Browsing by Subject "POSTOPERATIVE PAIN"

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  • Matsubara, L. M.; Luna, S. P. L.; Teixeira, L. R.; Castilho, M. S.; Bjorkman, A. H.; Oliveira, H. S.; Anunciacao, L. F. C. (2019)
    We aimed to determine validity, reliability, and sensitivity of Helsinki's chronic pain index (HCPI) and stablish a correlation between HCPI in dogs with hip dysplasia (HD) using pressure sensitive walkway. Forty-owners of dogs with HD and 16 owners of health dogs filled a questionnaire. Dogs with HD were treated with carprofen 4.4mg/ kg (GT n=21) or with placebo (GP n=19), both were administered once a day for 4 weeks. Evaluation was performed by the owners using the questionnaire (HCPI), the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (VASpain) and the VAS for locomotion (VASloc). The evaluation was performed 2 weeks before the treatment began (A1), immediately after treatment (A2), two (S2), four (S4) and two weeks after the end of treatment (S6) and the lameness was evaluated by pressure sensitive walkway. The internal consistency of the data was considered excellent (Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.89). There was a moderate correlation between the HCPI and VASpain. For VASloc the correlation was good. However, there was no difference between treatments, indicating low sensibility. No correlation was observed between pressure sensitive walkway and HCPI. We concluded that the questionnaire has construct and criterion validity, reliability and can be applied in dogs with osteoarthritis in Portuguese-speaking countries.
  • Kringel, Dario; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Kalso, Eija; Lötsch, Jörn (2019)
    Background Glial cells in the central nervous system play a key role in neuroinflammation and subsequent central sensitization to pain. They are therefore involved in the development of persistent pain. One of the main sites of interaction of the immune system with persistent pain has been identified as neuro-immune crosstalk at the glial-opioid interface. The present study examined a potential association between the DNA methylation of two key players of glial/opioid intersection and persistent postoperative pain. Methods In a cohort of 140 women who had undergone breast cancer surgery, and were assigned based on a 3-year follow-up to either a persistent or non-persistent pain phenotype, the role of epigenetic regulation of key players in the glial-opioid interface was assessed. The methylation of genes coding for the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) as a major mediator of glial contributions to persistent pain or for the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) was analyzed and its association with the pain phenotype was compared with that conferred by global genome-wide DNA methylation assessed via quantification of the methylation in the retrotransposon LINE1. Results Training of machine learning algorithms indicated that the global DNA methylation provided a similar diagnostic accuracy for persistent pain as previously established non-genetic predictors. However, the diagnosis can be based on a single DNA based marker. By contrast, the methylation of TLR4 or OPRM1 genes could not contribute further to the allocation of the patients to the pain-related phenotype groups. Conclusions While clearly supporting a predictive utility of epigenetic testing, the present analysis cannot provide support for specific epigenetic modulation of persistent postoperative pain via methylation of two key genes of the glial-opioid interface.
  • Kringel, Dario; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Kalso, Eija; Lötsch, Jörn (2019)
    Cancer and its surgical treatment are among the most important triggering events for persistent pain, but additional factors need to be present for the clinical manifestation, such as variants in pain-relevant genes. In a cohort of 140 women undergoing breast cancer surgery, assigned based on a 3-year follow-up to either a persistent or nonpersistent pain phenotype, next-generation sequencing was performed for 77 genes selected for known functional involvement in persistent pain. Applying machine-learning and item categorization techniques, 21 variants in 13 different genes were found to be relevant to the assignment of a patient to either the persistent pain or the nonpersistent pain phenotype group. In descending order of importance for correct group assignment, the relevant genes comprised DRD1, FAAH, GCH1, GPR132, OPRM1, DRD3, RELN, GABRA5, NF1, COMT, TRPA1, ABHD6, and DRD4, of which one in the DRD4 gene was a novel discovery. Particularly relevant variants were found in the DRD1 and GPR132 genes, or in a cis-eCTL position of the OPRM1 gene. Supervised machine-learning-based classifiers, trained with 2/3 of the data, identified the correct pain phenotype group in the remaining 1/3 of the patients at accuracies and areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves of 65% to 72%. When using conservative classical statistical approaches, none of the variants passed α-corrected testing. The present data analysis approach, using machine learning and training artificial intelligences, provided biologically plausible results and outperformed classical approaches to genotype-phenotype association.
