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  • Soder, Birgitta; Meurman, Jukka H.; Soder, Per-Osten (2014)
  • Soder, Birgitta; Meurman, Jukka H.; Soder, Per-Osten (2016)
    Objectives Dental infections, such as periodontitis, associate with atherosclerosis and its complications. We studied a cohort followed-up since 1985 for incidence of angina pectoris with the hypothesis that calculus accumulation, proxy for poor oral hygiene, links to this symptom. Methods In our Swedish prospective cohort study of 1676 randomly selected subjects followed-up for 26 years. In 1985 all subjects underwent clinical oral examination and answered a questionnaire assessing background variables such as socio-economic status and pack-years of smoking. By using data from the Center of Epidemiology, Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden we analyzed the association of oral health parameters with the prevalence of in-hospital verified angina pectoris classified according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases, using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 1676 subjects, 51 (28 women/23 men) had been diagnosed with angina pectoris at a mean age of 59.8 +/- 2.9 years. No difference was observed in age and gender between patients with angina pectoris and subjects without. Neither was there any difference in education level and smoking habits (in pack years), Gingival index and Plaque index between the groups. Angina pectoris patients had significantly more often their first maxillary molar tooth extracted (d. 16) than the other subjects (p = 0.02). Patients also showed significantly higher dental calculus index values than the subjects without angina pectoris (p = 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed odds ratio 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.17-4.17) in the association between high calculus index and angina pectoris (p = 0.015). Conclusion Our study hypothesis was confirmed by showing for the first time that high dental calculus score indeed associated with the incidence of angina pectoris in this cohort study.
  • Chen, Wen; Roslund, Kajsa; Fogarty, Christopher L.; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Halonen, Lauri; Groop, Per-Henrik; Metsala, Markus; Lehto, Markku (2016)
    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) has been recognized as a potential biomarker for non-invasive diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the lung. However, the oral cavity is a dominant production site for exhaled HCN and this contribution can mask the HCN generated in the lung. It is thus important to understand the sources of HCN production in the oral cavity. By screening of oral anaerobes for HCN production, we observed that the genus of Porphyromonas, Prevotella and Fusobacterium generated low levels of HCN in vitro. This is the first study to show that oral anaerobes are capable of producing HCN in vitro. Further investigations were conducted on the species of P. gingivalis and we successfully detected HCN production (0.9-10.9 ppb) in the headspace of three P. gingivalis reference strains (ATCC 33277, W50 and OMG 434) and one clinical isolate. From P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and W50, a strong correlation between HCN and CO2 concentrations (r(s) = 0.89, p <0.001) was observed, indicating that the HCN production of P. gingivalis might be connected with the bacterial metabolic activity. These results indicate that our setup could be widely applied to the screening of in vitro HCN production by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.
  • Özdemir, Meltem; Caglayan, Feriha; Bigger, Floris; Pussinen, Pirkko; Könönen, Eija; Yamalik, Nermin; Gursoy, Mervi; Fteita, Dareen; Nazmi, Kamran; Güncü, Güliz N.; Pietiäinen, Milla; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman (2020)
    Aim To profile gingival tissue levels of human beta-defensin (hBD)-2 and hBD-3 in relation to gingival inflammation, Th17-related cytokine concentrations, Porphyromonas gingivalis counts, and gingipain and total protease activities. Materials and Methods Gingival tissue and subgingival plaque samples were collected from 21 periodontitis patients including 48 periodontal pocket sites with marginal, mild, or moderate to severe inflammation. hBD levels were determined by immunodetection, P. gingivalis counts with real-time polymerase chain reaction, protease activities with fluorogenic substrates, and cytokine concentrations with Luminex technique. Data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Subgingival plaque counts of P. gingivalis (p = .001) and gingipain activity (p <.001), as well as interleukin (IL)-1 beta (p = .012), IL-10 (p = .024), IL-17A (p = .002), IL-17F (p = .006), and IL-23 (p = .036) concentrations were elevated in severely inflamed sites, whereas no change was observed in hBD-2 and hBD-3 levels. Negative correlations were found between protease activity and hBD-2 (p = .033) and hBD-3(p = .003) levels. Conclusions Shift in gingival inflammation from marginal to mild stage is related to elevations in subgingival plaque P. gingivalis counts and gingipain activity, but not to tissue hBD levels. Negative correlations between hBDs and total protease activity suggest the degradation of these antimicrobial peptides in progressed inflammation.
