenzene used. This makes the approach applicable for a wide variety of sensitizer-azobenzene combinations and enables the expansion of excitation wavelengths into the near-infrared spectral range. Therefore, indirect excitation via endothermic triplet energy transfer provides efficient and precise means for photoswitching upon 770 nm near-infared light illumination with no chemical modification of the azobenzene chromophore, a desirable feature in photocontrollable biomaterials.
  • Rauhalahti, Markus; Sundholm, Dage; Johansson, Mikael P. (2021)
    The magnetically induced current density of an intriguing naphthalene-fused heteroporphyrin has been studied, using the quantum-chemical, gauge-including magnetically induced currents (GIMIC) method. The ring-current strengths and current-density pathways for the heteroporphyrin, its Pd complex, and the analogous quinoline-fused heteroporphyrin provide detailed information about their aromatic properties. The three porphyrinoids have similar current-density pathways and are almost as aromatic as free-base porphyrin. Notably, we show that the global ring current makes a branch at three specific points. Thus, the global current is composed of a total of eight pathways that include 22 pi-electrons, with no contributions from 18-electron pathways.
  • Benkyi, Isaac; Fliegl, Heike; Valiev, Rashid R.; Sundholm, Dage (2016)
    Magnetically induced current densities have been calculated and analyzed for a number of synthesized carbachlorins and carbaporphyrins using density functional theory and the gauge including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method. Aromatic properties have been determined by using accurate numerical integration of the current flow yielding reliable current strengths and pathways that are related to the degree of aromaticity and the aromatic character of the studied molecules. All investigated compounds are found to be aromatic. However, the obtained aromatic pathways differ from those previously deduced from spectroscopic data and magnetic shielding calculations. For all studied compounds, the ring current divides into an outer and an inner branch at each pyrrolic subring, showing that all pi-electrons of the pyrrolic rings take part in the delocalization pathway. The calculations do not support the common notion that the main share of the current takes the inner route at the pyrrolic rings without an inner hydrogen and follows an 18 pi aromatic pathway. The aromatic pathways of the investigated carbaporphyrins and carbachlorins are very similar, since the current strength via the C-beta=C-beta' bond of the cyclopentadienyl ring of the carbaporphyrins is almost as weak as the current density passing the corresponding saturated C beta-C-beta' bond of the carbachlorins.
  • Valiev, Rashid R.; Fliegl, Heike; Sundholm, Dage (2015)
    Magnetically induced current densities have been calculated for dioxaporphyrin, dithiaporphyrin, true carbaporphyrins, and N-confused porphyrins using the gauge-including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method. The current-strength susceptibilities (current strengths) have been obtained by numerically integrating the current flow passing selected chemical bonds. The current strength calculations yield very detailed information about the electron delocalization pathways of the molecules. The strength of the ring-current that circles around the porphyrinoid macroring is used to estimate the degree of molecular aromaticity. The studied porphyrinoid structures have been obtained by replacing the NH and N groups of porphin with formally isoelectronic moieties such as O, S, CH and CH2. Replacing an NH moiety of trans-porphin with isoelectronic O and S does not significantly change the current strengths and pathways, whereas substitution of N with an isoelectronic CH group leads to significant changes in the current pathway and current strengths. CH2 groups cut the flow of diatropic currents, whereas in strongly antiaromatic molecules a significant fraction of the paratropic ring-current is able to pass the sp(3) hybridized inner carbons. N-confused porphyrinoids sustain a ring current whose strength is about half the ring-current strength of porphin with the dominating current flow along the outer pathway via the NH moiety. When no hydrogen is attached to the inner carbon of the inverted pyrrolic ring, the current prefers the inner route at that ring.
  • Stepanek, Petr; Coriani, Sonia; Sundholm, Dage; Ovchinnikov, Vasily A.; Vaara, Juha (2017)
    The recently theoretically described nuclear spin-induced circular dichroism (NSCD) is a promising method for the optical detection of nuclear magnetization. NSCD involves both optical excitations of the molecule and hyperfine interactions and, thus, it offers a means to realize a spectroscopy with spatially localized, high-resolution information. To survey the factors relating the molecular and electronic structure to the NSCD signal, we theoretically investigate NSCD of twenty structures of the four most common nucleic acid bases (adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine). The NSCD signal correlates with the spatial distribution of the excited states and couplings between them, reflecting changes in molecular structure and conformation. This constitutes a marked difference to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift, which only reflects the local molecular structure in the ground electronic state. The calculated NSCD spectra are rationalized by means of changes in the electronic density and by a sum-over-states approach, which allows to identify the contributions of the individual excited states. Two separate contributions to NSCD are identified and their physical origins and relative magnitudes are discussed. The results underline NSCD spectroscopy as a plausible tool with a power for the identification of not only different molecules, but their specific structures as well.
  • Knoll, Daniel M.; Wiesner, Thomas B.; Marschner, Stefan M.; Hassan, Zahid; Weis, Patrick; Kappes, Manfred; Nieger, Martin; Bräse, Stefan (2019)
    This work presents a new approach to prepare mono- and disubstituted linear rigid bimetallic [2.2]paracyclophane-porphyrin conjugates via palladium-mediated Stille cross-coupling reaction. The metalated porphyrin moiety can be varied allowing convenient access to modular metal-metal fixed-distance Cu/Zn complexes.