Browsing by Subject "POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN"

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  • Blain, H.; Masud, T.; Dargent-Molina, P.; Martin, F. C.; Rosendahl, E.; van der Velde, N.; Bousquet, J.; Benetos, A.; Cooper, C.; Kanis, J. A.; Reginster, J. Y.; Rizzoli, R.; Cortet, B.; Barbagallo, M.; Dreinhofer, K. E.; Vellas, B.; Maggi, S.; Strandberg, T.; EUGMS Falls Fracture Interest Grp; Int Assoc Gerontology Geriatri; European Union Med Specialists EUM; Fragility Fracture Network FFN; European Soc Clinical Econ Aspects; Int Osteoporosis Fdn IOF (2016)
    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.
  • Blain, H.; Masud, T.; Dargent-Molina, P.; Martin, F. C.; Rosendahl, E.; van der Velde, N.; Bousquet, J.; Benetos, A.; Cooper, C.; Kanis, J. A.; Reginster, J. Y.; Rizzoli, R.; Cortet, B.; Barbagallo, M.; Dreinhoefer, K. E.; Vellas, B.; Maggi, S.; Strandberg, T.; EUGMS Falls & Fracture Interest Gr; IAGG-ER; EUMS; FFN; European Soc Clinical & Econ Aspec; IOF (2016)
    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region, the European Union of Medical Specialists, and the International Osteoporosis Foundation-European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.
  • Blain, H.; Masud, T.; Dargent-Molina, P.; Martin, F. C.; Rosendahl, E.; van der Velde, N.; Bousquet, J.; Benetos, A.; Cooper, C.; Kanis, J. A.; Reginster, J. Y.; Rizzoli, R.; Cortet, B.; Barbagallo, M.; Dreinhoefer, K.; Vellas, B.; Maggi, S.; Strandberg, T.; Alvarez, M. N.; Annweiler, C.; Bernard, P. -L.; Beswetherick, N.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A.; Bloch, F.; Boddaert, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Bousson, V.; Bourdel-Marchasson, I.; Capisizu, A.; Che, H.; Clara, J. G.; Combe, B.; Delignieres, D.; Eklund, P.; Emmelot-Vonk, M.; Freiberger, E.; Gauvain, J. -B.; Goswami, N.; Guldemond, N.; Herrero, A. C.; Joel, M. -E.; Jonsdottir, A. B.; Kemoun, G.; Kiss, I.; Kolk, H.; Kowalski, M. L.; Krajcik, S.; Kutsal, Y. G.; Lauretani, F.; Macijauskiene, J.; Int Assoc Gerontology Geriatrics; European Union Medical Specialists; Fragility Fracture Network FFN; EUGMS Falls Fracture Interest Grp; European Soc Clinical Economic; Osteoporosis Research Information; International Osteoporosis (2016)
    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest group on falls and fracture prevention of the European union geriatric medicine society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International association of gerontology and geriatrics for the European region (IAGG-ER), the European union of medical specialists (EUMS), the Fragility fracture network (FFN), the International osteoporosis foundation (IOF) - European society for clinical and economic aspects of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (ECCEO), outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
  • Manach, Claudine; Milenkovic, Dragan; Van de Wiele, Tom; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; de Roos, Baukje; Teresa Garcia-Conesa, Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Gibney, Eileen R.; Heinonen, Marina; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco; Morand, Christine (2017)
    Bioactive compounds in plant-based foods have health properties that contribute to the prevention of age-related chronic diseases, particularly cardiometabolic disorders. Conclusive proof and understanding of these benefits in humans is essential in order to provide effective dietary recommendations but, so far, the evidence obtained from human intervention trials is limited and contradictory. This is partly due to differences between individuals in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of bioactive compounds, as well as to heterogeneity in their biological response regarding cardiometabolic health outcomes. Identifying the main factors underlying inter-individual differences, as well as developing new and innovative methodologies to account for such variability constitute an overarching goal to ultimately optimize the beneficial health effects of plant food bioactives for each and every one of us. In this respect, this position paper from the COST Action FA1403-POSITIVe examines the main factors likely to affect the individual responses to consumption of plant food bioactives and presents perspectives for assessment and consideration of inter-individual variability.