  • Wei, Hong; Wu, Hai-Yun; Chen, Zuyue; Ma, Ai-Niu; Mao, Xiao-Fang; Li, Teng-Fei; Li, Xin-Yan; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Pertovaara, Antti (2016)
    Spinal transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is associated with various pain hypersensitivity conditions. Spinally, TRPA1 is expressed by central terminals of nociceptive nerve fibers and astrocytes. Among potential endogenous agonists of TRPA1 is H2O2 generated by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) in astrocytes. Here we studied whether prolonged block of the spinal TRPA1 or astrocytes starting at time of injury attenuates development and/or maintenance of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Additionally, TRPA1 and DAAO mRNA were determined in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn (SDH). Experiments were performed in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI) and chronic intrathecal catheter. Drugs were administered twice daily for the first seven injury days or only once seven days after injury. Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed with monofilaments. Acute and prolonged treatment with Chembridge-5861528 (a TRPA1 antagonist), carbenoxolone (an inhibitor of activated astrocytes), or gabapentin (a comparison drug) attenuated tactile allodynia-like responses evoked by low (2 g) stimulus. However, antihypersensitivity effect of these compounds was short of significance at a high (15 g) stimulus intensity. No preemptive effects were observed. In healthy controls, carbenoxolone failed to prevent hypersensitivity induced by spinal cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist TRPA1 and DAAO mRNA in the DRG but not SDH were slightly increased in SNI, independent of drug treatment The results indicate that prolonged peri-injury block of spinal TRPA1 or inhibition of spinal astrocyte activation attenuates maintenance but not development of mechanical (tactile allodynia-like) hypersensitivity after nerve injury. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Helenius, Linda L.; Oksanen, Hanna; Lastikka, Markus; Pajulo, Olli; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Manner, Tuula; Helenius, Ilkka J. (2020)
    Background: Pregabalin as part of a multimodal pain-management regimen has been shown to reduce opioid consumption after spinal surgery in adults but it is unclear whether this is also true in adolescents. Pregabalin has been found to have neuroprotective effects and therefore could have a positive impact on pain after spinal deformity surgery. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial of adolescent patients undergoing spinal fusion to evaluate the short-term effects of pregabalin on postoperative pain and opioid consumption. Methods: Adolescents with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, Scheuermann kyphosis, or spondylolisthesis who were scheduled for posterior spinal fusion with all-pedicle-screw instrumentation were randomized to receive either pregabalin (2 mg/kg twice daily) or placebo preoperatively and for 5 days after surgery. The patients ranged from 10 to 21 years of age. The primary outcome was total opioid consumption as measured with use of patient-controlled analgesia. Postoperative pain scores and opioid-related adverse effects were evaluated. Results: Sixty-three of 77 eligible patients were included and analyzed. Cumulative oxycodone consumption per kilogram did not differ between the study groups during the first 48 hours postoperatively, with a median of 1.44 mg/kg (95% confidence interval [CI],1.32 to 1.67 mg/kg) in the pregabalin group and 1.50 mg/kg (95% CI, 1.39 to 1.79 mg/kg) in the placebo group (p = 0.433). A subgroup analysis of 51 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis showed the same result, with a mean of 1.45 mg/kg (95% CI, 1.24 to 1.65 mg/kg) in the pregabalin group and 1.59 mg/kg (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.82 mg/kg) in the placebo group (p = 0.289). Total oxycodone consumption per hour (mg/kg/hr) was not different between the groups over the time points (p = 0.752). The postoperative pain scores did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.196). Conclusions: The use of perioperative pregabalin does not reduce the postoperative opioid consumption or pain scores in adolescents after posterior spinal fusion surgery.
  • Tolska, H. K.; Hamunen, K.; Takala, A.; Kontinen, V. K. (2019)
    Background: Intense pain can last several days after tonsillectomy. It is often undertreated and improved analgesic strategies that can be safely used at home are needed. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of systemic medications used for post-tonsillectomy pain in adult and adolescent (13 yr old) patients. Studies were identified from PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and by hand searching reference lists from studies and review articles. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies reporting on pain intensity or use of rescue analgesia were included. Results: Twenty-nine randomised controlled trials representing 1816 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Follow-up time was Conclusions: Single analgesics and dexamethasone provide only a weak to moderate effect for post-tonsillectomy pain on the day of operation and thus a multimodal analgesic strategy is recommended. Short follow-up times and clinical heterogeneity of studies limit the usefulness of results.
  • Amponsah, Abigail Kusi; Björn, Annika; Bam, Victoria; Axelin, Anna (2019)
    Background: Nurses play an important role in children's pain assessment and management because they spend the majority of the time with them and provide care on a 24-hour basis. However, research studies continue to report on nurses' inadequate assessment and management of children's pain, which may be partly attributed to their insufficient education in this area. Objectives: This integrative review sought to examine the effect of strategies used in educating nurses on pediatric pain assessment and management. Design: An integrative review. Data Sources: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, PubMed/Medline and Scopus. Review/Analysis Methods: Four databases were searched up to February 2018 based on a prescribed eligibility criteria. The review included 37 studies with varied methodologic quality. Results: Our findings revealed that various types of educational strategies improve nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and practice of pain assessment, management, and/or documentation. Conclusions: Developing a responsive program that includes expectations of beneficiaries, integrating it into existing facility training systems and delivering it through multidisciplinary collaboration, offers the benefit of securing sustainability of the educational gains. (C) 2019 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.