  • Paino, Annamari; Ahlstrand, Tuuli; Nuutila, Jari; Navickaite, Indre; Lahti, Maria; Tuominen, Heidi; Välimaa, Hannamari; Lamminmaki, Urpo; Pollanen, Marja T.; Ihalin, Riikka (2013)
  • Liljestrand, John M.; Paju, Susanna; Pietiäinen, Milla; Buhlin, Kåre; Persson, G. Rutger; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Mäntylä, Päivi; Pussinen, Pirkko J. (2018)
  • Kylmä, Anna Kaisa; Jouhi, Lauri; Mohamed, Hesham; Randen-Brady, Reija; Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo; Haglund, Caj; Sorsa, Timo; Hagström, Jaana (2020)
    Objectives: In oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), toll-like receptors (TLR) 5 and 7 associate with the tumor's human papilloma virus (HPV) status (Jouhi et al., 2017). TLR 2, on the other hand, has been linked to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and to oral carcinogenesis (Farnebo et al., 2015; Binder Gallimidi et al., 2015). Here we investigated the presence of TLR 2 and 4 in HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC, and their relationship to opportunistic oral pathogen Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like protease (Td-CTLP) immunoexpression, clinical parameters, and patient outcome. Materials and methods: Clinicopathological data of 198 unselected consecutive OPSCC patients came from hospital registries. Immunoexpression of TLRs 2 and 4 we evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and earlier in this patient series we studied immunoexpression of Td-CTLP and HPV DNA, HPV mRNA, and p16 status. Results: Immunoexpression of both TLRs 2 and 4 showed a significant association with HPV-status. Strong expression was associated with HPV-positivity and mild expression with HPV-negativity. Patients with strong TLR 2 immunoexpression in the HPV negative subgroup had significantly poorer 5-year DSS (58%) than did patients with mild TLR 2 expression (77%), and strong TLR 2 immunoexpression remained as an independent factor linked to increased disease mortality in the multivariable setting (P = 0.019). No association existed between TLR 2 or 4 and Td-CTLP expression. Conclusion: Our results support the role of TLR 2 receptor as a possible target for development of therapeutics as earlier proposed (Farnebo et al., 2015). The involvement of Td and other oral pathogens in carcinogenesis of OPSCC, remains open and calls for further study.
  • Gürsoy, Ulvi K.; Könönen, Eija; Tervahartiala, Taina; Gürsoy, Mervi; Pitkänen, Jari; Torvi, Paula; Suominen, Anna-Liisa; Pussinen, Pirkko; Sorsa, Timo (2018)
    Aim To investigate the molecular forms of salivary matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 in relation to periodontitis. Materials and Methods Molecular forms, degree of activation and fragmentation of neutrophilic and mesenchymal-type MMP-8 isoforms were analysed from salivary samples of 81 subjects with generalized periodontitis, 63 subjects with localized periodontitis and 79 subjects without pocket teeth, by using western-immunoblots with computer quantitation. In addition, human recombinant proMMP-8 was in vitro activated by Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like protease (Td-CTLP), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 1 mM, oxidant) or amino phenyl mercuric acetate (APMA, 1 mM). Results In saliva of periodontitis-affected individuals, MMP-8 is found in multiple forms, that is, complexes, active and pro-forms of neutrophilic and mesenchymal-type MMP-8, and especially 20-27 kDa fragments. The quantity of these fragments was elevated in both localized and generalized forms of periodontitis. Moreover, the tested activators (Td-CTLP, NaOCl and APMA) activated inactive proMMP-8, resulting in fragments of 20-27 kDa, in vitro, and salivary concentrations of T. denticola correlated significantly with salivary levels of fragmented MMP-8. Conclusion The present results indicate that during the development and progression of periodontitis, MMP-8 appears as activated and fragmented, and treponemal proteases most likely play role in this cascade.