  • Kangas, Reeta; Tormakangas, Timo; Fey, Vidal; Pursiheimo, Juha; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sipila, Sarianna; Saamanen, Anna-Marja; Kovanen, Vuokko; Laakkonen, Eija K. (2017)
    Exosomes participate in intercellular messaging by transporting bioactive lipid-, protein-and RNA-molecules and -complexes. The contents of the exosomes reflect the physiological status of an individual making exosomes promising targets for biomarker analyses. In the present study we extracted exosome microRNAs (exomiRs) from serum samples of premenopausal women (n = 8) and monozygotic postmenopausal twins (n = 10 female pairs), discordant for the use of estrogenic hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in order to see whether the age or/and the use of HRT associates with exomiR content. A total of 241 exomiRs were detected by next generation sequencing, 10 showing age, 14 HRT and 10 age + HRT-related differences. When comparing the groups, differentially expressed miRs were predicted to affect cell proliferation processes showing inactivation with younger age and HRT usage. MiR-106-5p, -148a-3p, -27-3p, -126-5p, -28-3p and -30a-5p were significantly associated with serum 17 beta-estradiol. MiRs formed two hierarchical clusters being indicative of positive or negative health outcomes involving associations with body composition, serum 17 beta-estradiol, fat-, glucose-and inflammatory markers. Circulating exomiR clusters, obtained by NGS, could be used as indicators of metabolic and inflammatory status affected by hormonal changes at menopause. Furthermore, the individual effects of HRT-usage could be evaluated based on the serum exomiR signature.
  • Mäkitie, Riikka E.; Kämpe, Anders; Costantini, Alice; Alm, Jessica J.; Magnusson, Per; Mäkitie, Outi (2020)
    Recent advancements in genetic research have uncovered new forms of monogenic osteoporosis, expanding our understanding of the molecular pathways regulating bone health. Despite active research, knowledge on the pathomechanisms, disease-specific biomarkers, and optimal treatment in these disorders is still limited. Mutations in WNT1, encoding a WNT/beta-catenin pathway ligand WNT1, and PLS3, encoding X chromosomally inherited plastin 3 (PLS3), both result in early-onset osteoporosis with prevalent fractures and disrupted bone metabolism. However, despite marked skeletal pathology, conventional bone markers are usually normal in both diseases. Our study aimed to identify novel bone markers in PLS3 and WNT1 osteoporosis that could offer diagnostic potential and shed light on the mechanisms behind these skeletal pathologies. We measured several parameters of bone metabolism, including serum dickkopf-1 (DKK1), sclerostin, and intact and C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations in 17 WNT1 and 14 PLS3 mutation-positive subjects. Findings were compared with 34 healthy mutation-negative subjects from the same families. Results confirmed normal concentrations of conventional metabolic bone markers in both groups. DKK1 concentrations were significantly elevated in PLS3 mutation-positive subjects compared with WNT1 mutation-positive subjects (p <.001) or the mutation-negative subjects (p = .002). Similar differences were not seen in WNT1 subjects. Sclerostin concentrations did not differ between any groups. Both intact and C-terminal FGF23 were significantly elevated in WNT1 mutation-positive subjects (p = .039 and p = .027, respectively) and normal in PLS3 subjects. Our results indicate a link between PLS3 and DKK1 and WNT1 and FGF23 in bone metabolism. The normal sclerostin and DKK1 levels in patients with impaired WNT signaling suggest another parallel regulatory mechanism. These findings provide novel information on the molecular networks in bone. Extended studies are needed to investigate whether these biomarkers offer diagnostic value or potential as treatment targets in osteoporosis. (c) 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
  • Engberg, Elina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Huvinen, Emilia; Viljakainen, Heli T. (2020)
    Introduction Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures. However, bone health of women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) has received little attention. This cross-sectional study compares bone health between premenopausal women with and without a history of GDM, and examines factors associated with bone health in women with a history of GDM or obesity. Material and methods We measured areal bone mineral density for total hip, lumbar spine and whole body, and total body fat percentage (fat%) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 224 women. In addition, we measured bone characteristics of radius and tibia with peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Results When compared with women without a history of GDM (mean age 39 years [SD 5], body mass index [BMI] 35 kg/m(2) [SD 6], fat% 48 [SD 7]), women with a history of GDM (age 41 years [SD 4], BMI 31 kg/m(2) [SD 7], fat% 43 [SD 10]) had lower hip and whole body bone mineral densities, and inferior tibia outcomes. However, the differences in bone characteristics disappeared after controlling for age, height, BMI and fat%. After controlling for age, height, BMI and smoking, physical activity and healthier diet were positively associated with bone outcomes, whereas fat%, HbA(1c) and screen time were negatively associated with bone outcomes. Particularly, fat% showed independent negative associations with whole body bone mineral density and several tibia and radius characteristics. Conclusions Fat% is associated with adverse bone health, independently of BMI, in women with a history of GDM or obesity. Promoting healthy lifestyle and reducing fat% in high-risk women could improve bone health and prevent future fractures.
