Browsing by Subject "POTASSIUM CHANNELS"

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  • Ludwig, Anastasia; Rivera Baeza, Claudio; Uvarov, Pavel (2017)
    Background: Cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) are indispensable for maintaining chloride homeostasis in multiple cell types, but K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 is the only CCC member with an exclusively neuronal expression in mammals. KCC2 is critical for rendering fast hyperpolarizing responses of ionotropic.-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors in adult neurons, for neuronal migration in the developing central nervous system, and for the formation and maintenance of small dendritic protrusions-dendritic spines. Deficit in KCC2 expression and/or activity is associated with epilepsy and neuropathic pain, and effective strategies are required to search for novel drugs augmenting KCC2 function. Results: We revised current methods to develop a noninvasive optical approach for assessing KCC2 transport activity using a previously characterized genetically encoded chloride sensor. Our protocol directly assesses dynamics of KCC2-mediated chloride efflux and allows measuring genuine KCC2 activity with good spatial and temporal resolution. As a proof of concept, we used this approach to compare transport activities of the two known KCC2 splice isoforms, KCC2a and KCC2b, in mouse neuronal Neuro-2a cells. Conclusions: Our noninvasive optical protocol proved to be efficient for assessment of furosemide-sensitive chloride fluxes. Transport activities of the N-terminal splice isoforms KCC2a and KCC2b obtained by the novel approach matched to those reported previously using standard methods for measuring chloride fluxes.
  • Jenkins, Christopher A.; Kalmar, Lajos; Matiasek, Kaspar; Mari, Lorenzo; Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Lohi, Hannes; Schofield, Ellen C.; Mellersh, Cathryn S.; De Risio, Luisa; Ricketts, Sally L. (2020)
    Author summary Hereditary ataxias, which are a group of disorders characterised by incoordination of movement, are typically incurable and there are often no disease-modifying treatments available. Canine hereditary ataxias are a notable group of movement disorders in dogs, and represent well characterised naturally occurring disease models of ataxia that can help improve our understanding of the underlying biology of the disorder in both dogs and humans. We used the whole genome sequences of two affected siblings to investigate the genetic cause of a slowly progressive form of hereditary ataxia in the Norwegian Buhund dog breed, and identified a single base change within the KCNIP4 gene. We have characterised the expression of KCNIP4 in the dog, and investigated the effect of the identified mutation. This gene has not previously been implicated in inherited ataxia in any species, and our findings suggest that this and related genes represent potential candidates for ataxia in future studies in other species. Our findings will allow dog breeders to avoid producing affected dogs, reduce the disease allele frequency, and eventually eliminate the disease from the breed, through the use of a DNA test. A form of hereditary cerebellar ataxia has recently been described in the Norwegian Buhund dog breed. This study aimed to identify the genetic cause of the disease. Whole-genome sequencing of two Norwegian Buhund siblings diagnosed with progressive cerebellar ataxia was carried out, and sequences compared with 405 whole genome sequences of dogs of other breeds to filter benign common variants. Nine variants predicted to be deleterious segregated among the genomes in concordance with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, only one of which segregated within the breed when genotyped in additional Norwegian Buhunds. In total this variant was assessed in 802 whole genome sequences, and genotyped in an additional 505 unaffected dogs (including 146 Buhunds), and only four affected Norwegian Buhunds were homozygous for the variant. The variant identified, a T to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (NC_006585.3:g.88890674T>C), is predicted to cause a tryptophan to arginine substitution in a highly conserved region of the potassium voltage-gated channel interacting protein KCNIP4. This gene has not been implicated previously in hereditary ataxia in any species. Evaluation of KCNIP4 protein expression through western blot and immunohistochemical analysis using cerebellum tissue of affected and control dogs demonstrated that the mutation causes a dramatic reduction of KCNIP4 protein expression. The expression of alternative KCNIP4 transcripts within the canine cerebellum, and regional differences in KCNIP4 protein expression, were characterised through RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. The voltage-gated potassium channel protein KCND3 has previously been implicated in spinocerebellar ataxia, and our findings suggest that the Kv4 channel complex KCNIP accessory subunits also have an essential role in voltage-gated potassium channel function in the cerebellum and should be investigated as potential candidate genes for cerebellar ataxia in future studies in other species.
  • Korotkov, Sergey M.; Konovalova, Svetlana A.; Brailovskaya, Irina V.; Saris, Nils-Erik L. (2016)
    The conformation of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) has a profound impact in opening the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the inner membrane. Fixing the ANT in 'c' conformation by phenylarsine oxide (PAO), tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP), and carboxyatractyloside as well as the interaction of 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS) with mitochondrial thiols markedly attenuated the ability of ADP to inhibit the MPTP opening. We earlier found (Korotkov and Saris, 2011) that calcium load of rat liver mitochondria in medium containing TINO3 and KNO3 stimulated the Tl+-induced MPTP opening in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The MPTP opening as well as followed increase in swelling, a drop in membrane potential (Delta Psi(mito)), and a decrease in state 3, state 4, and 2,4-dinitrophenol-uncoupled respiration were visibly enhanced in the presence of PAO, tBHP, DIDS, and carboxyatractyloside. However, these effects were markedly inhibited by ADP and membrane-penetrant hydrophobic thiol reagent, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) which fix the ANT in 'm' conformation. Cyclosporine A additionally potentiated these effects of ADP and NEM. Our data suggest that conformational changes of the ANT may be directly involved in the opening of the Tl+-induced MPTP in the inner membrane of Ca2+-loaded rat liver mitochondria. Using the Tl+-induced MPTP model is discussed in terms finding new transition pore inhibitors and inducers among different chemical and natural compounds. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Tommiska, Johanna; Känsäkoski, Johanna; Skibsbye, Lasse; Vaaralahti, Kirsi; Liu, Xiaonan; Lodge, Emily J.; Tang, Chuyi; Yuan, Lei; Fagerholm, Rainer; Kanters, Jorgen K.; Lahermo, Päivi; Kaunisto, Mari; Keski-Filppula, Riikka; Vuoristo, Sanna; Pulli, Kristiina; Ebeling, Tapani; Valanne, Leena; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Kivirikko, Sirpa; Lääperi, Mitja; Casoni, Filippo; Giacobini, Paolo; Phan-Hug, Franziska; Buki, Tal; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Pitteloud, Nelly; Veijola, Riitta; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Kaunisto, Kari; Mollard, Patrice; Andoniadou, Cynthia L.; Hirsch, Joel A.; Varjosalo, Markku; Jespersen, Thomas; Raivio, Taneli (2017)
    Familial growth hormone deficiency provides an opportunity to identify new genetic causes of short stature. Here we combine linkage analysis with whole-genome resequencing in patients with growth hormone deficiency and maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis. We report that patients from three unrelated families harbor either of two missense mutations, c. 347G>T p.(Arg116Leu) or c. 1106C>T p.(Pro369Leu), in KCNQ1, a gene previously implicated in the long QT interval syndrome. Kcnq1 is expressed in hypothalamic GHRH neurons and pituitary somatotropes. Co-expressing KCNQ1 with the KCNE2 beta-subunit shows that both KCNQ1 mutants increase current levels in patch clamp analyses and are associated with reduced pituitary hormone secretion from AtT-20 cells. In conclusion, our results reveal a role for the KCNQ1 potassium channel in the regulation of human growth, and show that growth hormone deficiency associated with maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis is an allelic disorder with cardiac arrhythmia syndromes caused by KCNQ1 mutations.