Browsing by Subject "POTYVIRUS"

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  • Swarnalok, De; Pollari, Maija; Varjosalo, Markku; Mäkinen, Kristiina (2020)
    In this study, we investigated the significance of a conserved five-amino acid motif 'AELPR' in the C-terminal region of helper component-proteinase (HCPro) for potato virus A (PVA; genusPotyvirus) infection. This motif is a putative interaction site for WD40 domain-containing proteins, including VARICOSE (VCS). We abolished the interaction site in HCPro by replacing glutamic acid (E) and arginine (R) with alanines (A) to generate HCPro(WD). These mutations partially eliminated HCPro-VCS co-localization in cells. We have earlier described potyvirus-induced RNA granules (PGs) in which HCPro and VCS co-localize and proposed that they have a role in RNA silencing suppression. We now demonstrate that the ability of HCPro(WD)to induce PGs, introduce VCS into PGs, and suppress RNA silencing was impaired. Accordingly, PVA carrying HCPro(WD)(PVA(WD)) infectedNicotiana benthamianaless efficiently than wild-type PVA (PVA(WT)) and HCPro(WD)complemented the lack of HCPro in PVA gene expression only partially. HCPro was purified from PVA-infected leaves as part of high molecular weight (HMW) ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. These complexes were more stable when associated with wild-type HCPro than with HCPro(WD). Moreover, VCS and two viral components of the HMW-complexes, viral protein genome-linked and cylindrical inclusion protein were specifically decreased in HCPro(WD)-containing HMW-complexes. A boost in translation of replication-deficient PVA (PVA(Delta GDD)) was observed only if viral RNA expressed wild-type HCPro. The role of VCS-VPg-HCPro coordination in PVA translation was further supported by results from VCS silencing and overexpression experiments and by significantly elevated PVA-derivedRenillaluciferase vs PVA RNA ratio upon VPg-VCS co-expression. Finally, we found that PVA(WD)was unable to form virus particles or to spread systemically in the infected plant. We highlight the role of HCPro-VCS containing multi-protein assemblies associated with PVA RNA in protecting it from degradation, ensuring efficient translation, formation of stable virions and establishment of systemic infection. Author summary This study revealed that the potyviral helper component proteinase (HCPro) and the host protein VARICOSE (VCS) are linked in a manner that is important for suppression of RNA silencing, formation of potyvirus-induced RNA granules, translation of viral proteins, stability of virions, and development of systemic potato virus A (PVA) infection. The results suggest that HCPro and VCS belong to the core components of large RNP complexes regulating PVA infection. We suggest that these complexes protect viral RNAs in the cytoplasm after release from the replication complex and direct them to translation and intact to the viral particles.
  • Saha, Shreya; Hafren, Anders; Makinen, Kristiina (2019)
    One large open reading frame (ORF) encodes 10 potyviral proteins. We compared the accumulation of cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein from the middle, coat protein (CP) from the 3'end, and Renilla luciferase (RLUC) from two distinct locations in potato virus A (PVA) RNA. 5' RLUC was expressed from an rluc gene inserted between the P1 and helper component proteinase (HCPro) cistrons, and 3' RLUC was expressed from the gene inserted between the RNA polymerase and CP cistrons. Viral protein and RNA accumulation were quantitated (i) when expressed from PVA RNA in the presence of ectopically expressed genome-linked viral protein (VPg) and auxiliary proteins and (ii) at different time points during natural infection. The rate and timing of 3' RLUC and CP accumulation were found to be different from those of 5' RLUC and Cl. Ectopic expression of VPg boosted PVA RNA, 3' RLUC, and, together with HCPro, CP accumulation, whereas 5' RLUC and CI accumulation remained unaffected regardless of the increased viral RNA amount. In natural infection, the rate of the noteworthy minute early accumulation of 3' RLUC accelerated toward the end of infection. 5' RLUC accumulation, which was already pronounced at 2 days postinfection, increased moderately and stabilized to a constant level by day 5, whereas PVA RNA and CP levels continued to increase throughout the infection. We propose that these observations connect with the mechanisms by which potyvirus infection limits CP accumulation during early infection and specifically supports its accumulation late in infection, but follow-up studies are required to understand the mechanism of how this occurs. IMPORTANCE The results of this study suggest that the dynamics of potyviral protein accumulation are regulated differentially from the 3' end of viral RNA than from the rest of the genome, the significance of which would be to satisfy the needs of replication early and particle assembly late in infection.
  • Santovito, Elisa; Mascia, Tiziana; Siddiqui, Shahid A.; Minutillo, Serena Anna; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Gallitelli, Donato (2014)
  • Yan, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Xiao-Jie; Fang, Le; Cheng, De-Jie; Tian, Yan-Ping; Geng, Chao; Li, Xiang-Dong; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2021)
    Potyviruses move to neighboring cells in the form of virus particles or a coat protein (CP)-containing ribonucleoprotein complex. However, the precise roles of RNA-binding residues in potyviral CP in viral cell-to-cell movement remain to be elucidated. In this study, we predicted the three-dimensional model of tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV)-encoded CP and found nine residues presumably located in the CP RNA-binding pocket. Substitutions of the two basic residues at positions 192 and 225 (R-192 and K-225) with either alanine, cysteine, or glutamic acid abolished TVBMV cell-to cell and systemic movement in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. These substitutions also reduced the replication of the mutant viruses. Results from the electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the RNA-binding activity of mutant CPs derived from R-192 or K-225 substitutions was significantly lower than that of wild-type CP. Analysis of purified virus particles showed that mutant viruses with R-192 or K-225 substitutions formed RNA-free virus-like particles. Mutations of R-192 and K-225 did not change the CP plasmodesmata localization. The wild-type TVBMV CP could rescue the deficient cell-to-cell movement of mutant viruses. Moreover, deletion of any of the other seven residues also abolished TVBMV cell-to-cell movement and reduced the CP RNA-binding activity. The corresponding nine residues in watermelon mosaic virus CP were also found to play essential roles in virus cell-to-cell movement. In conclusion, residues R-192 and K-225 in the CP RNA-binding pocket are critical for viral RNA binding and affect both virus replication and cell-to-cell movement.
  • Santala, Johanna; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2018)
    Plants recognize unrelated viruses by the antiviral defense system called RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi processes double-stranded viral RNA into small RNAs (sRNAs) of 21-24 nucleotides, the reassembly of which into longer strands in silico allows virus identification by comparison with the sequences available in databases. The aim of this study was to compare the virus detection sensitivity of sRNA-based virus diagnosis with the established virus species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Viruses propagated in tobacco plants included three engineered, infectious clones of Potato virus A (PVA), each carrying a different marker gene, and an infectious clone of Potato virus Y (PVY). Total RNA (containing sRNA) was isolated and subjected to reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-RT-PCR) and sRNA deep-sequencing at different concentrations. RNA extracted from various crop plants was included in the reactions to normalize RNA concentrations. Targeted detection of selected viruses showed a similar threshold for the sRNA and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses. The detection limit for PVY and PVA by RT-qPCR in this study was 3 and 1.5 fg of viral RNA, respectively, in 50 ng of total RNA per PCR reaction. When knowledge was available about the viruses likely present in the samples, sRNA-based virus detection was 10 times more sensitive than RT-RT-PCR. The advantage of sRNA analysis is the detection of all tested viruses without the need for virus-specific primers or probes.