  • Jalava-Broman, J.; Makinen, J.; Sillanmaki, L.; Vahtera, J.; Rautava, P. (2016)
    Objective: To investigate which patient characteristics are associated with the initiation of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in a cohort of Finnish women. Study design: Responses to postal questionnaires distributed to a nationwide, randomly selected cohort of women in 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed. The cohort members were aged 40-44 years at the beginning of the study. Information on hormone replacement therapy was received from the national prescription register. Women who started taking HRT between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2011 were included and previous users were excluded from the analysis. Main outcome measures: Initiation of HRT was the main outcome measure. The following explanatory factors for predicting the use of HRT were examined: sociodemographic factors, personality, health behavior, physiological and mental symptoms, chronic diseases and use of psychopharmaceuticals. The associations between starting HRT and the explanatory factors were analyzed with single-predictor and multi-predictor logistic regression models. Results: Factors predicting that a woman would start taking HRT were: living with a partner, weak sense of coherence, BMI less than 30 kg/m(2), heavy or moderate alcohol use, symptoms of hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, climacteric symptoms and use of psychopharmaceuticals. Conclusions: Women with a good sense of coherence can cope with climacteric symptoms without resorting to HRT. Clinicians need to bear in mind the burden of menopausal symptoms on a woman's personal and working life when HRT is being considered. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Giannini, Andrea; Russo, Eleonora; Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G.; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Lopes, Patrice; Mishra, Gita; Mueck, Alfred; Rees, Margaret; Senturk, Levent M.; Stevenson, John C.; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Simoncini, Tommaso (2018)
    Management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common and challenging task. Nowadays older women are more active than they were in the past, and the development of POP disrupts quality of life and impairs social and personal activities. The menopausal transition is a time of vulnerability, during which many women start experiencing symptoms and signs of POP. The role of hormonal changes or of hormonal therapies in influencing the development or progression of POP has been explored extensively. The management of POP requires considerable clinical skills. Correct diagnosis and characterization of the prolapse and an identification of the individual woman's most bothersome symptoms are the hallmark of appropriate initial management. Therapy is multimodal and often multidisciplinary, and requires a competence in pelvic medicine and surgery. The integration of hormonal, non-hormonal and surgical strategies is important and needs to be adjusted to changing circumstances on an individualized basis. When surgery is required, optimal management requires clinicians who are familiar with the advantages and disadvantages of all the available strategies and who are able to use these strategies in a tailored manner. Complex cases should be sent to specialist referral centers. Management of POP should be integrated into the practice of healthcare professionals dealing in menopause.