  • Alvarez, Carla; Monasterio, Gustavo; Cavalla, Franco; Cordova, Luis A.; Hernandez, Marcela; Heymann, Dominique; Garlet, Gustavo P.; Sorsa, Timo; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Golub, Lorne M.; Vernal, Rolando; Kantarci, Alpdogan (2019)
    The maxillofacial skeleton is highly dynamic and requires a constant equilibrium between the bone resorption and bone formation. The field of osteoimmunology explores the interactions between bone metabolism and the immune response, providing a context to study the complex cellular and molecular networks involved in oro-maxillofacial osteolytic diseases. In this review, we present a framework for understanding the potential mechanisms underlying the immuno-pathobiology in etiologically-diverse diseases that affect the oral and maxillofacial region and share bone destruction as their common clinical outcome. These otherwise different pathologies share similar inflammatory pathways mediated by central cellular players, such as macrophages, T and B cells, that promote the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts, ineffective or insufficient bone apposition by osteoblasts, and the continuous production of osteoclastogenic signals by immune and local stromal cells. We also present the potential translational applications of this knowledge based on the biological mechanisms involved in the inflammation-induced bone destruction. Such applications can be the development of immune-based therapies that promote bone healing/regeneration, the identification of host-derived inflammatory/collagenolytic biomarkers as diagnostics tools, the assessment of links between oral and systemic diseases; and the characterization of genetic polymorphisms in immune or bone-related genes that will help diagnosis of susceptible individuals.
  • Hernandez-Rios, Patricia; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Vernal, Rolando; Hernandez, Marcela (2017)
    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory disorders. Apical periodontitis (AP) usually results in the formation of an osteolytic apical lesion (AL) caused by the immune response to endodontic infection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by phagocytic cells in response to bacterial challenge represent an important host defense mechanism, but disturbed redox balance results in tissue injury. This mini review focuses on the role of oxidative stress in the local and associated systemic events in chronic apical periodontitis. During endodontic infection, ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on phagocytes' surface triggers activation, phagocytosis, synthesis of ROS, activation of humoral and cellular responses, and production of inflammatory mediators, such as, cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The increment in ROS perturbs the normal redox balance and shifts cells into a state of oxidative stress. ROS induce molecular damage and disturbed redox signaling, that result in the loss of bone homeostasis, increased pro-inflammatory mediators, and MMP overexpression and activation, leading to apical tissue breakdown. On the other hand, oxidative stress has been strongly involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, where a chronic inflammatory process develops in the arterial wall. Chronic AP is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and especially atherogenesis. The potential mechanisms linking these diseases are also discussed.
  • Äyräväinen, Leena; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Meurman, Jukka H.; Heikkinen, Anna Maria (2017)
    Objectives To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis with special emphasis on the role of antirheumatic drugs in periodontal health. Design Prospective follow-up study. Patients with early untreated RA and chronic active RA were examined at baseline and 16months later. Controls were examined once. Settings and participants The study was conducted in Finland from September 2005 to May 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital. Overall, 124 participants were recruited for dental and medical examinations: 53 were patients with early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) na1ve RA (ERA), 28 were patients with chronic RA (CRA) with insufficient response to conventional DMARDs. After baseline examination, patients with ERA started treatment with synthetic DMARDs and patients with CRA with biological DMARDs. Controls were 43 age-matched, gender-matched and community-matched participants. Outcome measures Degree of periodontitis (defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology). Prevalence of periodontal bacteria (analysed from plaque samples), clinical rheumatological status by Disease Activity Score, 28-joint count (DAS28), function by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and treatment response by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. Results Moderate periodontitis was present in 67.3% of patients with ERA, 64.3% of patients with CRA and 39.5% of control participants (p=0.001). Further, patients with RA had significantly more periodontal findings compared with controls, recorded with common periodontal indexes. In the re-examination, patients with RA still showed poor periodontal health in spite of treatment with DMARDs after baseline examination. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis was higher in patients with ERA with periodontal probing depth 4mm compared with patients with CRA and controls. Antirheumatic medication did not seem to affect the results. Conclusions Moderate periodontitis was more frequent in patients with RA than in controls. Patients with ERA and CRA exhibited poorer periodontal health parameters when compared with controls. There was no association between antirheumatic treatment and periodontal parameters.