  • Almeda-Valdes, Paloma; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Mehta, Roopa; Munoz-Hernandez, Liliana; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Teresa Tusie-Luna, Maria; Gomez-Perez, Francisco J.; Pajukanta, Paivi; Matikainen, Niina; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. (2014)
  • Virtanen, Irina; Kalleinen, Nea; Urrila, Anna S.; Polo-Kantola, Päivi (2018)
    Objectives: In sleep laboratory studies, the new environment is generally considered to disturb sleep during the first night. However, older women have rarely been studied. Although menopause and hormone therapy affect sleep, their impact on the first-night effect is virtually unknown. Participants: Four groups of women with no sleep laboratory experience: young on hormonal contraceptives (n = 11, 23.1 [0.5] years), perimenopausal (n = 15, 48.0 (0.4] years), postmenopausal without hormone therapy (HT; off-HT, n = 22, 63.4 [0.8] years) and postmenopausal with HT (n = 16, 63.1 [0.9] years). Procedure: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Polysomnography was performed over two consecutive nights and the first-night effect and group differences were evaluated. Questionnaire-based insomnia and sleepiness scores were correlated to sleep variables and their between-night changes. Results: Although sleep in young women was deeper and less fragmented than in the other groups, first-night effect was similar in all study groups. Total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and S1 and S2 sleep increased, and wake after sleep onset, awakenings per hour of sleep, S2 and REM latencies, and percentage of SWS decreased from the first to the second night. Perimenopausal women had more insomnia complaints than other women. Insomnia complaints were associated with more disturbed sleep but not with the first-night effect. Conclusions: A first night in a sleep laboratory elicits a marked interference of sleep architecture in women of all ages, with a carryover effect of lighter sleep on the second study night. Menopausal state, HT use, or insomnia complaints do not modify this effect.
  • Vehmanen, L.; Sievänen, H.; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P.; Nikander, R.; Huovinen, R.; Ruohola, J.; Penttinen, H.M.; Utriainen, M.; Tokola, K.; Blomqvist, C.; Saarto, T. (2021)
    A 12-month exercise program reversibly prevented hip bone loss in premenopausal women with early breast cancer. The bone-protective effect was maintained for 2 years after the end of the program but was lost thereafter. Purpose Breast cancer survivors are at an increased risk for osteoporosis and fracture. This 5-year follow-up of a randomized impact exercise intervention trial evaluated the maintenance of training effects on bone among breast cancer patients. Methods Five hundred seventy-three early breast cancer patients aged 35-68 years and treated with adjuvant therapy were allocated into a 12-month exercise program or a control group. Four hundred forty-four patients (77%) were included in the 5-year analysis. The exercise intervention comprised weekly supervised step aerobics, circuit exercises, and home training. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week and physical performance assessed by 2-km walking and figure-8 running tests. Results In premenopausal patients, the 12-month exercise program maintained femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) aBMD for 3 years, but the protective effect was lost thereafter. The mean FN aBMD change in the exercise and control groups was - 0.2% and - 1.5% 1 year, - 1.1% and - 2.1% 3 years and - 3.3% versus - 2.4% 5 years after the beginning of the intervention, respectively. Lumbar spine (LS) bone loss was not prevented in premenopausal women and no training effects on aBMD were seen in postmenopausal women. The main confounding element of the study was the unexpected rise in physical activity among patients in the control group. The physical performance improved among premenopausal women in the exercise group compared with the controls. Conclusion The 12-month exercise program prevented FN and TH bone loss in premenopausal breast cancer patients for 3 years. The bone-protective effect was reversible and lost thereafter.
  • Paternoster, Lavinia; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lehtimaki, Terho; Eriksson, Joel; Kahonen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Laaksonen, Marika; Sievanen, Harri; Viikari, Jorma; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Mellstrom, Dan; Karlsson, Magnus; Ljunggren, Osten; Grundberg, Elin; Kemp, John P.; Sayers, Adrian; Nethander, Maria; Evans, David M.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Tobias, Jon H.; Ohlsson, Claes (2013)
  • Hamalainen, Satu; Solovieva, Svetlana; Vehmas, Tapio; Luoma, Katariina; Leino-Arjas, Paivi; Hirvonen, Ari (2014)
  • Tolonen, Sanna; Sievänen, Harri; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Laaksonen, Marika; Mikkilä, Vera; Palve, Kristiina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika (2018)
    In this cross-sectional study, peripheral bone traits were examined relative to total daily steps measured with pedometer. Higher number of steps was associated with greater bone values at the calcaneus and tibia in women, but not in men. In women, dose-dependent associations at the radius were congruent with the weight-bearing bones. Introduction Habitual physical activity measured as daily steps may contribute to bone density and strength at the calcaneus and other weight-bearing bones. Methods Subgroups of 705-837 women and 480-615 men aged 31-46 years from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study participated in the present study. Participants were instructed to use pedometer for 1 week, and the total daily steps, divided into tertiles, were evaluated relative to quantitative ultrasound-measured bone traits at the calcaneus and peripheral quantitative computed tomography-measured bone traits at the tibia and radius. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the between-group differences. Results In women, significant dose-dependent between-group differences were found in the weight-bearing bones and in non-weight-bearing radius. The differences in broadband ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound at the calcaneus were 3.8 and 0.5% greater in women within the highest tertile of daily steps compared to the lowest tertile (p values for trend 8765 steps/day) had on average 1-5.4% greater bone cross-sectional area, bone mineral content (BMC), trabecular density, and bone strength index at the distal site and 1.6-2.7% greater bone areas, BMC and strength strain index (SSI) at the shaft compared to women with less daily steps (p values for trend Conclusion Observed significant positive associations between daily steps and various bone traits at the calcaneus, tibia, and radius in women suggest that habitual physical activity may benefit skeletal health in adulthood.
  • Högnäs, Emma; Kauppila, Antti; Hinkula, Marianne; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Pukkala, Eero (2016)
    Background. Many studies have previously revealed evidence of an association between grand multiparity (five or more deliveries) and gynaecological cancer. Oestrogen has an impact on cancer formation and the amount of circulating oestrogen is significantly higher during pregnancy. Also the lifestyle of grand multiparous women differs somewhat from the average population. Considering these factors it is plausible that also non-gynaecological cancers are associated with multiparity. The aim of our study was to determine cancer incidence among grand multiparous women, with special attention to non-gynaecological cancers. Material and methods. All 102 541 women alive in 1974-2011 and having had at least five deliveries were identified in the Finnish Population Register and followed up for cancer incidence through the Finnish Cancer Registry to the end of 2011. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios between observed and expected numbers of cases, the latter ones based on incidence in the entire Finnish female population. Results. The overall incidence of non-gynaecological cancers was the same as in the reference population (SIR 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.90-1.06). The incidence of cancers of the gall-bladder (SIR 1.42, 1.26-1.58), biliary tract (1.19, 1.04-1.35) and kidney (1.22, 1.14-1.31) was increased. There were significantly fewer cases than expected of urinary bladder cancer (SIR 0.70, 0.61-0.78), lung cancer (0.87, 0.81-0.92), colon cancer (0.94, 0.89-0.99) and all types of skin cancers. As a consequence of the decreased incidence of gynaecological cancers (SIR 0.74, 0.71-0.77) and breast cancer (0.60, 0.58-0.61), the SIR for cancer overall was 0.84 (0.83-0.85). Conclusion. The study demonstrated that grand multiparous women have a similar overall risk of non-gynaecological cancers as other women, despite significant differences in some specific forms of cancer.
  • Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Christakoudi, Sofia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Panico, Salvatore; Dossus, Laure; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Schulze, Matthias B.; Masala, Giovanna; Gram, Inger T.; Skeie, Guri; Rosendahl, Ann H.; Sund, Malin; Key, Tim; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc; Heath, Alicia K.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Riboli, Elio; Jose Sanchez, Maria; Chirlaque Lopez, Maria Dolores; Peppa, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Martimianaki, Georgia; Agudo, Antonio; Santiuste, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Simeon, Vittorio; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Severi, Gianluca; Stocks, Tanja; Turzanski-Fortner, Renee; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Rylander, Charlotta; Aune, Dagfinn; Dahm, Christina C. (2021)
    Background: The role of obesity and weight change in breast-cancer development is complex and incompletely understood. We investigated long-term weight change and breast-cancer risk by body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hormone-receptor status. Methods: Using data on weight collected at three different time points from women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we investigated the association between weight change from age 20 years until middle adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Results: In total, 150 257 women with a median age of 51 years at cohort entry were followed for an average of 14 years (standard deviation = 3.9) during which 6532 breast-cancer cases occurred. Compared with women with stable weight (+/- 2.5 kg), long-term weight gain >10 kg was positively associated with postmenopausal breast-cancer risk in women who were lean at age 20 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42; 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.65] in ever HRT users (HR = 1.23; 1.04-1.44), in never HRT users (HR = 1.40; 1.16-1.68) and in oestrogen-and-progesterone-receptor-positive (ERthornPRthorn) breast cancer (HR = 1.46; 1.15-1.85). Conclusion: Long-term weight gain was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in women who were lean at age 20, both in HRT ever users and non-users, and hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.