  • Jäsberg, Heli; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Söderling, Eva; Haukioja, Anna (2018)
    Objective: To study the effect of orally administered Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the salivary levels of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP)-8, MMP-9 and of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in healthy adults. Furthermore, the correlations between MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and plaque and gingival indices, salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, and stimulated saliva secretion rate were analysed. Design: The salivary samples originated from a randomized controlled trial where healthy student volunteers consumed probiotic or placebo lozenges twice a day for four weeks. The saliva samples were collected and clinical parameters measured at the baseline and at the end of the original study. For this study, the salivary levels of MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were analysed with immunofluorometric assay (IFMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In the probiotic group (n = 29), salivary MMP-9 levels increased (p <0.01) and TIMP-1 levels decreased (p <0.01) significantly during the intervention. Furthermore, MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio differed significantly from the baseline level (p <0.01). These changes were not observed in the control group (n = 31). In the whole data, salivary MMP-9 and gingival index correlated (r = 0.260, p <0.05 at baseline and r = 0.354, p <0.01 at the end of the study). Intergroup differences or correlations with other clinical parameters were not found. Probiotic consumption did not affect the saliva flow rate. Conclusions: Increased MMP-9 and decreased TIMP-1 levels in saliva may indicate that probiotics have immunomodulatory effects in the oral cavity. Furthermore, increased salivary MMP-9 levels may be an indication of the defensive potential of matrix metalloproteinases.
  • Hallikainen, Joona; Keränen, Sara; Savolainen, Jarno; Närhi, Matti; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Ylöstalo, Pekka; Kellokoski, Jari; Pyysalo, Mikko; Pussinen, Pirkko; Rauramaa, Tuomas; Frösen, Juhana (2021)
    Degeneration of intracranial aneurysm wall is under active research and recent studies indicate an increased risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysm among patients with periodontal diseases. In addition, oral bacterial DNA has been identified from wall samples of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. These novel findings led us to evaluate if oral diseases could predispose to pathological changes seen on intracranial aneurysm walls eventually leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage. The aim of this review is to consider mechanisms on the relationship between periodontitis and aneurysm rupture, focusing on recent evidence.
  • Pietiäinen, Milla; Liljestrand, John M.; Akhi, Ramin; Buhlin, Kåre; Johansson, Anders; Paju, Susanna; Salminen, Aino; Mäntylä, Päivi; Sinisalo, Juha; Tjäderhane, Leo; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Pussinen, Pirkko (2019)
    Apical periodontitis is an inflammatory reaction at the apex of an infected tooth. Its microbiota resembles that of marginal periodontitis and may induce local and systemic antibodies binding to bacteria- and host-derived epitopes. Our aim was to investigate the features of the adaptive immune response in apical periodontitis. The present Parogene cohort (n = 453) comprises patients with cardiac symptoms. Clinical and radiographic oral examination was performed to diagnose apical and marginal periodontitis. A three-category endodontic lesion score was designed. Antibodies binding to the bacteria- and host-derived epitopes were determined from saliva and serum, and bacterial compositions were examined from saliva and subgingival samples. The significant ORs (95% CI) for the highest endodontic scores were observed for saliva IgA and IgG to bacterial antigens (2.90 (1.01-8.33) and 4.91 (2.48-9.71)/log10 unit), saliva cross-reacting IgG (2.10 (1.48-2.97)), serum IgG to bacterial antigens (4.66 (1.22-10.1)), and Gram-negative subgingival species (1.98 (1.16-3.37)). In a subgroup without marginal periodontitis, only saliva IgG against bacterial antigens associated with untreated apical periodontitis (4.77 (1.05-21.7)). Apical periodontitis associates with versatile adaptive immune responses against both bacterial- and host-derived epitopes independently of marginal periodontitis. Saliva immunoglobulins could be useful biomarkers of oral infections including apical periodontitis-a putative risk factor for systemic diseases.
  • Akhi, R; Nissinen, AE; Wang, CG; Kyrklund, M; Paju, S; Mantyla, P; Buhlin, K; Sinisalo, J; Pussinen, PJ; Horkko, S (2021)
    Objective Oxidized epitopes such as malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) play a crucial role in the progression of atherosclerosis through activation of the humoral immune response. The exact mechanism of the association between atherosclerosis and periodontal diseases is not fully understood. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the association of oral humoral immune response to oxidized epitopes with parameters of periodontal disease. Materials and methods The Parogene cohort consist of patients who have undergone coronary angiography due to cardiac symptoms. In this study, 423 patients were randomly selected for an extensive oral examination. Salivary Immunoglobulin A to oxidized epitopes and bacterial antigens was determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results In a binary logistic regression model adjusted with periodontal disease confounders, periodontal pocket depth (PPD) 4-5 mm associated with salivary IgA antibodies to MAA-LDL (p = 0.034), heat shock protein 60 of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (p = 0.045), Porphyromonas gingivalis (p = 0.045), A. actinomycetemcomitans (p = 0.005), P. intermedia (p = 0.020), and total IgA (p = 0.003). Conclusions The current study shows the association of salivary IgA to MAA-LDL with PPD 4-5 mm in a cohort of patients with chronic coronary artery disease. Humoral immune cross-reactivation to oxidized epitopes such MAA-LDL could partly explain the link of periodontitis with systemic diseases.
  • Turkoglu, Oya; Becerik, Sema; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Atilla, Gul; Emingil, Gulnur (2014)
  • Kylmä, Anna Kaisa; Jouhi, Lauri; Listyarifah, Dyah; Mohamed, Hesham; Mäkitie, Antti; Remes, Satu Maria; Haglund, Caj; Atula, Timo; Nieminen, Mikko T.; Sorsa, Timo; Hagström, Jaana (2018)
    BACKGROUND: An opportunistic oral pathogen, Treponema denticola (Td), has been linked to orodigestive carcinogenesis, but its role in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has remained open. We evaluated the presence of Td chymotrypsin-like protease (Td-CTLP) in a series of 201 unselected consecutive OPSCC patients, and the relation of the Td-CTLP to human papillomavirus (HPV) status, to expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 5, 7, and 9, and to clinical parameters and patient outcome. METHODS: Clinicopathological data came from hospital registries. The expression of cell surface-bound Td-CTLP was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Immunoexpression of TLRs 5, 7, and 9, and HPV status we studied earlier in this patient series. RESULTS: We detected Td-CTLP in 81% of the OPSCC, and especially in HPV-negative tumours (48% of all OPSCCs). Among the HPV-positive tumours (52% of all OPSCCs), low Td-CTLP expression associated with low TLR 5 and high TLR 7 expression. Among those HPV-negative, higher TLR 5 and lower TLR 7 expression associated with high Td-CTLP expression. Strong Td-CTLP expression associated with poor disease-specific survival, but no similar association among HPV-positive and HPV-negative subgroups emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Td-CTLP was highly expressed in OPSCC and was associated with the HPV status of tumour tissue.
  • Nieminen, Mikko T.; Listyarifah, Dyah; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Grenier, Daniel; Nordstrom, Dan; Uitto, Veli-Jukka; Hernandez, Marcela; Yucel-Lindberg, Tulay; Tervahartiala, Taina; Ainola, Mari; Sorsa, Timo (2018)
    Background: Periodontal pathogens have been linked to oral and gastrointestinal (orodigestive) carcinogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Treponema denticola (Td) is associated with severe periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease leading to tooth loss. The anaerobic spirochete Td is an invasive bacteria due to its major virulence factor chymotrypsin-like proteinase. Here we aimed to investigate the presence of Td chymotrypsin-like proteinase (Td-CTLP) in major orodigestive tumours and to elucidate potential mechanisms for Td to contribute to carcinogenesis. Methods: The presence of Td-CTLP within orodigestive tumour tissues was examined using immunohistochemistry. Oral, tonsillar, and oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, alongside gastric, pancreatic, and colon adenocarcinomas were stained with a Td-CTLP-specific antibody. Gingival tissue from periodontitis patients served as positive controls. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot were used to analyse the immumodulatory activity of Td-CTLP in vitro. Results: Td-CTLP was present in majority of orodigestive tumour samples. Td-CTLP was found to convert pro MMP-8 and -9 into their active forms. In addition, Td-CTLP was able to degrade the proteinase inhibitors TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, as well as complement C1q. Conclusions: Because of its presence within tumours and regulatory activity on proteins critical for the regulation of tumour microenvironment and inflammation, the Td-CTLP may contribute to orodigestive carcinogenesis.