  • Slopien, Radoslaw; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Rogowicz-Frontczak, Anita; Meczekalski, Blazej; Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Dorota; Jaremek, Jesse D.; Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G.; Lopes, Patrice; Mishra, Gita; Mueck, Alfred; Rees, Margaret; Senturk, Levent M.; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C.; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Paschou, Stavroula A.; Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Lambrinoudaki, Irene (2018)
    Introduction: Whether menopause increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) independently of ageing has been a matter of debate. Controversy also exists about the benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in women with T2DM. Aims: To summarise the evidence on 1) the effect of menopause on metabolic parameters and the risk of T2DM, 2) the effect of T2DM on age at menopause, 3) the effect of MHT on the risk of T2DM, and 4) the management of postmenopausal women with T2DM. Materials and methods: Literature review and consensus of experts' opinions. Results and conclusion: Metabolic changes during the menopausal transition include an increase in and the central redistribution of adipose tissue, as well as a decrease in energy expenditure. In addition, there is impairment of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity and an increase in the risk of T2DM. MHT has a favourable effect on glucose metabolism, both in women with and in women without T2DM, while it may delay the onset of T2DM. MHT in women with T2DM should be administered according to their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In women with T2DM and low CVD risk, oral oestrogens may be preferred, while transdermal 17 beta-oestradiol is preferred for women with T2DM and coexistent CVD risk factors, such as obesity. In any case, a progestogen with neutral effects on glucose metabolism should be used, such as progesterone, dydrogesterone or transdermal norethisterone. Postmenopausal women with T2DM should be managed primarily with lifestyle intervention, including diet and exercise. Most of them will eventually require pharmacological therapy. The selection of antidiabetic medications should be based on the patient's specific characteristics and comorbidities, as well on the metabolic, cardiovascular and bone effects of the medications.
  • Viljakainen, Heli T.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo; Andersson, Sture; Mäkitie, Outi (2017)
    High leptin concentration, low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance often coexist in obese subjects; this adverse metabolic milieu may be the main culprit for increased fracture risk and impaired bone quality seen in patients with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of leptin, hs (high sensitivity)-CRP and insulin resistance with bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone characteristics in 55 young obese adults (median BMI 40 kg/m(2)) and 65 non-obese controls. Mean age of the subjects was 19.5 +/- 2.5 years (mean +/- SD). Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, hs-CRP, MMP-8 and TIMP-1, fasting plasma glucose and insulin (to calculate HOMA), BTMs (BAP, P1NP, CTX-1, and TRAC5b) were measured. Bone characteristics were determined with pQCT at radius and tibia, and with DXA for central sites. Leptin, hs-CRP and HOMA correlated inversely with BTMs: the partial coefficients were 1.5-1.9 fold higher in males than in females. After adjusting for age, BMI, and other endocrine factors, leptin displayed an independent effect in males on radial bone mass (p = 0.019), tibial trabecular density (p = 0.025) and total hip BMD (p = 0.043), with lower densities in males with high leptin. In females, the model adjusting for age, BMI, and other endocrine factors, revealed that hs-CRP had independent effects on radial bone mass (p = 0.034) and lumbar spine BMD (p = 0.016), women with high hs-CRP having lower values. Partial correlations of adiponectin and TIMP-1 with bone characteristics were discrepant; MMP-8 showed no associations. In conclusion, in young obese adults and their controls, leptin, hs-CRP and HOMA associate inversely with BTMs and bone characteristics. Leptin appears to be the key independent effector in males, whereas hs-CRP displayed a predominant role in females.
  • Low, Yen Ling; Li, Yuqing; Humphreys, Keith; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Li, Yi; Darabi, Hatef; Wedren, Sara; Bonnard, Carine; Czene, Kamila; Iles, Mark M.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli; Hall, Per; Liu, Edison T.; Liu, Jianjun (2010)